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The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, April 28, 1895, Image 17

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The Fourth Dimension.
BY HENRY THURTELL, PROF. MATHEMATICS, NEVADA STATE UNIVERSITY-
Much has been said during the last dec- i
ade concerning the assumption by mathe
matician's of a fourth direction at right
i.iaiuui -„ „ „ I—-— „ Hirprtinns of ■
angles to the three known directlons of :
space. . !
It will be the object of this article to pre- j
Bent to the readers of the Call some of the |
interestine consequences that follow the ;
interesting con pl is the arguments ba«ed !
assumption, as well as thear uments Da.ea
jipon analogy that lead to these conse
quenees. Let it be distinctly understood
that this is a fiction and an assumption,
fend that no scholar desires to argue the
likelihood of the real existence of such a
. „ .
•direction.
; . First, consider a point. It has neither
Jx> ri'gth, breadth nor thickness. It isa space
of no dimension. Call it Pointland. Sup
pose an individual lived in this point,
; Lch a creature could have no
itself and could have no notion of direction
.or dimension. It could have no thought
■ of anything outside of its little universe,
of which it would be the sole monarch.
..Havins: performed this rather painful
eftort of the imagination, change the scene
and consider space of one dimension
bis would De a line, which might be called
■ .Line and. Suppose an individual or a
number of individuals to exist in
this line. Each of these creatures
could have length but no other
.dimension. Imagine one of these creatures
:• provided with an eve at each end. It
• '■would be able to see its fellow, but all it
could see would be a point, and the only
wav one individual could differ from an
other would be in length. It might have a
•motion to and fro in the line, but could
have no motion to one side or the other of
the same. If an obstacle impeded its way
it would have no alternative but to stop or
run- back. The creature could have no no
tion of space on one side or the other of its
line of motion. It could form no concep
tion of any direction except the two back
ward and" forward. It would be greatly
superior to the individual of Pointland
and still a very inferior creature. It
might be conscious of its length, but
would be unable to see itself. Its two sur-
■ uld be its two ends.
Suppose now an individual to exist in
what we will call Flat-land. Space of this
kind contains two directions ami would al
low an individual of this order consider
able freedom of motion. Suppose it to be
a square or a triangle and to have an eve at
t-ach vertex. The" borders of the figure
would be its external surfaces, those that
would be observable by its fellow-creatures.
The interior of the square would be hidden
from its own eyes and tho=e of its fellow
creatures as the length of the line would lie
hidden from the inhabitants of Lineland.
Such an individual could observe the crea-
ture of Lineland crawling baqk and forth
in its own narrow universe and in compas
sion might speak to the Lineman of a di-
D to this side and that. Its voice
would come from an entirely new direction
to the Lineman and he would not be able
fr> understand anything about the new
direction spoken of. Should the square
push himself across the line of motion of
the Lineman, that creature would see a
point, nothing more, and that point would
appear to come from nowhere and
vanish into nowhere. It would appear
like a creature of Lineland, but would
f eem to be possessed of a power that the
Linemen had not — that of vanishing and
reappearing at its own pleasure. The man
from Flatland would "have the power of
looking over his fellow-creatures and com
paring their sizes and shapes with his
own, although to do this he would have to
travel round them and observe them from
all sides. He would only with a single eye j
be able to see one linear a time. He would j
have no notion of a direction up or down, ■
»ud could form no conception of a creature '.
whose shape extended into space of three ,
d.mensioris. Infinitely superior in order)
to the Lineman, in that he is able to move i
in two directions instead of one, he is yet a
creature of very inferior order compared to
the one from what we will call Spaceland. j
Let the individual from Spaceland be j
represented by a cube, an object having
length, breadth and thicknes-. Its surfaces
are planes or spaces of two dimensions.
