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THE TIMES, WASHINGTON", SUNDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1897.
THREE WASHINGTON DUELS
Events That Have Made Bladens
COFFEE AND PISTOLS FOR SIX
Memories of the Days 'When States
men and .Soldier Defended Their
OpirSons "With Their Lives The
Celebrated Hives Kifle How De
catur Fell Fighting; John McCarty.
The duel between Gen. Artuistead T. Ma
sou, Senator from Vitgfnia, and his cousin,
Jobti M. McGarty, ot the tame Stale,
fought February 0, 1S19, surpassed tny
nffalr of the kind occurring near "Wash
ington for downright savagery. It was
fought In Maryland, a short distance t.c
yood Die District line, on the north t-ide
of a HUle stream tliat flows east along
the north line of the Hives rarm. The
duel was the result of a quarrel between
tlie principals at an election In Virginia
the previfMjb year. McCarty, because of
tins quarrel, orally eh jtllei.ged Mason :.t the
time. ml Mmrtially prescribing the terms.
JlBSyn riused the challenge, 'i'it said he
wouta ancapt a written halletige in ihe
piopr form. The only notice taken of
Mhnj answer by McCarty was to pobt
M&.-vm ah a coward. Mat-on then chal
Jcaieiti McCarty, who refin-cd tii accept it,
on the ground that he believed Maxm lo
he lan-klng in courage- and that he did not
tiH3h.il business. It appears that Gen.
Andrew Jack Km mad" an effort to ar
range Xhe quarrel, but failed.
Tlie matter was again opened by Mason,
who testm ted his noonds to seek Mc
Oarty. and, ir he would fight, to send hi:n
a written challenge, and to accept any
term' he mitral offer, "whether the dis
tance was three feet or three inches, or
tle weapons were pistols, muskets or ri
fles." Om tlte seconds seeing McCarty, he pro
peed ilia the matter should be settled by
Muspu and himself jumping off the Cap!
to in Washington together. This was
dedimtl as being contrary to established
uSRgr-, and tlien McCarty proposed tn.it
Maou and he blnmkl &it upon a barrel f
gM powder which tlie seconds should
ox-Mode ly a ruse This was declined for
the ame reason, and JJcCat ty t hen propo 5'4d
that .Mason and he should fight -with dirks.
TW was declined also on the same grounds.
February!, 1S19. McCarty agreed to meet
MasouUte next day at Montgomery court-WKti-e.
Hie weapons to be muskets, charged
-wJUi buckshot, t he distance ten feet. These
tciwft -were modified mi the muskets were
is be loaded with a single bill, the distance
t waive feet, the meeting to take place on
the Ctu at the place described. The par' ies
iuet on tlte ground early m the morning.
Iwfch fired together; Mason was Instantly
kUted and McCarty wounded in the arm.
It fieems probable that Mason purposely
spared McCarty's life, for it is evident
that Mason could have hit him in the body
easier than in the arm. McCarty is said to
have suffered grAt remorse up to the
ukne of 1:1s death on account of this aff Jir.
Henry A. "Wise was one of the Whigs
who Mipnorted Tyler's Administration in
Congress. Ills colleague, Stanley, op
pred it, and he and "Widened many MUr
word in regard to their action. "While
b$lk were attending a horse race, each
lmirnr ntowited, Stanley lost control of his
horfce. which ran against Vise, aud the
latter, thinking Stanley had run against
him -.-irfswcly, followed, and struck Stan
ley vWiWs wJiip. Stanley challenged Whe,
hifceo&nd't'eiiig Reverdy Johnson, or Mary
land. Stanley, accompanied hv JohtiMHi,
was practicing with a pistol, but showed
Mtdt oad oHtrkm.inslnp that Johnson, be
tas Wristed, took the pihtol and fired it
ntfaseif , to show las prmciral how to -shoot.
The tti struck a knot in the tree henini.;(l
at, wa flattened, and caused to relwi.nd
ao tliat It struck Johnson in tlie ey-1, peae
tratiug under the lid. Johnson was blindl
Ir that eye, and it was out of the question
for hin: to continne as recond. Staaley
then eleod McCarty a htt becoud, and
tltriHigtt bfc pood officer the quarrel -was
h'jtiiti -itlout a meeting.
About a huudicd paicsfrom the Triace
wheie iiasou aiid McCarty fought, James
Bfrrron Md Stephen Decatur, iKst-oaptains
of jtio IT lilted States Navy, met in at duel
MafcCit 22,1820. A spring branch crosses
a. old road that runt north of the Hives
ittfm. There was abridge over this str-jam
ai8 IJarrou stood on the east side of this
bridge ami Decatur on the west side, hoth
in $itt road.
The cause of this duel .was the ' pposl
tioti wiihh Pecatar made to the rein
Hwtuneui uf Iarrwii to an active iositlon
is theXavy, behaving hewi sufipeadeil and
iwt Mmmi hair jiay because of a Judgment
of a .-ujt -martial upon his conduct in ttic
affair ot the Chesapeake in 1807. Al
LlMMtgh Decatur had formed an .opiniun ad
vene t Harron on account of that uffair,
he s-at niKKi the tmurt-martlal at the re
quest of the Secretary of the Navy, and
it appears Hint Barron held him resiKd'sJ
blej for the verdict, whicli hedecned unju&t.
In the own espoiidence between tliem both
dociare tiier.ipelves opposed to dueling,
Barron regretting that he had no other re
course than to challenge Decatur, and De
oaty! regretting tliat public opinion com
pelled him tcacoept the challenge. Barron
w&Mtod oontfderatton given him on account
of llils Knwg near-sighted, which Decatur
lefused. Hut Decatur's second was not
shown th" corre&jiondeiice and he was let" 5
et'tlilf f "ve as to conditions in arranging
for Uie mating. Tlie weapons vere to be
pistole and the distance eight paces. Bar
row uhis. to have wanted the distance
less beeiiWKe of his bad eyesight. Bar
ren's second was Capt. Jesse O. ElUotr,
Med DrcHtur's Capt. William Bainhridge,
hoh tir Uie Kay. Bainhridge had the giv
lp or the word, and rehenrt-ed it at Bar
roifs request, as followf,: "Present, one,
two, thiee," neither to lire until after the
woidorte"" had been uttered, nor after the
Decatur told Commodore Rogers "that
noahiug would induce him to takeBarron's
life.' On hearing the termi of the duel
he said "it vastoo lateto make objections.
