Newspaper Page Text
V i. -
H. C. HICEOZ, Editor, i
a N. W0RDEN7 Printer.
LEWISBUKG, UNION CO., PA., AUG. 14; 1850?
Vohnne Vil, CTtamber 20.
; '', Whole limaSex -332.'
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Tbe Lcwlabarf Chronicle "
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Office. Market St. between Second and Third
O. N. WORDEN. P" f onlwner.
C7We find the following letter, from
some unknown gentleman, io the "Ports
mouth (Va.) Pilot. of the 3d inst., and
transfer it to our columns, to let our ren
ders know what strangers think of our
town and State, and its agricultural and
political prospects. Eo. Cnaox.
, LtWIBBCCG. UxiOJt Co., P.
July 23, 1650. ,
Jtf dear Pilot: After one month's
slopping and starting,! arrived in this bean
fifuf tillage a few days since. It is a p!ace
most dear aud near to me, having spent
my younger days in il. Lewisburg is
beautifully situated on the West Branch of
the Susquehanna.eight miles from its junc
tion with the North Branch at Northum
berland. It contains about three thousand
inhabitant, with a wholesome and regular
increase. The people are industrious
t-riterprising, and intelligent. The town is
regularly laid out, with fine broad streets
crossing each other at right angles, and
the buildings being of brick, and built in
modern style, presents altogether the ap
pearance of a minaiture city. The sur
rounding country is, perhaps, as good as
any section of Pennsylvania, for agricultu
ral purposes, and having a navigable river
and canal leading to tide water, at Havre
de Gras, makes this a place of much mote
than ordinary importance.
I spent the Fourth in the city of Lan
caster, where I had a fine opportunity of
learning public opinion in regard to the
great question of slavery. While nearly
everybody expressed themselves opposed
to slavery in the abstract, yet I did not
hear a single individual speak on the sub
ject, who did not condemn the course of
all who attempt to interfere wtlh the rights
of the South. The almost unanimous
opinion is, that the Constitution is the best
compromise that can be made. It is true,
there is here and there a designing dema
gogue, who, for purposes of his own, pre
tends to say, Congress ought to prevent
the extension of slavery ; but such, you
may rely on it, are as harmless as they
re few in numbers. While in Lancaster,
four or five Companies, from Philadelphia,
visited that place, each having a very fine
band of music ; one of them had a " black
band'' and the other three refused to march
or associate with them ! This created
some dissatisfaction, but the whites em
phatically refused, saying they were de
termined to stick to their own color and
not be chargeable with encouraging runa
way negroes. : On this subject, Pennsyl
vania, as a whole, has ever been sound ;
but I never knew the leading men of the
democratic party, particularly, speak out
so plainly as at present. All reserve is
thrown away, and both writers and spea
kers avow themselves plainly opposed to
any and every interference. If the people
of every other Stale were to act thus, and
Congress were to confine themselves lo
enacting more efficient law for the recov
ery of runaway slaves, ' much time and
trouble would be saved to the whole coun
try. In the " trade of politics,'' there is but
little said or doing. The death of the late
President, and the accession of a northern
successor, has thrown all hands on their
"beam ends" and scarcely one of the
motley crew knows which side is mot
likely to come uppermost. The democratic
party of this Stale, I find, are in no very
good trim lo ride the waves of a boisterous
campaign ; instead of. having, as in day
of yore, one united democratic party, I
find a Buchaoan party,and a Frazer party
in Lancaster county ; a Cameron party,
and. Miller party in Dauphin county ; a
Dallas party, and an aoti-Dallas party in
Philadelphia city and county, and a Cass
party all over the Stale! Now, if all the
above named small politicians will agree
to kiss and make friends, and kindly join
tbemsdves to the ttkoU pnrtg, all will be
well. But the fell elections are near at
hand, and if this passes off well, all may
yet go right. This State is largely 6Vm
...ocratirvbut the manner in which tbe State
"ft.';diauTactefJ makes it nrxes
aary thttlhe Snya should be not only nc
tie. but nailed, toat rj a majority of the
Legislature. . ; r... -.'
1 This is the height of harvest in this not
tWn section of the State, and it is most
cliee.in to look upon its abundance. I
have seen many fine crops of grain, but
never such ns I have seen the last few days
There is no such, thing as a bad field,
scarcely such a thing as a tolerably good
one ; yearly every one fur, better than or
Uinar'. The hay crop too, has been quite
equal lo the wheal and rye. The corn,
oats, potatoes. &ic. &c, all look well and
bid fair to yield an abundant crop.
