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I ' n AT. , ' ULUIlULi UJiIUIIh PTRKAMENm, I
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H ADVANCE. INDUSTRY MAKES THE DESERT BLOOM, WHILE IDLENESS LUAUS TO RUIN. and Dispatelvatc
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can be found in another , , , ..
column. Vol, 1, ST. GEORGE, UTAH, OCTOBER, 1881. No. 19. QFFICTO;;? i
THE RED BREAST OF THE ROBIN.
AN IHISH LEGEND.
,JOf all the merry little birds that live up iti the
An& carol from the sycamore and chestnut,
, rThc prettiest little gentleman that dearest is tome,
Is the one in coat of brown and scarlet waist-
' . It's cockit little Robin ?
. And his head he keeps a-bobbin',
Of all the other pretty fowls I'd choose him ;
m For he sings so sweetly still,
I if' Through his tiny slender bill,
With a little patch of red upon his bosom.
. ."When the frost is in the air, and the snow upon
M the ground,
ifl To other little birdies so bewiderin,
Jl' ' vf -V-3ckSatfee. crumbs, nrjf wintejhev is
Singing Christmas stories to the children,
" v Of how two tender babes
Were left in woodland glades,
Ey.a cruel man who took 'cm there to lose 'cm ;
1 . But Bobby saw the crime ;
I" , (He was watching all the time !)
( And he blushed a perfect crimson on his bosom.
When the charming leaves of autumn around us
i And everything seems sorrowful and saddening,
Robin may be heard on the corner ot a wall
Singing what is solacing and gladdening.
And sure, from what I've heard,
' , ' He's God's own little bird, !
- , And sings to those in grief just to amuse 'em ;
But once he sat forlorn
On a cruel Crown of Thorn,
' And the blood it stained his pretty little bosom.
h Our cut represents an English Robin.
" TFrom the American Garden.
i , pruning Grapu Vinos.
, ; ' ' THU KNIKKIN SYSTEM.
Probably there is no one thing in connection
with growing Grapes that is so little under
stood, or on which there is n wider diversity
. "'-l'. of opinions and practice, than in pruning the
. j vines.
1 ' '- 't 'These various systems and methods, and the
. ; often ambiguous language employed in describ-
f !j log them, even with illustrations, are apt to con-
, , ( ! I fuse the ordinary rriind so that, after perusal, the
, i' reader has no definite or intelligent idea of how
I, ,' to proceed to bring about a desired result.
As a rule, I think the great majority who trim
' r- Grape vines leave too much.1 wood. I have, come
;t 4 i to this conclusion from seeing a good deal of
' . Rework done by professional .(.) gardeners: : The
. ' )
1 . . U1: ., .
vines are overtaxed in bearing, or attempting
more than they can accomplish. The clusters be
come smaller, the fruit rots, the vine is enfeebled
and exhausted, and " Grapes do not amount to
much." Of course, where shade is the perma
nent object, the trimming will not need to be so
close as where fine fruit is most desirable, and for
the former purpose such strong-growing varieties
as Clinton, Concord, Elvira, etc.. should be em
ployed. Hence the difficulty of laying down any
fixed rules to suit all cases.
If Mr. Brown needs a large crop of fruit for his
own consumption, it is not a niatter of much im
portance to him whether the clusters are large
and handsome, or not, if there is only ,an abund
ance of them; while to Mr. Jpnes, wanting his
crop for sale, large,.perfect clusters are of the ut
most importance, and 200 pounds of such fruit
would be worth more to him than 300- pounds of
Mr. Brown's would, and the method of pruning
may be the sole cause of the difference. , Fall
pruning is oftpn recommended by writers on the
subject, and is one of those operations in the gar
den that can be done to forward spring work, as
there is generally plenty of time that ' can be
spared for this purpose during favorable fall
weather, while, if deferred till February, the usu
al time, cold, stormy weather, or other contingen
cies, may arise to make the worktcdious and dis
agreeable, if not prevent it altogether till late in
spring, when other work is pressing. I
Ji'-l once knew sC city- gcHyemaiinvlitfalways'madc
it a practice to trim his vines on Thanksgiving
day, unless stormy weather prevented.
By this time the wood, is ripened, and the foliage
has accomplished its mission. The advocates of
fall pruning I believe almost invariably recom
mend to leave more buds than in winter pruning,
especially if tlw vines arc td be removed from the
trellis and laid down, for the purpose of guarding
against the loss of any buds that might occur in
handling. In such cases, another pruning or rub
bing off of surplus buds, in spring, will be necessary.