Suppose it is to be provided with eyes at
all of its vertices it will be able to look
down with ease upon the creatures of Flat
land, to talk to them from the realm of
ppace and tell them of a direction up and
d<nvn a- the Flatlander did to the Line
lander. Like the Lineman, they will not |
understand the words of the man from
Fpaceland. and should the cube appear
among them they will only see a square, a
ii_-;ire similar to "their own, and when the
cube rises it to them will appear to vanish
riously into a realm of which they
know nothine. Suppose the cube took one
of the Flatlanders up with him and showed
him the homes of the Flatlanders below
him and explained to him the true state of
affairs and then took him hack to his home
and left him. The Flatlander, conscious
then dimly of ail that lay above and about
iim. might attempt to teach his fellows of
the wonderful land he had visited, the
realm of space. His companions would
probably laugh him to scorn and perhaps
shut him up in a madhouse for what they
would consider his lunacy.
Vow, do the analogies necessarily stop
; to? May there not be still a fourth
•.on which three dimensional crea- j
cannot conceive of any better than '
I.inelander can conceive of Flatland or !
.tlander of space? If so, it undoubt
i !y lies all around and about this space, j
and may be peopled by creatures as much ;
humanity as it is above the fictitious ;
creatures of Fiatland. As a man can look
down upon a flat surface and see the
ioside of the squares and triangles, pos
eibly the fourth dimensional being can )
look in and through him. perhaps, discern ;
His thoughts and desires. As a cube ap- 1
pearing among the Flatlanders could only I
appear as a square, one like themselves, so !
a fourth dimensional creature could only
appear among men as a three-dimensional
creature, like themselves, but able to go
and come, appear and disappear, at will, j
Let us try to form an idea of a fourth di- !
mensional solid. We begin with a point, a ;
epaceof no dimension. If we assume the j
point to move it will generate a line, a ;
spare of one dimension, consisting of two
ends, external surfaces that are points and
one line. ,
' Now assume the line, a space of one j
dimension, to move in a new direction. It j
will generate a square, a space of two di- ,
mensions. Each point generates a line;
and there will be also the first position of |
the line and the second in the new figure, ■
making four lines the bounding surfaces of
the two dimensional space. Each point
has its first position and its second, making
four points to the square. The line will
generate a space and our square then con- |
Bists of four bounding lines which consti- j
tntp the outside four terminal points, the
angles and one space. The number of
points has been doubled over what it was
in the line. We have a line for every
point and two lines for every line of the
lirst figure. Also we have a <r>ace for each
line.
>ow, let the square move in a new direc
tion, up, it will generate the cube.. Each
point will generate a line and each line
will generate two. making in all twelve
lines in the cube. Bach point will gen
erate two making in all eight point*, each
surface of which «re have but one will
pern-rate a solid and two surfaces and each
Ime will generate a surface, making in all
six surfaces to the cube. The cube then
has one solid, six surfaces, twelve lines
and^eight points. Now suppose the cube
to move in an entirely new direction at
right angles to all three of the direc
tions of space. The new object gen
a ted we will call the foursquare,
Since there are eight points to the cube
and each point has its first and its second
position the four square has sixteen points,
g ach point genets a line making p eiKht)
and each of the twelve lines of the cube
j ias its fi rst and second position, giving
twenty -four, which with the eight gener
ated by the points makes thirty-two lines
in all. Each of the twelve lines generates
of the surfaces has
hs firg( . and geCond positions> making
j twe i ve more , or twenty-four surfaces in all.
j Each surface generates a solid and the
solid itself has its first and second posi
tions, making- eight solids • in^aU.^The
four square consists of tnese eignt sonus
cubes, twenty-four surfaces squares, thirty-
UVQ lineg and sixteen points. Were such
an o bject introduced into our Spaceland it
is evident that a single eye would see only
| a cube. A space of one dimension a line,
f^^^^^X^T^^ol^X
bounded by hnes> ° A sp ace of three dimen
j as nbe is bonr:lk , (l by surfaces, and
an object of four dimensions is bounded by
' olids J with a sinele eve in Pointland
onecou]dsce no thing. There is nothing
to Jn Lineland a s i ng le eve can see
but oints in Flatland only" lines and
in » sin S p ace ]and on surfaces, lines
nd oint and in land of four dimensions
the eve can perceive. solids, surfaces, lines
i and p oints / A s each section of a line is a
" ' int^ each section of a lane is a line
*
PROFESSOR HENRY THUfiTELL.