If,oUicr Ud-inb had heen fixed it was his
determination not to liave returned the
flic, ht iow all he would do would he
tojw.nnd Bairon In a part not vital." It
bohisr remarked that this might cause him
fi oc his own life, he is reported as say
ing "he voMld rather lose his own life
Uivn totAkctholiff uf h managainst wh jm
lieJ had no ltl-vrtJl," closing by saying
he wmt'd wnind Barion in the hip, evi
dently todlxuneert his aim.
Ah tlie principals Mund in their pla-cs
Barron 3lilI. "IhopcInnicetinginanothT
TWrld we "Will be better friends than we
have peen in this." Dei-atur responded:
"1 have novel heen your enemy, Mr."
The irmrd w-as given, ljth firing at the
-wrd 'tArt," but one report being heard.
Both fell. Derntur being shot Jnthc ho'.vels,
tae ball passing through his hody,
Barron being -wounded in the
hip, where Becatur had said ae
would hit him. Decturdieil Inn feM days
Ah Decatur and Barron lay on the ground
-witluu a few feel of each other, there was
cpiivcrsaUon between them. What was
fcaid by each has never been recorded, but
soiee of those present believed they were
reconciled to each other. Barron's closing
words have been recorded. At the time
he thought he was mortally wounded. He
said: "Everything has been concluded in
the most honorable manner, and I foigne
you from the bottom ol my heart."
Both thc-e duels were fought on the
Bladensburg battlefield. Three hundred
yardfa south, Commodore Barney, with his
marines and artillery, had effectually
checked the adance of the British, who
had no artillery, but not being suppnrted,
ho was flanked by UieBritishslmrpshooiers,
wounded and captured. When I -visited
the ground the small birds were flitting
about, and a robin on a tree near by pu ired
forth his song seemingly for my special
gratification andapproal,and there vas
uo evidence of war, or trat men had there
been settling private quarrels by the UhC
of armb. Amid a i-cene eo quietaud peace
ful, it was difficult to conceive that it had
wllneaied the contests of armies or ofhi
dividual men, or that lives o precious lo
their relatives and their country "had been
to needlessly sacrificed there.
The duel between William J. Graved and
Jonathan Cilley, fought on the 24lh of
February, 1838, created as gnat if .ot
greater excitement throughout the coun
try than that between Aaron Burr and
Alexander Hamilton. It grew out of the
fierce conflict of partk-s during Jackion's
la-t Administration, and whicn continued
and gathered force duriug the Adnini.
tration of Van Buren. There va abso
lutely no reason for a duel. Cilley be
lieved tliat he was made the object of
attack because he wnt from Ne'.v Eng
land, and it was thought a New England
man would not fight, as the people of that
section of the country were opposed to
duelHm". Ik- was determined to do every-'
thing po"lhle 1 avoid a meeting, hut
he would not shirk a contest if one were
forced upon him. The leading "Whigs of
the lawet Iloube were fierce and over
bearing, and Cilley 's conclusions were
probably not far wrong.
A writer in the New York Courier aud
Enquirer charged corruption against 'a
member of Congress." It transpired that a
Senator v as meant and not a Represent
ative. When Henry A. Wise introduced
a rcsoiutiuii into the House looking to
the investigation of the writer's state
ments he knew the charge involved a
Senator alone, and that the House would
not investigate the charges against a Sen
ator. In thecourbeof his remarks advo
cating thc-aduptlan ofthc resolution. Wisp
said the editor of the paper, James Watson
Webb, vouched for the truthful character
of the viiter. Cilley opposed the passage
of the resolution, and in the course of his
remarks said if the editor mentioned vas
the "same editor wiio had once made grave
charges against an institution of the
country (meaning the United States Bank)
and afterward-was said to have received
money to the amount of SG2.000 from the
same lnstltutionnnd gave it Ills hearty
support, lie did not think his charges en
titled to muel. credit in an A.ncricaii Con
gress." This statement trade by Cilley
in regard to Webb's action was rcporti-d
by a committee of a former House whicli
had investigated t he matter.
Webb addressed a note to Cilley in
regard to hl" remarks Graves was the
bearer of till'? note, -which Cilley declined
to receive. Graves stated that after the
conversation between him and Cilley
when Webb's note was tendered and de
clined, it occurred to him that lie vjgut
to have Cilley state the reasons for his
declining to receive Webb's note in writing.
He spoke to Cilley about it aud Cilley
suggested that Graves address l.im a note
btatlngwhat lie wished and that he would
aufcwer it. Graves stated that there vas
no disagreement between them as to what
was said, aud that be was greatly sur
prised when be read Cilley's answer. This
statement Is contradictory to -what Cilley
told hU frends.
Graves in bis first note stated that his
understanding of the reason whv Cilley
declined to receive Webb's note -was, ' 'that
yon could not consent to get yourself into
persoual difficulties with conductors of
public Journals, for -what you might thiuk
proper to sy in debate upon this floor, tu
discharge of your duties as a representa
tive of the people, aud that you did not rest
your objection, in our intercourse, 'ipnn
any personal objections to Col. Webb as a
Cilley answered that he declined to re
ceive Webb's note "because I chose to he
drawn into no controversy with him. I
neither affirmed nor denied anything la
regard to his character; but when you re
marked that this course might place yon
in an unpleasant situation, 1 stated to you.
and r now tepeat, that I intended by the
refusal no disrespect to you."
After delivering this note, Cilley said to
his frier-ds that it would lead to a chal
lenge, as it was tlie evident Intention to
make him acknowledge ttiat Webb was a
gentleman, which he would not do. At the
same time he would not state that he dl J
not regard him as a gentleman, for Jiat
might make some of his people think be
Sought a duel, which he did not. He told
Senator Pierce, afterward President, that
he was cerlaln Graves, whom he had a
high regardfoi, "Itad been urged by others
to Insist thafe lieshould recognize Webb as
a gentlemanorfdrce a quarrel on him,
and that theCorrespondence would result
in a chaliengebelngfsent him.