To give you some idea of the difference
between the seasons here and Portsmouth
it is only necessary to tell you that my
friends had for dinner to day, new timb
lingt and cucumbers, being the first of
the season ! To me, they were almost as
much of a treat as to my friends, as il
seemed like the commencement ol another
prir.g in the same, year.
You may hear from me again in a le
days. In the mean time, believe mc, very
U'lGClM UT JAS. W. Wsut.
Ti said that man Vr woman jnstlr ranks ;
This to !ispmve, will merit woman's thanks.
Vpnn the elaimnnt's txnl nee I'll do it
H.inselr tfjall jii'le if rightly I etmstrae it,
Woman V an angel, (ail mankind declares;)
To tliia my i:uvM reen'.utrljr swears.
V oman an ar.irel : tt-t the preempt stand
Mark how its truth his pride will reprimand:
For " Mm" tin text, not nr. he must apbralkl
Was A LITTLE LOWUt Til AH TUE ASGU4 MADE."
For the Lewiiiurg Chroniete,
The Public vs. the H. D's.
Mr. Koiior: It is with great diflidence
that 1 take pen in hand to write upon a
subject which might profitably engage the
minds of some of the wise legislators who
yearly assemble at Harri.-.burg ; and were
it net that many years have passed since i
commenced reading the Journals without
ever seeing the subject referred to, I would
not say a word about it. But as no one
ihat I know ol has as yet written a word
about incompetent Physicians, or the evils
they can work among a credulous people, I
have resolved to act as pioneer, and with
your leave strike a blow at those quacks
who are sown broadcast over the land.
Last winter, on account of pecuniary
difficulties, the Faculty of Brown Univer
sity resolved on a change in their svstcm of
edueation. A committee was appointed to
diaw up a report on the subject, of which
Rev. Dr.Way land, an eminent divine, was
appointed chairman. Tho report was
handed in, and accepted. Of course it was
an able one. My reason for referring to it
is, that in two words it gives the account
of the life led by many of the undergradu
ates at our Universities they stay four
yeara in the place ; they pay their bills ;
they receive their diplomas, which they
probably can not read ; and they go home
men of " liberal education!" Now, in
what particular does the course ol study of
many of the medical students differ from
that ol the undergraduates ? In this only,
that having more time, they frolic more
at the end of a year and a half, they go
home, licensed to kill ; and they do it, with
There appears in a community, a shin
gle with an M. D's name : how do the good
people know he is what he pretends lo bel
Does a parchment with a long list of names
thereunto attached, prove iit By no means.
He must put on a knowing air, give his
opinion of things uncalled for.and talk big.
and he'll get into practice. But let the man
of unobtrusive merit come lo town, (who
speaks when called upon, and then b-jt to
the point,) and he is passed by as a know
no'hing. After the big talker has killed a
few, and not till then, people begin lo seek
for the modest practitioner, but he has left
them, driven to seek a more hospitable
reception among strangers. If the big
man's opinion is asked of some patent me
dicine (or different practice from his own)
he replies, It 'a a humbug 'the ruin of
him who takes it." Have you analyzed it,
Sir ! No !' Then, pray. Sir, how do
you know it's a humbug! (and he is non
plussed ; I nerd but casually refer to a
great blunder committed in a neighboring
town, where a patient suffering with the
heart disease was treated for consumption,
to ehow the fatal evil that may befal a
confiding public fnm the ignorance of those
yclept physicians. Other similar casea
will present themselves lo the mind of
Now, Sir, what is the remedy 1 . Why.
our Legislature should order a Board of
real physicians of known experience to be
appointed, who should examine every man
who proposes practicing in the Slate; and
unless a practitioner can produce a certifi
cate from that Board, he should not be
allowed to practice. Tis thus that in the
State of New York they get over the hum
bugging diplomas of the medical schools,
and give rent merit a chance. It works to
a charm. Why not adopt the plan in Penn
sylvania 1 Oae or tub Peons.
OA communication in nor paper not
long sioce.urged the formation of a County
Medical Society. To the "Scion of the
Craft arid h'w professional brethren, we
submit this proposition and would add,
that some one roost take the liberty to
name the time and place for the first meet
ing to be held. Ed. Chioh.
