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VKITIE ACROSS LINE o AMBROSE LIGHTSWIP NQt7 J-ZllSv liillliMWfflffrn NOTE TSo&UOVS a?aT COMMITTEE BOAT . I
SI intricacies of Timing:. Technique of the Flying
jn i Start and Many Other Points in Sailing ,
- Puzzle the Younger Generation
By V. J. HENDERSON '
H 'JlB Vl- '-VKNTKE.V years have elaped slnoe -i
ffrffiflH "-';- nipr-ir the America's Cup took, p5nr".
Sjrffl ' '" time- n 1,w generation of snort
Rtom .lovers lias grown up. most of whom n.
W'MI . saw n yuclit race tnd have no idea nf wha
fy&tfymjm such a contest is. Of course there has hrn
SftB f considerable inoing of sailing: yachts during
jpS"jaH s those seventeen yavs. but it ha atlrie.ed
ilflj ;', no "encr il public intorcst. and nrohiblv no
one but yachtsmen has read the stories of
m3W y - - 10 cruisPi - tllp o' York Yacht Club or
'$$2 ,.' tl,osc of tl'c lively contests for the Coeler
JRrjB I.ons distance yacht 'raclngr. w'hioli uel m
JjM 1 ' stl1" tne "pnrirr,l public, has fallen into iljy.
-B favor, ami it is only the old time yachtsman
y&&B whoa-? blood begins to course more rapidlv
iiHl throutrh his veins when he hears of the po-
nnlH siblljty of s; contest for the Cape Mav or
blvfl - .Brenton Rpef trophy nhile the mere rumor
"IwH of a fu,uro fUsnt ocross the western ocean
tfljH Kives him a "lpenless nitrht.- But a battle for
nJM he America's Cup. of which even the nam
IkI ' s frccucntlv civen incorrectly, is an inter-
HhBB national affair and creates u widosprf.ad
JVP i - public interest. Thousands of people who
never saw a yacht race will read about tbes".
,vMMa .1 ou- many of them, will find themselves in
!') deeper water than the yachts.
Time Allowance Puzzlci.
L Jvfll " A -ace of Mvo yachts differs from that of
' 'iwU WO ll0rse3 ln one hnportnnt particular.
rUlfll rhc first ono over tlie m,lsh linc f,ocs :,ot
lillB necessarily win. In a broad sense it might
jljljH be said that the one which makes the bear
iimH t'me ovor tho c"rs? docs win. but the com-
fflji JPl , putatlon of the "best time" includes ho in-
4 M cvitable time allowance, and that Jo the ihln
y which puzzles so many 'sport lovers.
!lffw ' TJmc allowance in yacht racing is a sys-
rltal I tem oC iiandlcapping'. and the uSe of the
yj&jm I handicap is made essential because tho con-
testants are not of the same size in every
f,H ',. particular. Size plays a very Important
'&i(H parL 5n tll(i sneed of saiiinfT yachts. A
liSffl schooner 100 feet Ions;, for example, even
' though clumsily built and none too cleverly
IB handled, would be sure to beat one 2"i feet
wgi . Ion;. If. therefore, two yachts of different
wSyJI dimensions are to be pitted against one-m-
EjgjI t other, the question arises how to penalize
wPll tfle k'"501 onc 50 as to mac her practically
Mjty'il . the ccpual of the smaller and thus throw the
ralHl . ' 't result of the contest on the handling,
ifitlijlj , When it comes to determining the handi
It'pwf ' - - ' - cap to be applied to yachts of almost the
'bttmi same size, every factor which enters into
j'fffl thp production or speed must be taken into
lfyjr consideration. The principal ones are length
HaIJJ' '' ( measured on the water line), breadth and
WMm s11 are. Tho rule used by the New Torlc
ujkjM i Yacht Club for computing the measurement
MB of a yacht on which her time allowance
H' cither givpn or received) is to be calculated
. is derived from a long and careful study of
; ihp relations of these factors. A mathe-
til . matical formula has been deduced from
HP " which the time allowance is determined, and
I Vr th,s formu,a aeck3 to express in scientific
terms the values of length, beam and sail
area. It is not necessary for the general
Hl sport lover to learn the rule. All that he
, needs to know is its application. But it is
H. i interesting to noto how the designers strive
j to beat the rule. Their continual effort is
H, , , to build vessels which shall have immense
Hjj ,jl ' , sail spread on a small water line, or great
j i ,, power wJth moderate sail area. In the for-
jjij , nier case they are always obliged to consider
H'' jb v. , Jl,st how Tar they can go lest they tax their
H,' f own product so heavily for sail Bproad that
Hl-'-Sl thc onem? vvItli a bigger and more powerful
Hil'ui huIl wl" actually receive Instead of giving
K-' M. allowance.
Kk A i Flying Start Is Ideal.