Grave-. In his second note, said Ollley's
answer was "inexplicit, unsatisfactory and
Im-ufficlent in this, that, in declining to
receive Col. Webb's communication, it
does not disclaim any exception to him
personally as a gentleman. I have, there
fore, to inquire whether you declined to
receive his c-ottmiunlcation on the ground
of any personal exception to him as a gen
tleman, or a man of ionor."
Cilley answered, expressing regret that
his jiote was not satisfactory, and .'loned
by saying: "But I cannot admit the ruht
on your part to propound the question to
which you demand a categorical an
bwer, and therefore decline any further
response to it."
Graves sent Cilley a challenge by his sec
ond, Henry A. Wise, which Cilley accepted.
George W. Jones, a member of the House
from Wisconsin, afterward Senator from
Iowa, became his second. The weapons
selected by Cilley -were rifles; the distance
eightr yards. The positions were to he
determined by lot, the losing party to gi"e
the word After the question, "Gentle
men, arc you ready?" neither one answer
lug "So V the word was to he given thus
"Fire one, two, three, .four;" neither to
fire before the word "fire" nor after the
'".vera "four." The dress was to he ordi
nary winter cluthing, either party naviug
the tight to examine the clothing of Che
other. The meeting to take place at 12
ro. of the day stated. The meeting Jid
not take place at 12 m , but after 3 p. m.,
Graves lielng delayed in getting a gun, be
ing assigned as the cause. Cilley's party
waited nearly an hour at the Anacostia
bridge, when, the other party arriving,
both parties "Went out the Marlboro road
until what is now called the Ridge road
was reached, when they turned down that
road and entered an enclosure on the left
at the foot of the hill. The ground fought
uponnow belong3to aMr. Brown. Theexnet
spot Is now only known to Col. Wright
Rlve.s. The ground Is within the District,
though the parties supposed it was in
The line was located at right angles to
locked arms. They overstepped the dis
tance, it being measured afterward and
found to be ninety-two yards. Wire won
the position, and chose the western end
of the line, where Graves was not so much
exposed to the "wind, lieing protected by
timber. Cilley'b position was In the open,
and the ground where he stood was consid
erably higher fian where Graves Stood. The
wind was blowing stronglylnanacuteanule
to the line and in tlie direction of Cilley.
Graves' rifle carried a ball 80 of which
would -weigh a pound, and Cillev's rifle
j a ball IJ2 of which would weigh a pound.
It was considered that.becausof the wind,
the Increased distance and the light ball,
Cilley was put at a disadvantage, Neither
party examined the other's clothing. Jones
gave the word. Cilley's rifle went off be
fore he was ready; Graves fired with some
deliberation; neither was hit.
Wise abked for a conffieiice, and sort't
time was consumed in talk. Graves had in
truded his second not to consult to any
settlement unless Cilley admitted that
Graves had not cairied the note of a man
.who was not a man of honor and not a
gentleman. It does not appar that Wise
told this to Jones, hut heasl.ul that Cilley
"assign home reason or make some dib
claimer tliativnuld sat Ufy G rav es." Jonu-s
bubmilted the following- "That when Cilley
declined to rcceiv e Webb's i.otele n.eant
uo disrespect to Graves, because he
"ntcrtained foi him then, as he does
low, the highest respect and the most
kind feelings, but that he declined to re
ceive Webb's note hecauFc he cho.e not to
be drawn into any controversy with Webb."
or, If that wf.s not tisfactory, that "he
rcfuM'd lo disclaim disresj $ for Web'j,
because he does not wish to l.e drawn, in'o
any controversy with him." This pas not
tatiffactory, and another exchange of sl'.i Is
was had. Grnveh lost his slot, and Cilley
ilred, as deliberately as possible, but
missed. Caves demanded another bhot.
Dr Folt7, Graes' surgeon, said that the
fingers of both principals must.ha'.e been
iiunio, as the day vns very cold.
Notwithstanding Graves' demand fora.i
other bhot, Wise asked fcr another con
ference, which was granted, and conaid
erable time was consumed In fruitless
endeavors to adjust the quarrel. Itwas
now that Wise riaid that Graves insisted
that "he must defend the honor of his
friend Wc'ib, and that he has not borne
the note of a man who is not a man of
honor t.r a gentleman." But not even
then did Wise Intimate there was a .iiics
tion of veracity between the principals as
to whut was said when Graves tendered
Webb's note to Cilley. The conference
came to nothing. A third exchange of
shots was hud, both firing nearly together.
Cilley was mortally wounded, and died
in a few minutes; Graves was unhurt.
Cilley used the rifle of Dr Duncan, a
member or Congress from Ohio. Jones
insisted tliat a ririe ho had got of Francis
P. Blair was the better and surer gun,
but Cilley preferred Duncan's. Utaves
used a ririe belonging to John C. Hiws.
It was a famous gun, and is a good gun
today. It had been used in many shoot
ing contests. David Crockett had often
fired it. Mr. Elves was a fine shut, and
could hit a dime, off-hand, with this gun
as far as he could See it. David Crockett
vvab the only man who could hold 1:1s own
with Mr. Hives in ririo shooting, .'t was
said that in ordinary matches Rives would
shoot better than Crockett, but if liquor
was the prize Crockett always won.
Blair obtained Hives' gun for Graves.
It hud not been used for some time because
the trigwrs were out of order. A few days
before, Rives had taken it to the only
gunsmith In Washington who could repair
it, and found that he had gone to
Connecticut and would not return for sev
eral weeks Hives told this to Blair, nut
told him he could take it if he wished.
Rives suspected what Hlalr wanted with
the gun, but he was not told The gun
smith, nowever, had returned before reach-iu-r
his destination to get some papers ho
had forgotten, and repaired the gun the
morning or the duel. Had Rives sup
posed ihe gun could have been put in order
he would net have loaned It for a duel.
At the time of the duel it was stated
that Cilley was a good marksman with the
rifle. His practice showed that he was
not, but probably he was a better marks
man than Graves.