From tht Boston CuUipator.
The Sword and the Flongh.
II r. BESJAKIS saoc.
Far back in Time' drparted year.
Ere earth waa drenched in blood and tears,
Two bioibers, from their father's hearlb,
Wi nt forth to toil upon the eanh
Each with stout heart and hardy frame,
nd each in search of wrahb and fame :
One was the Sword, with haughty brow.
The other was the humble Plough,
The Sword, the fairest of the twain,
Was resi less, cruel, daik and vain,
A daring and ambitious youth.
The foe of vittue. peace and truth ;
Forth from his father' hearth he sprang1.
While far and wide his prainea rang.
Yet Mercy shudderrd as he came,
And fled, affiighted, at his name !
Men shrunk in terror from hia wrath.
While cities blazed along his path ;
Kingdoms into the du he hurled.
And bound in chains a wondering worlj ;
In evtry land, in every clime.
He wreathed bis brow with blood and crime.
1 et tlill the life-devouring swoid
Was praised, ejralted and adored.
Aa bold, the bumble Plough went forth.
But not to desolate the earth
To counteract Ciu' wondrous plan,
A lid awell tbe countless woes of man ;
Hut wi'b the heait and hand of toil
To break the deep and fruitful soil,
To aeaUer wealth on every hand.
And beautify and bless tbe land !
He made the nations thrive in peace.
And swelled their alores with rich increase,
Bound the torn heart of want and woe,
And bade the find with plenty flow ;
He scattered, wheresoe'er he trod,
Tbe golden harvest gifts of God !
Vet even then, and until no.
Men have despised tbe bumble Plough.
Thus bow the nations lo adore
Tbe wretch who stains tbeir hearts with fore
And thus despise the nobler mind
That toils to bless and save mankind.
Vet ii shall not be so for "ave."
For, lo ! there comes a brighter d iv.
When, through the tlarkuesa of the Past,
The son of Truth shall gleam at last.
Then shall the carnage-loving Sword,
So long invented and adored.
Sink in forgetfulnesa and shame.
Till men hall cease to know hi name ;
Then shall the Plough, despised so loug.
He theme tor universal song
Tbe first of all in Honor van.
And noblest ol the friends of Man '
A few days since, a poor but honest al-
boier, named William Shaw, while exam
ining an old uninhabited brick building in
Appoqninimink Hundred, near Commercial
Corner, Delaware, thrust his handspike
into the frame of one of the windows and
gave it a rench.'when a perfect shower
of gold coin, of English stamp, came pour
ing down upon him, to his surprise and
delight. Upon a further examination, he
finally succeeded in collecting seven huu-
dredandeighty dollars, when his impatience
and eagerness to herald the good news im
pelled him to hasten lo a neighbor and
make it known, who hastened to the spot,
and secured about three hundred dollars
for himself, making in all about one thou
sand dollars. These two kept the secret
for a ti.Tie but Shaw said he didn't feel as
though he ought lo keep the gold, and
therefore made it known lo one or two
gentlemen in the neighborhood. The ow
ner of the house was informed of the fact,
whereupon the matter was left to three re
ferees lo determine whether the finder or
the owner of the building was entitled to
the treasure. In the meantime, the gold
is deposited in the Smyrna Bauk.
The Delaware Journal says that the
house was erected and occupied bv the
Rev. Mr. Beading, Rector of St. Ann's
Church, in the above named district, who
adhered to ihe royal cause during the Rev
olution, and rendered himself thereby odi
ous to the neighbors, staunch republicans
all, who threatened to burn his house and
destroy his life. He died very suddenly.
and it is supposed lhat he secreted the
treasure in a moment of fear. One can
not but be s'tuck by, and commend, the
honorable scruples of good and honest
What a Plow should Be.
The New York Agricultural Society, in
offering premiums for ihe best plow, say :
"In deciding the general question. What
are the best plows? the committee will be
governed by the following principle s 1V
the character of ihe work performed : 2d,
the power required in draft : 3d, quality of
material, durability, and cost of the imple
For stiff soil, excellence of work shall
consist, first in leaving ihe furrow slice
light and friable; second, in so disposing
the sod and all vegetable matter as to in
sure its ready decomposition.