I The spectator at a yacht race, if not ac-
m'ii I quainted with the intricacies of timing,
HJ $ fJnd t!iat h Is often puzzled to decide
H$ r? ' "'vhlch is the winner, even when he has
Hn v' learned the application of time allowance.
H i Two yachts cannot be started off as two
Hl ( track athletes can from a mark. Neither
Hl can tnev "e sent away at the drop of a
Hl fl'F lie hor8ja, The reason is that they
Hl . . have to be starred whiio they aro" sailing.
Blj Tr- certain long distance races yachts can
HPi ' be startc1 frotn their anchorages and op-
portunity is thus given for an exhibition of
. smart seamanship in gelling up "mud
hoo'-." b-ak!t ..ur had sail? and getting
iiridr wflv. R.ii im kind of lart i "-arflv
nsd I n-jnUo room ( Dip ooerntjon of
loo mariv "in-"pnj iot rHled to the rom
porot'vf ocd of :hp ya iht?r Thf flyhig
start 1 h iitomnrv vop :d It make .
rhe rond!'ro" n- narlv Ideal a poslhlp.
The nM5nni opp'ato'' will .rp something .
15ka th'e. Thp. '-ommlttee boat will anchor
fon-A"-ii"-o hi tho neigni-orhoori of a fixed
jrip-ij- nri,rj- jn t)lo ..rt,.a n,'f Sandy Hook
I ustta'.Jy ty,c Ambr.sp riiannpl licbt vessel.
Th,lin tictrv"ii this ljl::ed m-rk and the
commit tr? "boat c th starting line, and the
fi:st i-nur nvc' which the yachts must sail
. I.a? rfiu nnclT to it.
Tb d'omiraMon of thp dlreotlon of this
rou'-'sp i-Act g-itv natu'-e. I" oMier words, the
i'O'ino it dnpiiloc t.v iir wind.
If the race 1 to hp fifteen iilio? to wind
ward or lorW9-d id fpinrn, Hi committee
having aee-tairied the rP riireetlnn of th"
wln.l. lavo tho finif.'o pllhnr "into nipwlrH" -o.v
" n the pni'ors sov or 'o tha the hrpx
wil blow strair-ht mw.iv from the starting
line toward th" turning point. -Tf the cour?p
is It hp trinncnlar. thp starting line must hp
at richt Vpg'c: jo the first leg of the tr
ang'e In thi; cae it lircomes npcensar.v to
nralr a nw finiph line which shall run a'
rlsrht orle.c to the final course of the tlre
The shifting of the committer boat to a new
hearing Irom the ilxcd mark accomplishes
These preliminaries havlng bren settled, the
committee hoists some code signal flag3 to '
inform the contestants what the course Is.
In the case of a triangle she sends up thr"e
strings, which are read from forward toward
the stern, each string representing a side
of the triangle. Presently she fifes a gun or
blows a whistle, according to the published
rules of the day. and shows the preparatory
signal. This means that after the Interval
set forth in the rules, say five minutes, the
starting signal will be given. The timers
on the racing yachts keep accurate note of
the passage of the interval.
Manoeuvring for Position.
The contestants have been cruisin.v
around anywhere in the neighborhood with
their principal sails set. They now begin to
manojuvro for position In crossing the line.
If the first course Ik to windward, each skip
per hopes to Cross the line to windward of
the other. If one of these big sloops can get
between her opponent and the wind she mav
block off from the enemy's mainsail so much
of the breeze, that she herself can make a
valuable gain. The spectator will note that
sometimes the contestants cross the starting
lino close together, and often far apart. In
the latter case he may be sure that the
skipper of the second yacht has found that y
keeping well away from the leader was the s
only way of avoiding an unfavorable position.
Thi niceties of getting a good start arc so tl
many that only long experience in watching L
jte GREATEST '
again, and that may subject her to a bad
handicap, lor the yachts ure allowed a cer
tain interval to cross the line and if either
crosses rafter that, she is timed 'as .having
ctossed at the end of the Interval M-'dr
example, the preparatory signal Is given at
10:50. the starling at 10:5.. and the handi-
' ca:i at 10:57. If a yacht goes over before
10:55 and. has to. turn back, she tna not"
' fleeced in getting ovur again before 10:5S.
i:ut she is credited with having spurted at
10:57 axid her time over the course Is
ntkoned from that minute. i
The sailing master therefore has to calcu
late, how Jong !t will take him to reach the
i. from any place he may b. Ilia timer
RESOLUTE ancT VA.HITIE UOCVCEYlNe- or Ttc START WITH BEAT -Zo WIHDWR.D
COMMITTEE'S YACHT H tiKCK&ROUND
acht races will reveal all of them to the ob
ervcr. But one thing the veriest tyro can see and
hat Is the apparent loitering of the yachts
intll tlie last minute and then the sudden
outburst of additional sail and the swift
rush to tho line. It requires Judgment to
manage this thing Just right, for If a yacht
t-t3 over the lino. before the starting signal
sr.c must turn around and go back and cross
calls aoff the quarter minutes till the last
minute begins, and then he calls off '
seconds. Tho thing has not Infrequently
been so well done that, the bowsprit of the
yacht pokes Itself over tho line Just as the
The J Mysterious Mr. Minney Keeps London Guessing
By EDGAR C. MIDDLETON.