Many years after Graves talked about
the duel. The most important ot his
statements was tiiat he consulted Henry
Clay about the duel, und that flay blamed
him for recklessly taking up Webb's quar
rel, but being concerned about Graves'
safety, he having heard that Cilley was a
fine shot, he said that, the weather being
very cold. Graves must dress as warm
as possible. Cilley, being used to such
weather, would probably wear only ids or
dinary clothing. Graves' friends must
postpone the firing as long as possible,
so that Cilley's skill would avail him
little because ot the cold. Graves said
Play's advice was taken, and the facts
all point that way.
It may be of interest to know how the
papers ot that day treated this affair as
a matter of news. Tlie Globe, the even
ing of the duel, related the facts thus:
This evening Mr. Cilley, of Maine, fell
in a duel with Mr. Graves, of Kentucky,
both member or the Home of Representa
tives. They fought wjth rifles, and Mr.
Cilley was shot through the body on the
third fire, and died in a few minutes.
Mr. Graves had been the bearer of a letter
from James Watson Webb to Mr. Cilley,
which the latter refused to receive. Mr.
Graves demanded the reasou, which Mr.
Cilley declined giving. Mr. Graves then
challenged Mr. Cilley, which produced the
melancholy result announced.
The National Inteliigencer.Monday morn
ing, had the followiug:
A duel took place Saturday last, a mile
or two from this city, between the Hon.
"William J. Graves, of Kentucky, and the
Hon. Jonathan Cilley, of Maine, both or
them Representatives in Congress, which
resulted in the death of Mr. Cilley. The
duel was fought with rifles.
H. M. BEADLE.
Sei'und-SlfthM Mail Privileges.
(From Harper's Weekly.)
We arj glad to se that Postmaster Gen
eral Gaty is to continue the effort so vig
orously made by his predecessor, to put
an end to the fiaud committed upon the
law and the postal service through
the abuse of the privilege of cheap postage
charged for the transmission of second
class mail matter. As the Postmaster
General points out, it was the intention of
Congress, in granting tills privilege, to
benefit the public by permitting the carry
ing ot periodical literature at a loss to the
Government. County newspapers are car
ried free, under this privilege, to county
subscribers, and all newspapers and weekly
and monthly publications are carried
through the mails at the rate of 1 cent a
pound. The cost to the Government or this
service is S cents a pound, and the loss,
therefore, is 7 cpnts a pound. The Post
master General points out, as Mr. Wilson
was wont to point out, that the increase of
second-class mailmatterhas been enormous.
In lS&b the Government carried 143,
0f)0.00G pounds of second-class matter,
and in IS97 it has earned 365,000,000
pounds. This year, therefore, the Govern
'nient has expended $29,000,000 In distrib
uting DtrJodicals, and has received onlj
$3,000,000 for the service. It has there
fore lost $2G, 000, 000 more thau enough t j
account; for the whole of the postal defi
ciency. It is perfectly well understood
that the amount ot second-class matter
carried is thus enormously increased b
abuses of the law abuses which have
indeed, grown up under the interpretations
of the Government, but which are abuses
nevertheless, because they arc contrary
to tne Intention of the law. The publish
ers of hooks and of advertising papers, and
others, take advantage of a rate never
Intended to aid them in their private
business, and if they alone were ex
cluded from the privilege bo much money
would be saved that the Postoff ice Depart
ment vvuid be self-sustaining. The House
of Representatives of the last Congress
passed a hill which would have accom
plished this reform, but the measure was
killed in the Senate. If such a bill should
become a law.thesavlng to the Government
would be $10,000,000 a year at lca3t.
Do ynu liiow that you can have
The Morning, Evening nnrt Sunday
Times the only COMPLETE news
paper published in "Washington
served to you by carrier for fifty
cents a month?
THE PHENOMENAL BOOK.
By J. E. RANKIN, D. D., LL. D:
IV Tlie Bible Ufot of Man Alone,
Neither of God Alone.
If you say that the Bible is human alone,
voj have to explain, on human grounds,
tli j fuct that its utterances and its silences
are alike anomalous; that its simplicity
is never puerile; itr sublimity never bom
bastic; tliat its authors have ventured bofar
into the sphere of divine mysteries and yet
never transcended tliat which commends it
self to the overage Judgment and common
senvj of mankind. No such explanation is
There is that wlilch is human in the Bible.
Never was a book moje human; never was
a book heller adapte! to the level of na
tions just emerging from barbarism; Jmt
eomiug up from- paganism Itself. It de-seribf-s
just Hiicji nations; meets them on
their own level; .take them by the hand.
Never was there a hook better adapted
to n.ei: in their spiritual infancy? men feel
ing after God, if, perchance, they may find
Him. It takes them'iJust where they ure,
plies them with motives whicli they can
ft el, and lifts thein up to God's society
and God's likeness makes them sons of
God. But it begins with them at their own
low le'el. The Saviour was a n.an that
received sinners and ate with them; was
the frlenc (-1 publicans and sinners. The
Bible is just Kiicli a book. A sinner can pll
low his head upon It as upon the bosom of
God. Indeed, there Is no better illustra
tion of the divine human nature of the
God-man. And the same necessity re
quited the first as the hist. Aud it is
significant in this sense, that He is called
When we read iu the common version
tfiafholy men ot God spake as they were
moved by the Holy Gho.it," or, in the ver
sion of Cauierbury, that "men spake from
God, being moved by the Holy Ghost," e
have a recognition ot this necessity, that
lh- Ihbh-shall b? human. Men spake. They
spa'-ie from God. Language is humau. Ac
cess to humanity must be through human
language thtough human ways of speaking
and thinking and looking at things. Philos
ophers do not get at mail. They are not
hutran enough. Tlie agnostlclbin which is
in certuit. strata ot human thought today,
that kind of intellpctunl dudelsm whicli
says I do not know,-may settle for a .ime
on humanity as a pall; a kind of malarial
poison for the mind, but It cannot do gen
eral mischief, for it cannot speak the lan
guage of the common people; it can lot
rencl the children; it is not human enough.
One single Christmas will up.set a whole
set of Herbert Spencer's works.
