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UTAH'S HISTORY FIOM THE EARLIEST
i SETTLEMENT TOCflMING OF PIONEERS
Chronology of Events as Compiled by O. A. Kennedy Reveal
:- Operations of the Spaniards and What Spanish-American
. Civilization Contributed Toward Human Progress; First
i , Record Written With Arrival of Escalante, a Priest Over
:; the Old Spanish Trail Fur Traders Preceded Pioneers in
i Western Country, the Site of Ogden Forming One of
c ' Their Stations.
(By O. A. KENNEDY.)
Aside from the explorations of
'Escalante about all that Spanish
American civilization contributed to
the early history of Utah is found In
the incidents connected with the
Spanish Trail, which extended from
Santa Fe, through Colorado, Utah, -Nevada
and California to Los Angeles.
The year 1S30 is given as the date
when it was first opened, or 64 years
after the effort made by Escalante
and his men. It followed for more
than 300 miles the route that Esca-
Ilante had taken through Colorado,
but instead of leaving the Valley of
the Rio Dolores, it followed that river
across the Utah line to its junction
- with Grand, river.
The trail paralleled the present
! route of the Denver & Rio Grande,
I crossing the Grand river and then the1
: Green river at or verv near the townj
of that name. It then followed the)
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Price river for about 20 miles, thenj
crossed the San Rafael river and
went south, keeping on the east side
of the Wasatch mountains to a pass
east of Little Salt Lake in Iron
From near this point it again picked
the old Escalante trail and followed
it south and westerly along the
"Escalente Desert" through to the
famous Mountain Meadows, thence
down the Rio Virgin, across the north
west corner of Arizona into Nevada.
In Nevada the Spanish trail crossed
the Moapa Valley, the Muddy Moun
tains and Dry Lake to Las Vegas. The
Las Vegas antiquarians have dug up
proof that the Spaniards visited that
point many years prior to 1S30.
Among thesep roofs Is a cache of
Spanish coins with dates all prior to
From Las Vegas the route of the
Spanish Trail extended southwesterly
1 1 AN OGDEN "PIONEER PALACE" ERECTED IN 1851 '
9 into California, following the Mohave
river to the San Bernardino moun
tains and thence to Los Angeles.
! Mail Carried Over Trail.
Various estimates have been made
of the amount of travel over -the
Spanish Trail. From 1S30 to about
1846 it was practically the only
route between New Mexico and South
l ern California. Letters from Spain
came to Vera Cruz, then to Mexico
j City, thence to El Paso, next to Santa
Fe, and were dispatched over the
Spanish Trail to Los Angeles.
Trips were nearly always made by
caravans and some years there was
only one caravan, each way. A day's
journey from one water hole to an-
Followed Large Mexican Caravan.
In the year 1848, Lieutenant Brew
erton, of the U. S. Army, made a trip
from Los Angelas to Santa Fo with
: Kit Carson as h.j guide. He left Los
Angeles in May and he has this to
say of the great annual "Caballada,"
bound for Santa Fe:
"Our general course was by the
great Spanish Trail and we made as
rapid traveling as possible with the
view of overtaking the large Mexican
caravan that was slowly winding Its
way back to the capital of New
Mexico. This caravan consisted of
some two or three hundred Mexican
traders, who go on one; year to the
California coast with a supply of
blankets and other articles of New
Mexican manufacture and, having
disposed of their goods, invest the
proceeds in California horses and
mules, which they drive back across
I the deserts.
"These people often realize large
profits, as animals purchased for a
mere trifle on the coast bring large
prices in Santa Fe.
"This caravan had left Pueblo De
Los Angeles some time beforo us, and
consequently were several days in ad
vance of our party upon the trail
a circumstance which did us great
injury, as their large caballada (con-
! talnlng nearly 1,000 head) ate up or
destroyed the grass and consumed
the water at the few camping grounds
upon the way.
i Appearance Grotesque "in Extreme.
i "We finally overtook and passed
the party after some eight days'
travel in the desert. Their appear
ance was grotesquo in the extreme.
"Imagine upward of 200 Mexicans
dressed in every variety of costume,
from the embroidered jacket of the
wealthy Californian, with its silver
bell-shaped buttons to the scanty
hateelments of the skin-clad Indians,
and you may form some idea of their
"Their caballada contained not only
horses and mules, but here and there
a stray burro destined to pack wood
across the rugged hills of New
"The line of march of this strange
cavalcade occupied an extent of more
than a milo. And I could not help
thinking while observing their arms
and equipments, that a few resolute
men might have captured their prop
erty and driven the traders like a
flock of sheep.
Carried Crude, Useless Weapons.
"Many of these people had no fire
arms, being provided only with the
short bows and arrows usually carried
by, New Mexican herdsmen. Others
wore armed with old English muskets
condemned long ago as unserviceable,
which in all .probability had been
loaded for years and now bid fair to :
do more damage at the stock than at j :
the muzzle. :
"Another description of weapon
seemed to be highly prized by them.
These were old, worn-out dragoon '
sabers, dull and rusty, at best a most 1
useless arm In contending- with an 1
enemy, who fights only from inacces- 1
slble rocks and precipices; but when
carried under the leathers of the 1
saddle ami tied with all the manifold i
straps and lenots with which the I
Mexican secures them, perfectly
worthless, even at close quarters.