LONDON, oiiturduv .
WHO is Mr. Minney?
Tho answer can be supplied by
any onc of the hundreds of asso
ciates, academicians, presidents, Lord High
Caliphs or general, boot and bottle washers
of the British Tioyal Academy. But it will
not be a polite answer. To the unbiased ob
server it might even appear acrimonious: as
If the aforesaid Mr. Minney had done that
august body some personal injury.
The facta rpust apeak for themselves. For
rwclve long strenuous months that most au
gust assembly has tolled, discussed and ar
gued; exhausting long weary hours poring
over dusty, unappetizing canvases. Nervous
art students have been coaxed; reams of
closely detailed correspondence despatched
lo all parts of tho world; and there have
been movlngs, and shlftlngs, and hangings,
and upbraidings; a long, incessant proces
sion of bulky wooden cases delivered at their
moke-grimed portals; not to mention thr
.small army of carpenters, painters and house
decorators employed in the preparation's for
. tho show. All for that grandc tallcau of
the London social season, the Royal Acad
emy. And then, Mr. Minney appeared on tho
No one knows who let him In, no onc will
accept the responsibility. The gray-beard
pantaloons of art opened their historic show
with the traditional blaro of trumpets, and
beatings of publicity cymbals. All the
world and his wife were there on that most
sacred and typically British Innovation.
"Private View Day:" lords and their ladies;
celebrities, notorieties, statesmen and promi
nent artists: a smattering of foreign diplo
mats and a foreign royalty or so.
Then the hoary academicians, metaphori
cally speaking, sat down and. rubbing their
hands in grateful expectation, waited , for
the lavish praise and adulation which was
to Bhower upon tlrem from the pens of ths .
Not a line! Not a word to gratify their
archaic eyes about "their" pictures. Even
tlie dresses and ihe millinery of the society
women had been overlooked. Nothing but
an incessant string of queries concerning
that "confounded Mr. Minney."
'"Mr. Minney." said one critic. "Js a genial
reproof to the non-committal half-men and
half-women of most academy portraits."
But tlie humor of the situation Is that
Mr. Minncy's identity still remains as much
a mystery as it was on the opening day of
the academy. Mr. Walter V. Russell, tho
artist who painted him. says: "He was rec
ommended to mo as a suitable model by an
American artist (name forgotten) to whom
he had sat in this country. I was at once
struck by his DIckensiun appearance. It
was during the first year of the war. 1 think,
that E painted hltn. lie was not at all
prosperous. In fact, his chief concern.at Uib
time was how to find work. Ho had had a
roving' sort of life, according to whnt he
told inc. - He began as an actor, following
many occupations. I have not seen him
mcc. Ho seems to havo disappeared." But
his portrait will not soon bo forgotten.
This "Mr. Minney," for all the 70 years
wc may "allow him. bubbles with vitality,
purrs. with contentment and pleasure in 'be
ing. He wears the ruddy huo and the Sun
oay clothes of rural life; his nature shines
with .candor in his face as generously as
that, white festal waistcoat which adorns
him. consequent, no doubt, on church war
denshlp or some such olllce.
"Mr. Minney," in fact, Is the one and only
" ' ' .-C ' ' - f v '-f .. ' ''.
picture of note of all the SSC oil paintings
of tho 152d Academy.
The best of the big "duly" pictures are the
two by Sir William Orpcn: "Tiio Signing of
Peace in the Hall of Mirrors. Versailles,"
and "A Peace Conference at the Quai
The impression given by both is tlat Sir
AVllliam got a great deal of fun out of the
contrast between the little black-coated fig
ures and. their very ornate surroundings.
Indeed, an alternative tltlo to "A Peace Con
ference" might be "Punch and Judy."
The other Is the better picture of the two.
mainly because the decorations of the Hall
of Mirrors arc less overpowering. Thero is
a quite legitimate touch of grotesque such
as Hogarth would have appreciated in "Dr.
Bell (Gormany) Signing, with Herrmann
Mullcr Leaning Over Him."