The Bible peaks.hunan language, it
speaks simple language It uhtiws is
how matters which concert us seemed to
men and women like us in other times. It
teaches religion, by object lessons. The
severest test which youcan apply to ChirJes
Kingsley's "Hypatia," to George Flint's
"Romola,''or to any-other historical novel,
is this: "Do the men and women act and
speak Just ns you and I srould hae done
had wo betn amid those surroundings?"
If this question cannot be answered in the
affirmative; if we keep straining our
t:irds all the nine to imagine the narra
tive and the characoers real'adaptfd to
each other and to lbetin.e, then the book
is not sufficiently human. The Penta
teuch is a human book; and so are the
Gospel. '"Here," says Martin Lut'ier,
the most human of all great defenders t-t
the Bible, "here thou findest the swaddling
clothes and the manger, whither th angels
directed the poor, simple shepherds. They
seem poor and mc.au, but dear and precious
Is the treasure that lies thereiu." God
needed to come'herc In swaddling clotitjs
an'1 the manger in order to get at your
hcait and mine. Aild the saint necessity
rests upon the written Word as the hving
Word, it must feavc'Deshandblootl. This
i the human element. Hi (be Bible.
The theory1 thai' nl'en spake from God in
the Bible docs'iiclt conflict with the idea
that thete are different degrees of In
spiration; different degrees ot authority
in what thej say. Wh'cn Paul writes to
Timothy, "ThcUJoak Heft at Trcas, bring
with thee," me; say,' "Did Paul speak
this riomGou?'' "Would the HoIyGhost con -descend
to introduce into a letter winch
was to be read by'aHChristendom, through
all the time to coined an allusion to so
commonplace a thing' as Paul's oter
garment? This' show us how much wiser
God Is than roan. It fs these very Inci
dental things that are' the strongest proof
of the genuineness otthc Book.
I happec to haVe in my possession a
letter from a young theological .-tudent
at Audover, written in tlie spring of ISIS.
It is to his rather, a famer, in the north
ern pari or New Hampshire. The body
of the sheet, which Is stained and discol
ored by age, is given up lo the discnd-Jon
ot religious topics; to the current events
in Glinstv kingdom: to ih impuitancc of
parents dedicating their children to 'he
work of the Christian ministry, and of
young men's coming forward and offering
themselves to the Lord. All appropriatr,
of course. But, there is a postscript to the
letter, which has more weight to pro-.e
it genuine than all this. It Is like Prjl's
message about his cloak, .and reads thu
"It convenient, send me a pair of thick
shoes by Mr. Miner or some one coming
to Boston I have a pair of new thin
ones, but thick ones will be batter to walk
in in lainy weather." Thii postscript
opens up to us a glimpse ot country life
in New England: A poor boy, away Trim
home, struggling alone to get forward iir.o
the Christian ministry; the merchant or
the town, or tome enterprising far'nar
visiting Boston to make purchases or to
dispose ot what was raised on the farm;
and then, the chance to send the mud
needec thick shoes.
Tlie Apostle needed hi3 cloak, for his
life was a real missionary's life. It AVas
natural for him to send for It. But, I
believe that the Holy Spirit guided him to
put that in It"! omission would, have taken
away from the letter, one of the most con
clusive incidentals proors that it was a
genuine letter. And this postscript from
the poot theological student, far from the
solid comforts of his rural home, and
toiling around inAiulnver mud, who wishes
his father to send him a pair of thicksho s,
by some neighlior, who is going to Boston,
was not i-alf so likely to be a forged letter,
as the wotds about the duty or parents and
their sonsesp'-ct ing the Christian ministr.
Ask men who are -skilirul to detect a
forged bank note what, they most depend
upon. They will tell" you they depend
most upon incidental things; tilings thai
would &eea unimportunt to the counter
feiter. An exact copy of any man's sig
nature, it wanting nothing else, will be
wanting in tlie dash and abandon witli
which it is written, in his very secure care
lessness. Since the publication of the recent re
vision one writer has suggested that "there
should be popular editions ot the Bible,
eliminating all, or nearly ail. the Old Testa
ment " This is the way some wise men
would have made this Book. But, there is
a popular edition of this Book. It has been
edited by the hand or its author. The
wisdom or these days can no more take
from it than add to it.
Toubtless the Bible might be abridged
so as to get rid of much of the work of
apologetics. But the Bible is a popular
Book, in spite or all this necessity of re
moving difficulties. Apologetics are neces
sary, primarily, for ministers and th'oiog
leal teachers, who need to he ready to an
swer infidels and skeptics. The internal
evidence of the Bible carries it, with the
great masa of ma'iildnd. It ought to be so.
God cannot have hung the truthfulness of
the Bible upon tlie questions which mostly
occupy the minds'ofithe great Bible ajxilo
glstss Godbas pot His heart into the Bible,
ami the man who Is seeking after God
will find it there. It is a great Haying c-f
Goethe, "The Evangelists may contra ilet
themselves as much as they pleass, so long
as the Evangel docs not contradict Itself.
Ttie enlistment of my best feelings on the
side of the Book made me proof through
life against whatever sneers or railings I
-might flud directed against It. For the
spiritual good of which I had been par
taker from the Book had convinced me
experimentally ot tlie dishonesty of all
such irreverent assaults."
As already said, we recognize the dif
ferent degrecsot importance and authority,
attaching to the ditfereut portions or 'he
Bible. But, for all that, tlie whole Bible
is tlie host interpreter ot ail the parts of
,thc Bible; the wr.ole Evangel of the dlf-
fercnt1 partsof the Evangel. Martin Luther
says, "1 had hanging on my neck the
Tope, the universities, ail tlieceep-Iearmil
and the Devil. These hunted me into the
Bible, wherein I sedulously read, and
thereby, Gud be praibed, at length attained
a true uudei btanding or it." There is this
good that the enemies of tlie truth accom
plish: They hunt a man Into the Bible;
to all parts of it!
It is truethatLevitlcuH and Deuteronomy
are not so essential as the Gospels and the
Epistle. But these do not come to destroy
or displace, but to fulfill. The history if
Judah and Israelis nut so important as tlie
JW-ts or the Apostles. But the martyr,
Stephen, thought he could do no better for
his persecutors than to give them a resume
of Old Testament history; though they
btoncd him for it. The Old Testament
has its place and offices. It is preparatory
to the New. The Levltlcnl svstem fore
shadows the better things to come. Ami
no one can understand the Epistle to the
Hebrews unless he has made himself fa
miliar with this; system in the Old Testa
ment. Men may approach tho subject ot re
ligion in such a spirit that the defender
or the apologist of the Christian system is
obliged to Oo a great deal of preliminary
work bemre much progress can be made.