"Near this motely crowd we so
journed for one night; and passing
through this camp after dark I was
struck with its picturesque appear
ance. "Their pack saddles had been taken
off and, carefully plied so as not only
to protect them from the damp, but
to form some sort of barricade or fort
for its owner.
"From one side to the other of
these little corrals of goods a Mexi
can 'blanket was stretched, under
which the trader lay smoking his ci
garrlto, while his Mexican servant or
slave for they are little better pre
pared his coffee and atole."
In these extracts we get not only
a fair Idea of the conditions of travel
of those days on the Great Trail, but
an Insight into the mental attitude
of the average army officer toward
the Mexicans an attitude that has
not changed much in 70 years. We
still think we are a very superior
The written history of Utah begins
with the Spanish priest Escalante.
In the year 177G he and another padre
made a trip from Santa Fe into the
land Of the "Ylltas" and attained n
point as far north as Utah Lake.
It had been the Intent of the party
to find a route from the "Laguna"
country southwest to Montery, but
having reached the southwest corner
of Utah near the Virgin river, that
idea was given up and the expedition
returned to Santa Fe by way of the
Zunl Indian villages.
The 'expedition was partly commer
cial and partly religious in its objects.
The two priests, one of whom, Esca
lante, kept a journal of the trip,
were full of zeal for the souls of the
Indi an tribes, but the business men
of Santa. Fe were no doubt more in
terested in trade with the Indians
and in finding 'a feasible route to
Revolution Well Under Way.
The ink on the Declaration of In-
S Statistics in the Ogden Real Estate situation answer deques- I
S tion Today values have reached that high level set m Boom I
s Bays ' and there going still higher, having a substantial basis. 1 ; ;
Pure 'water, healthful climatic conditions, growing industry, 1
I increasing population through genral emigration to the West, 1 .
1 confidence in the future and aggressiveness on part of the citi- I
zens are the causes- Ask I
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All Kinds of City Property and Farm Lands For Sale. Forming )
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dependence was hardly dry when this
expedition left Santa Fe. On the far
eastern coast of America the revolu
tion was well under way, which was
to make the United States an English
speaking country. The feeble uptrust
from Spanish speaking Mexico left
little or no impress on the history of
It may be of interest to read the
first entry in the diary of Escalante,
which is given in full In the "History
of tho Catholic Church In Utah,"-published
by Dean Harris of Salt Lake
City. Here it Is:
"On the 29th' day of July, in the
year 1776, under the protection of Our
Lady the Virgin Mary, conceived
without original sin, and under that
of the most holy Patriarch Joseph,
her honored spouse, Fray Francisco
Atanasio Dominguez, the present
visiting delegate of this district of the
conversion of St. Paul of New Mexico,
nnrl TTVnv TTrnnriRnn Rtlvestrf? Vrlf7
de Escalante, teacher of Christian
doctrine in the mission of Our Lady
of Guadalupe of Zune; accompanied
by Don Juan Pedro Cisneros, the
mayor of the town of Zuni; Don Ber
nardo Miera y Pacheco, a retired cap
tain and citizen of the town of Santa
Fe; Don Jaaquin Lain, citizen of the
same town; Lorenzo Olivares of the
town of Paso; Lucrecio Muniz, An
dres Munlz, Juan de Aquilar and
Simon Lacero, having invoked the
protection of our most holy saints and
having received tho Holy Encharist,
we departed from the town of Santa
Fe, capital of New Mexico, and after
nine leagues of travel we arrived at
the town of Santa. Clara where we
parsed the night. Today, nine
Old Names Survive.
By the 10th of August the expedi
tion had reached the south, line of
tho present State of Colorado, and
we note In tho diary such names as
the La Plata range, the Dolores river,
and the river Las Animas, names that
have survived to this day.
Escalante and his party entered
Utah near the present town of Jensen
and camped on the east side of the
Green river on September 13th, 1776.
Their route led them to the Uintah
river and from there to the mouth
of Strawberry creek.
Thence the route followed to the
site of the present town of Indianola,
where the party camped September
Took the Short Cut'.
It is hard to trace the route from
this point, but their guldo, an Indian
from the Utah. Lake country, seems
to have cut across lots in a reckless
manner in his desire to reach his old
home. It Is generally agreed, how
ever, that the party traveled down
Snanish Fnrk nnrt rpnrrhprl TTtnli
Lake, September 23rd.
Told of Great Salt Lake.
' Escalante gives a lengthy account
of Utah Lake and valley and of the
"Fisheater" Indians who lived' there.
He records also tnat they told him of
a large lake of salt water lying to
the north, and of a tribe of Indians
speaking the Comanche tongue, who
were known as "Sorcerers," andwho
lived near the Salt Lake.
Says Escalante: "They live on
herbs and drink from the many foun
tains that are near the lake, and
their houses are of dry grass and
earth." Such Is the meager record of
the very first families of Ogden.
From Utah La'ke the party started
south in the latter part of September,
and crossed the Sevier river. Here
they met up with, the "Bearded
(Continued on Page 19)
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