For sandy soil, or that which is already
ton light, the points in regard lo work will
be first, thoroughly burying the vegetable
mailer, and secood, leaving the ground
For fallows or old land ; the principle
in reference to the quality of work will be.
the thorough pulverization and friability ol
the soil. ' .,
' In determining the power required in
draft, the most perfect instrument will be
used, and the trial will be conducted in the
most careful and thorn possible manner.
'' The same Instrument for testing tbe draft,
and tbe same team will be used for all
plows in the same class.
The Bell Tolls.
by the late amos sistt.
! have been expecting daily lo hear the
bell toll' was the exclamation of a father
hose child had been-sick, but was recov
ering. It had been near the grave and
the parent daily expected the bell ol death
would pr-al out its funeral notes ft r the fund
ly loved and early lor-t.
Hoys, the bell has toiled "many a time
and oft," the passing year. Its solemn
tones have carried an additional pang ol
sorrow, and sunk lower still the hopes ol
many whom you know. It' you will think,
for a little lime only, you will miss play
mates some a tut her some a siMer
some a brolher some a young and faith
ful little friend. The bell has toiled for
them, and, sooner or later, its sound will
summon fricnJibt fu.lo you tothegrave
yard. It may toll before this hand shall ad
dress you again. The invisible mts-enger
may be on your door-step now, and the cof
fin may come to morrow.
Think not, young Liends, because we
sjieak thus seriously, lhat we would throw
over the bright hopes of boyhood, a pall
that shall shut the sunlight of pleasure from
your path, or heap up obstacles in your
way to happiness. But, while in the midst
of enjoy ment on the spots which you love,
and ihe studies you are pursuing in the
school room on the play-ground at
home at night in the morning at all
times, we would have you conduct your
selves so as to ft el content, that when you
hear the bell toll fcr others, you may be
so situated, that when it tolls for you, sor
rowing friends may say, the ' early taken
Are you on the play ground, or at your
lesson, or wherever you may be ; does the
bell toll ? Pause, son e one is on the way
to where the weary are at rest. Reflect !
It may tol! for you the next lime. How
careful, then, should be your iutercouse
with playmates, sisters, brothers, and pa
rents ! You would not like to co down to
the grave unforgiven by those around, if
cm, k. rrA iu.n , ;r it,- i,...anf.
fended you ; you would not love to think,
while lying upon your last bed, that an an
gry playmate's eyes were upon you. You
would shudder to know lhat harsh words
or unkind acts towards sisters, or brother,
or parents, were haunting your last hours.
Such thoughts would be poor company,
then. How necessary it is to be kind and
obedient, to be forbearing, to lorgive, lo
avoid offence, you all can see. Nor are
these things hard to be put into practice.
A spirit determined to do right a liberal
view in regard to the failings of others, w ill
always secure you true friends among your
assoeiaies.nnd ti e best friend of all, an un
The bell must loll for all. Our own knell
will be rung out, unheeded by the ear in
death, and heedless of the iron tongue which
tells of a spirit departed. But near and
dear ones will hear it and as the heavy
peal falls upon heavier hearts,so should all
live that the fail may be lightened. Lei this
be your aim, and whether in ihe discharge
of your home duties, in the school-room,
the play-ground, the church, or the Sabbath-School
remember, the bell must toll
and, daily expeciing it, so act that
when it shall have lolled for you, whe
ther yet the boy at the task, or the nnn
high in name and fume, wielding an influ
ence over nations, those left behind may
have the satisfaction of say ing that you
were ready for Ihe final summons and
that solemn lone which announced the bu
rial of the body, give assurance to weeping
friends lhat the departed had lived "expec
ting daily to hear the bell toll.
A Word about Apprentices.
The following extract in relation lo this
class of persons, who occupy so important
a position in every community, is taken
from the "New 1'ork Organ."
"We wish to speak more particularly to
those families who-e sons are sustaining
the relation of apprentices, and we would
call their attention to the fact lhat multi
tudes of youth in that relation are suffering
incalculable damage in iheir characters and
prospects for the future by their instability,
dissatisfaction, and disposition to rove from
place to place, and from one employer to
another during iheir minority. Many lads
are tempted, by a trifling advance in wa
ges, of by the hope of having a little more
liberty, or by some other supposed advan.
lage, to change masters. And loo often pa
rents fall in wiih the whims and caprice of
iheir children,and sanction their instability.