On the whole Sir John Lavcry has made
a good job of "Admiral Sir David Beatty
Reading the Terms of the Aj-mistice to tlie
German Delegates" in tho fore cabin of
II. M. S. Queen Elizabeth. There is a great
deal of character in the heads. Admiral
Beatty is clearly "laying down the law" r.nd
thu feeling of tension in the air is really con
voyciL 1 v. ''' .f y. -
.starting signal Is given. But as long as a rr f :H
rontc3lant gets over within the handicap JH
limit her actual time ocr the course is 1 'jH
Time Is taken at turning points, but ha jH
no relation to the result. The newspaper
stories of the races make note of such. times i jH
Jor.Uie purpose of showing how much onw j H
yacht beat the other on snnii; particular ' H
pi" nit of .sailing! 5uppo.se the race to be H
fifteen mile. to- windward and return. W' H
should have this kind of a record for the ll
first leg. Start, American. 11:00:58 fmean- 'IH
ing that she went over the line at 53 seconds , H
after 11 o'clock); English. 11:01:00. Outer
mark. American. 1:00:30; English, l;0i:50.
This would show that the American cham- "1
plon had occupied I hour. 50 minutes. 5 ' ll
seconds, and the English 2 hours, no min- 'f
ules: 41 seconds in making the beat', to . 'fl
t windward, and thai, therefore, in this thrill-' -ingly
close contest the American had gained
just 41 seconds 'jf
The timing at the finish tells' the result
of the race and It is Just this which seem? 'H
to confuse the inexpert observer of nautical jH
contests. But there is really nothipg com
plicated about the matter. The reader of
this article should he able easily to under
stand that two points are lo be considered:
first how long did it take each yacht to sail T
over the course, and. second, how much time
did onc of them have to allow the other?
The time occupied in sailing over the ' -course
is called elapsed time and is computed ,. i
naturally by the interval between the limo J JH
at the start and the time at' the finish. When '
that ia ascertained, the time allowance of th 11
yacli receiving it 13 deducted from her .,
elapsed time and the result is her corrcctad
lime. If the elapsed time of the allowing " .
yacht is the smaller, she wins. If the cor-
rected time of the yacht receiving allowance IH
is the smaller, she wins. andt that is tho 11
whole matter. These details are set forth in "' IH
a table, tint: JH
Cor- , 11
Start. Finish. Elasped. rected. I
II. M. 55. H. M. S. H. r. S. H.Mj s. f
America..., 11 05 27 3 20 15 4 t 4S 4 14 4X I
British 110(15 3 13.0 4 15 21 4 14 42
To illustrate the meaning of such a tabl "
the Britfsh yacht ha3 been accorded an al- I )
lowance of 42 second?. She crossed th r.
starting line 1 minute and 12 seconds ln th C
, lead and finished 35 seconds ahead. But her ; ' "
" elapsed time was SG seconds gi-eater than.
that of the American yacht, which therefore V
actually heat her over the course by that 5
margin. However, the American had to con-
yedc 42 seconds, by which amount the racing S
time of the Briton had to be diminished, so
that sho won by G seconds. m
Buddha Statue Rivals Sphinx
1 p0ri many years it has been known that C
j""1 about fifty miles from Jah-ding. in jj
western China, there Is a very large J
aiw remarkable statue of Buddha, but it
vi-as not until a very few years ago that It
was ever described by an Occidental. h
Dr. Sprague. an authority on things Chi- "
ncse. visited it. At the end of two davs' travel t 1
he reached the Image and found it to be a i i !
colossus In size, although not so large as 5 !
rumor had made it out. The upper half of
the hillside consists of a sandstone cliff, and '
In this a niche fifty fett broad has been A
cut leaving a central core of stone that is I'
carved In the shape of a figure seated in J
European style, not cross-legged, as Buddha S
i. so often represented. The traveller found 5
the height of the image to be not less than "
ono hundred feet.
A series of five tiled roofs, descending like i
a flight of steps, built hi front of the Image.
protects it from the weather, so that only '.,
th face can he seen 'rem without. , I
When the doctor came within sight of the
greal Buddha be paused and rested from his '.i
Journey at a point near one of the gates to ' ' ,
the walled cily that lies in the valley below. .
As his eyes turned to the great, facP. which 1 1 ,
has been gilded until it shines like metal, as 1 1 IH
the Immense size and perfect preservation ( j
of the Idol made their impression, the thought f '1
came to him that "this Is more marvellous
than many of the'. world's boa?ted wonder?." J
Hp thought of the colossi at Thebes. and " J
the Sphinx. Scarred and ruined and defaced '
by the hand of man and tlie effects of time, 2
they aro little better than lumps of battered'
rock But far In the west of China sits this !;
old BuddhQ, unnoticed and almost unknown.
yet greater in size than the Egyptian co- jj
lossi, with his proportions preserved Intact. " jH
with temples above and below him. and'
with tho prlosts In attendance to keep the Jl
Incense burning at his fect. There he sita. r ' iH
grimly gazing out over the tiled roofs of th ) 'll
city that 'lies, before him. I 'll
;yjgji j 1 1, in 1 1 n 1 1 ij L --;r B