In large vineyards, winter pruning is preferred,
us it can be done at a season of comparative leis
ure. The time required to do it in the fall would
materially interfere with other work; but if the!
wood is to be used for propagation, fall pruuing
The "Kniffin" system, now so generally prac
ticed in the Hudson River Grapo region, is the
easiest, simplest, and cheapest of any I have yet
seen, and has become so popular there that hun
dreds and thousands of acres have been, changed
from the "Fuller" and other methods to this.
Two wires only are used, three and a half and
six feet from the ground respectively. Each vine
has four arms, eighteen to twenty inches loug, or
about five buds on each, two arms on each wire
which are renewed each year by removing- each
arm up, to the shoot nearest the trunk of the vine
cutting those off to five buds, and tying them down ,
in place of the arms removed.
A vine thus pruned resembles somewhat two
T's, one above the other. The buds from these1
! arms arc allowed to grow and care for themselves
generally, and, with a little labor and attention,
.by stopping the laterals at one leaf and renioving,
the fruit from the bud intended for next year's arm,
if itshould prove too weak to carry itandniake suf- -ficient
growth at the same timc,--they can almost ,
invariably be depended on. Aside from :the Sim- j
plicity, saving oflabor, and economy of wire in
the trellis, it has the advantage that the lowest
' . 1 '
xt O rJ"' fl
fruit is far enough from'-tlioi'gr'ouridj to keep it '.
clean, and with moderate stooping one can pass
from one trellis to another without being- com- H
pelled to goo the end of one, as istthecas'e when
four or more wjres are used. Tbcisujnmcr prun- " .
ing consists in nothing more than clipping off the
ends of Some shoots tliat may chsinc'e to grow tco
This, like any other system, is subject to m4diii
cations, onq of which is to have but two arms to
the vine, each tree feet long, and have csifch 'tllter-
nate vine take the upper wire, the. others the low- H
It is frequently recommended, and , sometimes
practiced by those who know no better, to cut
away the vines or remove the 'leaves to let ixv the
sunshine to ripen the fruiti I hope no reader of 'M
Thk American Garden will listen to dr prctice ,
any such nonsense as that.
I The aflect of the sunshine on.the frnlt.is through 'H
the leaves and roots, by warming the ground. jH
The fruit could better dispense with tVe sunshine
than with the leaves, as they bear the samejrela
tion to the fruit that our lungs do to our body.
Reader, plant a few more vines! t ' V
From1 the Chicago Specimen.
A Model Recommendation.'
Recently a seeker after happiness in the line
of printing material, to be cast; 'on the
American System of Interchangeable.
Tjy'e Bodics'-refw .
his neighborhood as (oJiisstanding. On writing: .
to the gentleman we, received ,the fpllmv,yjg-eplyf. " -H
which is directly to the point.' '...' iH
' Gentlemen: Yours of 6th, at hand, ant .in rc
plv would say that I know Mr1. Johri'Simrnons.
His wife owns some real estate in this place. He,
has not been a resident of our village for three or lM
four years. I know nothing against his character jH
nor financial responsibility ; nor can I say what
success he might have in publishing a newspapei . f
He can do one thing that I would- like to know
how to 'do myself, i. c. live without working.
Yours, etc. .ii
PETER HAMMOND. '
WHAT IS FARMING ? . ,7
It is something more than staying : on.a' farm. It jjH
is something morcthan skinning theoih' It is
more than selling hay or potatoes, and' bulky
crops unanimalized. Farming is .a business, a
profession, a practical and scientific operation
whereby the soil is used for profit, and improved
under the operation. The processes of nature
must be understood and worked in harmony with
the chemistry of the earth and air. The processes
of the elements' must be understood', if not jn their
technical-terms and( language, in that sensible un- , -H
derstading, that cotnmon -sense way, that their . '
oyn advantage and capabilities may be turned to
best accounts. The lawyer works by law af5l pre- s ;
cedent, the phyisciari works by symptoms --ahd in-
dications, the merchant by rules and observations,
the mechanic by measures and capacities, The
farmer must work by all by rules, laws, observa- . J
tion and experiment. He must be a practical law-. , . , 'WM
yqr, doctor, merchant and mechanic of the vegeta- .1
ble, the animal and trade-world about him". He 1
must.be a skilled workman in the productive, op-
erative and commercial circles in which his busi- H
ness lies and his sphere of speculation extends. 1
Let evciy man strive to add a good name and an , , 'M
honorabfo character lo his othcrvcapitai: B