The consequence is that their boys acquire
vagrant and wandering habits, and grow
up ignorant of their business, and without
having laid a foundation for future success,
in the friendship and confidence of those
who have known and employed them,
j "A lad of good principles, who steadily
adheres to a good master, till he finishes
his apprenticeship, has already half tbe
battle of life, and he commences as joar
neyman or master with great, advantage.
He has formed a character, which is the
best of capital. He carries with him the
respect and confidence of his f Hows, w ho
grew up with him of his master whom
he has faithfully served and in that por
lion of the public who have seen his eaily
life. Such persons almost hlus prosper,
rfen entering into their master's business,
and succeeding to his prosperiiy. Rfstltss.
w andering boys, on the contrary, almost
always tail as men. They ate remembered
as a sort of young vagrants who were al
ways roving, and never stajed lung
enough io one situation lo acquire a good
"Look at the thousands of - honored.
" -g.-hjaiiir. iu ibis ci:y, who
have risen by their industry, honesty, and
skill, and ou will find lhat they con -
:nenctd their career in a steady, s'ab!e,ond
iiidustiious anprct.ticeship. Look at those
other ihoujiimls of mechanics who lite
iroui hand to moiub, alwajsshort of funds,
often out of emplo)ment, and never above
ihe lowest round of the ladder, and youwili
lind that when boys ihey were rent es?, un
settled, and changeful. Parents, think ol
these things. You, whose bos are des
lined to learn some useful trade or art.first
be careful to find a good master for them.
and then use all your influence to make
them steadv and faithful. Shut your ears
to those trivial complaints which all boys
make, and encourage them lo persevere to
ihe end of i heir minority. They will bless
you for it by and by, when they come lo
reap the reward of constancy, and fidelity
to the obligations of iheir boj hood."
Hilitia of the Union.
From a document lurnih.'d to the two
Houses of Congress, we have the annexed
statement of the militia strength of the
United States in January, 1850.
New Jersey 33,664
Pennsylvania 246.1 U
South Carolina 41
Dist. Columbia 1,1SS
Iowa, Minnesota, Oregon, California,
New Mexico, and Utah not returned in
the above must add 100,000 to the sum
total. This would make
From the Free terrritories, 1,293 000
From the Slave territoiies, 767 (100
Maj. in Free territories 526,000
In proportion to their white population, ihe
Slave-holding territory is best armed, as it
Mayor Biuelow, of Boston, in a speech
lo the New York City Guards on a late
visit to the former city, spoke in the follow.
iug point-blank, clear and explicit manner
of mobs, and the duty and manner of sup
pressing them. Il the authorities of the
rowdy districts in Philadelphia would adpt
the same cool, resolute policv, Uw and
order would prevail, and the destruction ol
I lie and property be stopped at once :
"ShiHiM ihe necessity arise should ihe
spiiils of misrule array lhemlve4 here, in
violent host. lily to the law, 1 ahould call
upon the imliitn. and taking my stand ai
the post of danger, I would sustain ihem
wtlh all the weight attached to mv id) ial
position, and give such orders, that, when
obeyed, would be speedily effective in riis-
t ersing Ihe lawless band. Having given
the enemies cf pence fair warning.by proc
lamation, 1 would direct no vain measures
of mere intimidation. No orders would
issue from my lips lo fire over iheir heads.
nor under their leet : but I would at once
order such a fire as would satisfy those at
least as were within range of the musketry,
that the Government was in earnest."
C7True Christian Charily, in respect
to matters of faith, is impartial, gentle,
meek, long suffering, and full of patience.
generosity, and kindness. And yet she
believes there are truths and principles
which are eternal, fundamental and essen
tial. She knowa how to exercise her lei'i-
timafe virtues, without being untrue to her
legitimate and fixed beliefs. If the articles
of Faith were a mailer of indifJereOce, she
would pass into a weak and untried senti-
mentaltsm. Tbe high titles ol her distinc
tion now are, that she can meet error
without wrath and impatience ; lhat she
can be just and kind towards those, Irom
whom she differs most ; that she can bear
opposition, and nurture no revenge ; that
she can toil for the good of others, and
hope ail things ander Ihe most discourage
ing circumstances. '; '
Idleness is tbe arptilelwa of a living man
The Tezian Boundary.
Message from the President.
To tht Senate and House of Repruentatitet .