But, this, as Goethe above intimates, is
mainly a diversion from the true and real
Issue. They first want all the difricultles
removed; the scientific difricultles, aud
these are always ehangingandalways ncv;
the difficulties in chronology and archae
ology. They want to know who Melchize
dek was, and all about-the Witchor Endor.
They want to discuss the question as kj
tween the Israelites and the Canaanites; to
settieall the apparent inconsistency between
the utterances in the psalms. In a worl,
tl.ey want to traverse the whole territory
between Dan and Bcer-Sheba before they
willingly address themselves to thai dece.a "e
tliat Jesus came her to accomplish at
Jerusalem. If his pupils had the same spirit,
the teacher of modern history, the teacher
or mathematics, might meet with the same
But the question is whether it would be
at all different if these difficulties -lid not
I f you abstract what is offensive In the
Old Testament and get what the late Prof.
Swing wanted out of the Bible, the offen
sive part of the New Testament remains
thedoctrineo f personal e vll spirits; oreternal
separation rrom the presence of the Lord
and the glory ot Hib power; the doctrine of
miracles; tlie doctrine ot the divinity and
atoning death of tho Lord Jesus Christ.
"The carnal mind Is enmity against God."
It is not subject to His law, neither Indeed
can be. Begin by taking away from the
Bible- to please men who want a religion
without becoming religious, and a heaven
without being ready for it, and you will not
cease until all Is gone. So that when you
arc done with your efforts to make the
Bible palatable to man, whose heart rcseis
against It. you have only admitted a prin
ciple, which justifies him in saying, 'I
do not like the New Testament any be'tcr
than the Old."
The Forelock of Time.
The farmer who overtook me on tho
highway ttnd offered me a lift in his
wagon had a gravestone lying on the
straw in the bottom, and after a lit.le
I got atound to express my sorrow tliat
death had Invaded his family circle.
"Oh! 1 heven't had no deaths in the
family,'' he cheerfully replied.
"Then the stone Is for a neighbor, per
haps?" "No, not that. It's for my family rlgnt
enough but none of 'em needs it jest yet.
Can't you see the readln' on it?"
And looking more closely I saw that it
read: "Sacred to the memory ot ,
who died on the 13th ot August, 1893.''
"That's rather curious." I said, as I
turned to the smiling and complacent
"Wall, inebbe,'' he laughed. "As I said,
the stone ain't needed yet, but I'm ta'iin'
time by the forelock."
"But it reads the 13th of August.'1
"I know it does, and that's all right.
On the 13th of August Jim Swipes is
comln' over to my place from Delhi to run
a Toot race with my .on, Dan'!. Dan'J
has got a great gait on him, he has, but
Jim Swipes he thinks he km tieat him five
yards in a hundred. We've got $10 on it."
"But what about the gravestone?"
"Don't git impatient. If Dan'l beats Jim
then Jim will Jump up and down and cuss
everybody fur ten miles around. If Jim
beats Dan'l it won't be no fair show. Dan'l
will whoop and yell and nobody kin hold
"There will be a row, eh?"
"Sartin to be. Jim will liev his friend3
there, and I've got five boys and a purty
good crowd besides. It Dan'l 'pears to be
lickin' Jim then Jim's friends will raise a
yell aud pilch in. If Jim 'pears to be
drowinn' Dan'l then our side will throw
down thar' bats and go In for glory."
"And you don't know who the grave
stone Is for?"
"N'o, sah. If one o' Jim's cmwd needs It
I'll sell it fur what it cost me; if one o'
my crowd needs It I'll throw it m as u gift.
It Jest struck me that I orter be prepared
fur a climax either way. Strang r, will
you be around liere about the 13th of
"I don't think I shall," I replied.
"If you happen to be you come to the
race. I shall sorter count on you to take
my side in case of a row, but if you'd
ruther sot on the fence and be neutral no
body won't blame ye- Yes, sah, It Jest
struck mc to take time by the forelock and
buy that gravestone, and If the foot race
don't come off and nobody is killed, I'll lay
it aside agin a camp meetln' or a huskin
The Field Monument.
(From the Chicago Record.)
The Eugene Field monument committee
or Chicago send rorth theinrormatlon that
they want between $6,000 and $8,000.
This fund is to be divided equally between
the monument and the family or the late
humorist ant1 poet, and ror this purpose the
chief reliance Is on the sales ot the Eugene
Field monument souvenir, "Field Flow
ers," ot which full account has been made
In our columns. This bcok of forty pages
is very remarkable from the fact that the
labors of the best illustrators of the
country were bestowed upon it without
pay, out of the warmth of feeling that ex
ists for the man who made so great an
impression l.y his sunny nature and his
clover and ingenious fancy and liutnor,
as shown in his daily newspaperwork and
his published Iwoks. Thirty-two well
known artists contributed of their Lest to
illustrate n selection ot Mr. Field's doems,
and the committee value the drawings at
$15,000. The original drawings are now
being olrbitcd in city after city. For
each dollar subscribed to the fund there
will be issued a copy of this beautiful publi
cation, as a souvenir certificate of sub
'scription, and these may bp had of the
Eugcn2 Field monument souvenir fund.
No. 180 Monroe street, Chicago.
SQTTAX CHEEK FOLKS.
Why Postmaster Salnthiel Green
Continues, to Hold the Fort.
Selnlhiel Green wan appinted postmas
ter ot Squan Creek way back before the
war, and up to two or three years ago no
body hankered arter his place- Then the
salary was riz, the postoffice moved into
a dtug store, and Hfty different men began
to itch to boss the mail-bags. It was
Moses Jackson who made the fust move.
One day he went over to Tobias Brown's
house, and out into the back yard where
Tobias was mendln a hoe, and arter some
talk about fish, crabs and the weather he
"Look-a-yere,, Tobias; but, 'sposln the
mayor of New 'York should cum down to
Squan Creek to go out crabbin'?"
"Lordyl" gasped Tobias, as he looked
"The mayor of New York is a heap of a
feller almost as much of a feller as the
President of the United States.'
'Tes, I know.'1 .
"If lie was locum down here to go out
crabbin' he'd expect to be met at the train
and welcomed.' Sum. one would her to
ma-HHi speech and takehim home to JInir.
Tin man to do it is the postmaster. HeH
supposed to be the biggest man lit Squan
Creek. Tobias Brown, will yoa just ira-agiiu-SalathielGreen
ot wc-loome to the mayor of New York city,
and of tet wards entertainin' linn at dinner!"
"Snalx and snails, but he never could do
do lr never!'' whispered Tobias as he
turned pale clear back to tlie' ears.''
"Ot course, hetoultiu'L He never made
a speech In his life, and as fur dinner, his
wife would cook corned beet and 'tatera
and think 'em good 'nuff fur anybody. It
would jest lie the death-blow of Squm
Creek. Not one of us could ever hold his
head up arter that. Tobias, we've got
to do sunthin, and we've got to do it right
"Lord save us, I think we have!" an
"There is a man in this town who kin
make a burnin' speech of welcome." says
Moses, as he stiff ens up. ''He isamanwho
hah a cooper-shop and three houses to
rent. He was a tax collector fur ten long
years. He has bin down to Philadelphia
and up to New York, and he ain't no hay
seed. His wife also knows how to cm;- a
dinner. It's that man who should be
postmaster ot Squan Creek, and here's a
petition I wunt ye to sign to help bring it
about. I'm the man, Tobias Brown, and
yj kin sign yer name rk;lit there."
Tobias put down his name and Moses
thanked him and walked off, but he hadn't
gone a hundred rodjjwhen he meets Phtie
tus Laugden, and PhQetas, pushes him up
agin a shade tree anjl"ljrs:
"Look-a-here, Moses Jackson, but do
you know what'b keeplui-Sqnan Creek in
the quagmire of despondency, when Brigan
tine and Barnagat ar' soarln' on the wings
"Mebbe we've got too many 'skeeters
around hcte," replied Moses, as he Icoks
away over the marshes.
"It hain't 'bkeeters nor bullfrogs uor
chills," continues Philetus, "nor it ain't
that we don't ship more crabs thanKeypcrt
or Red Bank. It's Jest because of our
postmaster. Does .anybody ever hear of
him? Has he ever delivered a Fourth of
July ora-huii? Do yetver tee him out to
funerals? Does he take the lead when we
hev a Sunday skule picnic? Never neverl
Moses, we've got to h!t hint out o' that
and hist a good man into his place. I'm
diggin' 200 poit-holcs and grubbin' jot
fort-eight stumps this summer, but ".m
wlllii)' to sacrifice myself and take the
position. Here's a petishun, and I'll ox
ye to put yer name down at the head.
"1 never will do it!" says Moses.
"Mebbe ye want It yourself?"
"Mebbe- 1 do- That is, I'm willln' to take
It fur the benefit of the town I"
"But the town don't want ye!"
Atn? so they jawed and Jawed and .-ailed
names and almost had a fight. That started
everybody up. Before night there was
6lxty jpetishuns goin' round. CyHqnderron,
who couldn't ska&sdy read a sign board nor
te'l the time, o' clay, goes tound with his
petishun and says:
"I ain't adooin this because I want
office and hc-v folk3 pint me out as a
mi"yonalre. I'm adooin' it that Sqaan
Creek may git up and hump herself ai.d
git to be as big as Atlantic City. I can't
do nuthln to help the town while I'm
tongiu fur oysters, hut as postmaster I'll
make things hum ot break a leg."
Pump Tompkins, who hud never been to
school a day in his life, and who wore one
blue shirt the year 'round, had a petlah'in,
and he went all around sayln":
"It ain't style and rich cloze I hanker
arter, hut I want to see Squan Creek put
in the weather reports, same as New Turk
and Philadelphia. She ain't never men-
shunednow no more'n as it we didn't hev
no weather. I ain't sayln' tliat Snlathiel
Grc-enalr.'ta good man, but he ain't got the
good o this town at heart. He jet lets
things driftrlght along.insteadof takin jff
his coat and kickin up the mm!."
Dan Boonshaw, whq had never done any
thin' great except to chaw terbacker and
lie al.out sharks, had a jicUshnn, and fur
three days he went around sayin' to every
body: "I had to go up to New York last week
with a box ot lobsters, and when I said I
was from Squan Creek nobody up thar had
ever heard of the town. One fellow actually
asked me if it was up in the Catsktlls!
D'ye 'spose if we iiad the right sort o Post
master heie we'd hev tu suffer sioh insults
as that?. Salnthiel Green In a purty good
man as men go, but he ain't fitten to hold
otflce. Instead of being outmakln'speeche1
and holdln' Squan Creek up to the world
he's playin' fox-and-geese with Abe Carter
or klllin the worms on his plumb trees. I
ain't wantln' office that I may smell around
and boss anybody, but It's as plain as the
none on j ei face that sunthin' has got to be
did or Squan Creek will dry up and blow
And so it was with sixty difrerent men,
and not one of 'em could git a single
signer to his petishun. Sich as didn't wunt
to change wouldn't sign, and sich as did
wanted the office rur themselves. Things
wetit on this way fur about a week, and
that a public meetin' was called.
The sixty candidates was all thre.
Moses Jackson started in to make a speech
to boom hlsseir, but the other rif ty nine
riz up and howled, and a mlnlt later every
body was flghtin'. Somebody locked the
doors on 'cm, and them candidates Jest
kicked and bit and scratched and pulled
heir 'till the last one tired himself out
and fell down. It was four weeks before
the last black eye was cured up and the
last scratched nose healed, and some folks
predicted that a tidal wave would surely
overwhelm Squan Creek. Nuthin of tho,
sort happened, however. It jest cured
sixty men from wantln' to be postmaster,
and two new barns and four new houses
was built that very year. As the preacher
said from his pulpit one Sunday:
"Let the heathen rage and wicked
rip and tear; it's good fur what nils
A Bounce Muchine.