I h'ewith transmit to the two H'iusesof
""(V-wri ".letter from his excellency the
Governo.' Texas, dated on the 14' h o!
June last, addressed to the late President
of the United States, which, not having
been answered by him, came into my
hand on his death ; and I also transmit a
copy of the answer which I have felt it io
lie my duty to cause to bo made to that
Congre-8 will perceive lhat the Governor
of Texas t.fhxially states, that by the au
thority of the Legislature ol that Slate, he
dispatched a special Commissioner, with
lull power and instructions to extend civil
jurisdiction of the S'ate over tho unorgan
ized counties of L. Paso, Word. Presidio,
and Sinia Fe, situated on us northwestern
He proceeds to say, tl.nl the Commissio
ner had reported to hun, iu an official form.
lhat the military dlhcers employed in the
service of the tluited State, stationed at
San'a Fe, interposed adversely with the
inhabitants, to the fulfillment of his object,
in favor of ihe establishment of a separate
State government, eat of the Rio Grande,
and wilhin the rightful limits of Ihe State
f Texas. These four counties which
Texas proposes lo establish and organ
ize, as being within her own jurisdiction,
extend over the whole of the territory east
of the Rio Grande, which has, hertofore.
been regarded as an essential and integral
part of the Department of New Mexico,
and actually governed and possessed by
her people, until conquered and severed
from the Republic of Mexico, by the Amer
The Legislature of Texas has been
called together by the Governor, for the
purpose, as is understood, of maintaining
her claim to the territory east of Rio
Grande, and of establishing over it her
own jurisdiction and her own laws, by
These proceedings of Texas may well
arrest the attention of all branches of the
Government of the U. States, and I rejoice
that they occur while the Congress is yet
in session. It is, I fear, far from being
improbable lhat. in zonsequence of these
proceedings of Texas, a crisis may be
brought on which shall summon the two
Houses of Congress and still more em
phatically the Esecutive Government lo
an immediate readiness for the performance
of their respective duties.
By the Constitution of the United States,
the President is constituted commander-in-chief
ol the army and navy, and of ihe
militia of the several States, when called
into the actual service of the United States.
The Constitution declares, also, that he
shall lake rare that the laws be faithfully
executed, and lhat he shall, from time to
time, give to the Congress information of
the state of the Union.
Congress has power.by the Constitution,
to provide for calling forth the militia to
execute the laws of ihe Union ; and suita
ble and appropriate acts of Congress have
been passed, as well for providing for call
ing forth tbe militia, as for placing other
suitable and efficient means in the hands
of the President, lo enable him lo discharge j
the constitutional functions of his office. I
Tne second section of the act 23th of
February 1795, declares, lhat whenever
the laws of the United Slates shall be op
posed, or their execution obstructed in anv
Siale, by combinations, too powerful to be
suppressed hy the ordinary course of judi
cial proceedings or the power vested in
the marshals ; the President may call forlh
Ihe militia, so far as may be necessary, lo
suppress such combinations, and to cause
ihe laws lo be duly execu ed.
By the act of March 3, 1807, it is pro
vided th.it in all cases of obstruction lo the
laws, ei.her of the United States, or any
individual State or Territory, wheie it is
lawful for the President to call forth the
militia for ihe pirHe of causing tbe laws
to be duly executed, il shall be lawful for
him to employ, fur the same purposesuch
part of the land or naval force of tbe Uni
ted States as shall be judged necessary.
These several enactments are now in full
force; so that if the laws of the United
Siates are opposed or obstructed, in any
Stale or Territory, by combinations loo
powerful to be suppressed by the judicial
or civil authorities, it becomes a case in
which it is the duty of the President, either
to call out the militia, or to employ tbe
military and naval force of the United
States, or to do both, if in his judgment the
exigency of the occasion shall so require.
for the purpose of suppressing suck combi
The constitutional duty of tbe President
is plain and peremptory ; and the authori
ty vested in htm by law, for iia perform
ance, clear and ample.
Texas is a Slate authorised to maintain
her own laws, so far aa they are not re
pugnant to the Constitution, laws,and tree
tics of the United State ; to suppress in
surrections against bef authority and to
punish those., who may commit treason
against the State, according to the forms
provided by her own Constitution and her
own laws." ' ?.-'.;
But all this power is local, and confined
entirely within the limits of Texas feracllV
She can possibly cooler no authority which !
can be. lawfully exercised beyond ber,ownl'
All this is plain and hardly needs argu .
ment or elucidation. If Texan militia.
therefore, march into any one of the otherff
States, or into any territory of. tne Uoited
Siates. ihere to execute or enforce any law
of Texas, they become at that mornent ,
trespassers ; tliey are no longer under pro-
tection of any lawful authority, and are. to .
be regardeJ merely as intruders ; and ifj
wilhin such State or . Territory they ob
struct any law of the United States, either
by power o( arms, or mere power of num
bers, constituting such combination as is
too powerful lo be suppressed by jhe civil
authority, the President of the United1,
S.ates has no option left lo him, but is
bound lo obey h o'emn injunctions of the
Constitution, and exercise-ihe high power
vested in him by that instrument and by
the Acts of Congress. . """''
Or,if any civil poise.armcd or unarmed". ,
enter into any Territory ol ihe United
Siates under the protection o! the laws '
hereof, with intent lo seize individuals' to' '
be carried elsewhere for trial for alleged"1
offences, and this potse be loo powerful to
be resisted by ihe local and civil author- '
ities, such seizure or attempt to seize is" to
be prevented or resisted by the authority
of the United States.
The grave and important question now '
arises, whether there be in the Terriiory of
New Mexico any existing law of the United
States, opposition lo which, or the obstruc
tion of which, would constitute a case call
ing for Ihe interposition of the authority
vested in the President.
The Constitution of the United States'
declares that "this Constitution and the'
laws of the United States, which shall be"
made in pursuance tbereof.and all the trea-
ties made or which shall be made under the
authority of the U. S rhu!l be the supreme 7
law of the land." If, therefore. New
Mexico be a territory of the United States,
and if any treaty stipulation be in force
therein, such treaty stipulation is the su-"
preme law of ihi land, and is to be main-"
tained and upheld accordingly.
In the letter to the Governor of Tetas
my reasons are given for believing that '
New Mexico is now a territory of the Unt
ied States, with the same extent and the 1
same boundaries which belonged to it,
while in Ihe actual possession of the Re
public of Mexico, and before the late war.
In ihe early part of that war, both Califor
nia and New Mexico were eonqeured by 1
the arms of the United States, and were irr
the military possession of ihe United States' '
at the date of the treaty of peace. ' '
By lhat treaty the title by conquest itas1'
confirmed, and these territories, provinces," ;
or departments, separated from Mexico for -ever
: and by the same treaty certain im-J
porta nt riehts and securities were solemnly '
guarantied to the inhabitants residing? there-r7
By ihe fifth article of the treaty it is de-.
The boundary line between the two.
Republics skill commence in the Gulf of .
Mexico, three leagues from land, opposite
the mouth of the Rio Grande, otherwise ,
-ailed ihe Rio Rmvo del Norte, or opposite .
the mouth of its deeper branch if it should .
have more than one branch, emptying di ;
rectly into the sea j from thence up the ;
middle ol that river, following the deepest
channel where it baa more than one, to-.
he point where it strikes the southern boun
dary of New Mexico ; thence west ward! y ,
nlooK the whole southern boundary of New,
Mexico, (which runs north of the town,.
railed aiso,) lo its western termination ;
hence northward along the western line of
New Mexico, until it intersects the first.
branch of the river G;la, (or if it should not
ntersect any branch of that river, then n
the point on the said line nearest to ucb4
branch, and thence in a direct line to the ,
same ; thence down the middle of said-
branch and of tbe said river.unlil it empties
into tbe Rio Colorado ; thence across the
Rio Colorado, following tbe divUion'liner
between Upper and Lower California to
the Pacific ocean." . . , . ..
The eighth article of tbe treaty is iu ihe
following terms : ,w , ,
" Mexicans now established in territories'
previously belonging toMexico, and which tf
remain for the future within ihe limits of
the United States,as defined by the pre scat
treaty, shall be free to continue where they .
now reside, or to remove nt any time to t
the Mexican Republic, retaining the prop
erty which they possess in the said tern'ii j
rtes, or disposing thereof, and, removing,
the proceeds wherever they please, without,
their being subjected, on this account, t$
any contribution, tax, or charge abaltver,.
Those who shall prefer- to remain iH
ihe said .territory, may either retain j&e