(From the Detroit Free Press.)
"Coggs has invented a machine that will
-spring out and knock.a man oft a door
"What is it for?"
"Those people who stlckji circular under
the door and ring the bell."
(From the Chicago Times-Herald.) '
A San Francisco paper says "there is a
scheme on foot to can California air and
ship it East for consumption." Chicago
is. willing to reciprocate; no better, paying
material can be found'tliau we are breath
The Green Fitlda to America.
The green ileitis to America make my heart
The green fielua to America that I have
O, many auu muny a mile they stretch so
wide and free.
The green ileitis to America between my
love aud me.
There's a pretty bird, a birdeen gray, ha
swings on high,
Nor rcura at ail ttie pathless main, tha
O, if 1 hau that birdeen'a wings, 'tis I
The green iiento from America, for my
O, what to me were wastes ot storm and
miles of sea,
The compass iu tuy heart points straight to
To wu.i ,njf love sits quietly beside the
Of tlw gtu fields to America, with his
head in his' hands.
Tlte little fields we once did roam were
gold and green,
And ucik wo iiM. ie washing waves and
white foam betAveen;
Abov.- tlte little, fields at home the hfllsare
God btoks the kindly fields at home, the
fond love I knew.
Now, God and Mary strengthen, me to take
The green Hems front America some lucky
And Uou und Mary bring me safe, to stray
Front the little fields I knew of old, and
kind love ot yore!
Pall Mall Gazette.
Though sevea of the tender maids
Of Nazaretu cast Iota to see
Who might he bped and bet apart
(Sing, Blue and purple and scarlet
And fine-twined linen thread.;
To spin tne smooin bkein that should be
The Temple curtain, and should btir
To gust of frankincense and myrrh,
The happy fortune fell on her.
(Sing, Precious was the ointment
Spilled on tne high-prieat's head.)
And as she sat and twirled her thread.
And sang, pere-hance, beneath her breatlj.
Some sacred song or swtet contest,
(S"ing, Out of ivory palaces
Hath music made thee glad. J
Only a maid of Nazareth
Sne held herself witnui her thought,
Wnose good-nap to the Temple brought
The royal purple that she wrought.
(Sing, With the wings of cherubim
The mercy -seat was dad.)
And In such simple honor glad.
Serene In service moved the makl,
And dreamed not If more honor were;
(Sing, Thou art fair, oh thou art fair I
Thou hast the eyes of a dove!)
D reamed som? time, spinning m the shade.
That the King said the boose in vain,
Woald taat htgh Presence hold which fain
The heaven of heavens couM not eon tain;
(Sing, The covering of purple.
The midst being paved with Jove.)
When suddenly what glorioas strain
Dyed all the shadow of the room,
When the greatangel stooped and brought)
(Slug. Wondrous were the almond flowen
Blossomed on Aaron's rod!)
All heaven In with him to the gloom,
Crying, Hail, highly favored, now
The sun, the stars, before thee bow,
The Lord Is with thee, blessed thou I
(Sing, Yea, upon the harp will I
Praise Thee, O God, my Gad!)
Harriet Presoott Spouord, it Hfc-'jrir'a
Full many a maiden, iu mist ot white.
With band that trembhta toward the Wed
ding ring, r
Though, on her threshold-rose to see yet'
light, Forever-nying thing!
Full many a youth, with passionate Heart"
"Dreaming the old nviue sad dream
His father dreamed, jotut Uie bright ebase
with Iter, . .
And sees you flash before.
On, on forever, over bioout and dew, J
With hands thorn torn, reaehed tovtftrd1
tlte eye's desire, '
Their children's chriurctt's children Ittlaw?
Still nigh and never sigher.
Yet, on some lily in God's Garden lis.
You rest, perhaps. And shall we tettea.
Not so. From height to higher heights yoa;
Still, still the soul's despair!
Sarah Piatt, In Hurper'a Magazine. .
O Temporal O Mores! :
When Phyllis in some courtly dance
Threads tender mystic maies.
Her rich attire may well entrance
The eye that on her'gae.
Iu snimmerlng to.i .j. uitely grace
It falls, or outward swells
In billows flecked wiui nam of lace,
Admired of beaas and belles.
When Phyllis riding fotth would fare,
"Like Dlan, to the chase,"
Not Dian with her might compare
For perfect rorm and lace.
Her shapely robe, wlr.it modesb art,
Conceals, wnile yet it tells
Of witcning grace, dear to the heart, v
Of mounted beaus and belles.
When Phyllis on her wheel would go,
Alas! what sight, is tms?
Is tnls my moutst maid or no?
I take tt much amis , ?
That, with a gay, defiant air.
Which hushed amaze compels,
She sallies rorth my Phyllis fttir
In garb of beaus, not bellesl
Maud Taylor, in tne December Century. ,"
It is dark and lonesome here,
Beneath the windy caves: - "
The cold, cold ground my bed.
My coverlet dead leaves.
My only bedrellow
The rain that wets my sleeves!
If It be day or night,
I know not, cannot say;
For I am like a child
Who has lost his ttoubled way.
Till I see the white ot the hoar-frost-Then
I know it is day!
I touch the silent striDgs,
The broken lute complains;
The sweets of love arc gone,
The bitterness remains,
Like the memory of summers
A few more days and nights.
My tears will cease to flow;
For I hear a -voice within.
Which tells me I shall go.
Before the morning hoar-frost
Becomes the night ot snowl
It. It. oioddaru.in Harper's Magazine,
Hawthorne la Berkshire.
Mountains and valleysl dear ye are to me;
Your streamt, wild-wandering, ever-traar
And ."orests that make murmur like the'
And this keen air that from tho hurt"'
soul takes "'",
Its pain and languor Doubly dear ye ara.-,
For many a lofty memory that throws )(l)
A splendor on these heights. 'Neath yoa
.low star, ' '
That, like'a dewdrop, melts In heaven's''
Dwelt once a starry spirit; there he smoto
Life from the living bills; a little while
He rested from the raging of the world.
This Brook ot Shadows, whose dafIcT
Solace to his deep mind. It felt hla
Haunted, and melancholy, and remote,
R. W. Glider, In the December Century.