[Drawn from a photograph.]
each section of a solid is a plane, so each
section of a fourth dimensional object must
be a solid. Each section of a cube is a
square, so each section of the four square
must be a cube. Each section of a sphere
is a circular plate or slice, so each section
of the corresponding object in fourth
dimensional space must be a spnere.
Suppose something falls across the Line
man's line of motion, lie is completely
stopped in that direction. If something
also crosses his path on the other side he
would be completely stopped, for he would
have no motion known by which be might
go round the object, as the Flatlander
would. So too, suppose the Flatlander sur
rounded by a ring or square, escape would
be prevented entirely, for he could have
no notion of surmounting the obstacle
as the Spacelander would at once pro
ceed to do. 80 if a three-dimensional
creature should be placed inside a shell or
closed room it would have no notion of
how to escape without penetrating the
walls of the shell or room ; while a four
dimensional creature would immediately
start out upon a new direction and without
the necessity of breaking the walls would
come out and settle down into space on
the outside with as much ease as a man
can climb a fence or a bird lly over a hill.
Now thi.s looks unreasonable", does it not?
But are all your conceptions reasonable or
real? Ever since you began the study of
algebra you have been considering im
aginary quantities, unreal quantities.
Such are the indicated even roots of all
negative quantities. The square root of
— 1 is an example. There is no rational
number that you can picture even in your
thought which multiplied by itself will
produce — 1.
Again, ask one of the children in the
iirst, second or third grade to subtract
7 from 3, he will undoubtedly answer
that the larger of two numbers cannot be
taken from the Jess. The child is right
from his point of view. The algebraic sub
traction of 7 from 3 leaves 4; but the child
has not been taught the theory of nega
tive quantities, and in his mind there ex
ists no number which, added to 7, pro
duces ?,. We say that — 7x— 3=+2l, but we
cnnnot form a realistic conception of such
an operation. It is impossible to think of
— 7 quantities taken — 3 times and giving
21, a conceivable number. Yet we find that
this algebraical law invented by mathe
maticians, that the products of quantities
with like signs are plus quantities, is a law
that produces correct results. The realistic
conception of the operation is impossible
for us. Yet we accept the law and use it
with never a doubt as to its correctness.
This is necessary to the development of
the highly useful science of algebra. So,
also, the admission of a fourth incon
ceivable but possible direction is ab
solutely necessary for a profound
knowledge or modern analytic geometry.
Take the equation of a circle, x-+ij'=u^.
This is the equation of the bounding curve
of the circle. Using three co-ordinates and
three directions, represented by x y and z.
A\'e can readily obtain the equation
-'•j -.'/'_• -"j--a-, the equation of the sphere,
not true of points inside the sphere,
but of points upon its surface, the
bounding surface of a solid. Now, shall
analytic geometry stop bere? Are we
allowed to use but three co-ordinates and
three directions? If so, who shall stop us?
Every student knows that by the conside
ration of higher algebra many of the prob
lems, principles and truths of the elemen
tary part of the subject are made plainer.
Also by the consideration of the geometry
of space, that concerning the plane is
made more clear. Let us then take
the equation ar2+?/2+s 2 +H2^ 02 , v repre
senting a new direction at right angles
to the other three. We cannot picture
such a direction, but we can assume it.
Our equation then represents the bound
ing solids of a fourth dimensional object.
Such an equation is just as capable
of mathematical treatment. Why should
it not represent something, have some geo
metric meaning? And if by the consider
ation of fourth dimensional objects we can
make the geometry of space more clear, it
is then the mathematician's duty to use
the fourth dimensional assumption.
Given the equations of two lines, we can
by considering them simultaneous equa
tions solve them and determine their
points of intersection. Given the equa
tions of two surfaces, we can eliminate one
variable and obtain the equation of their
curve of intersection. Given the equations
of the bounding solids of two fourth di
mensional objects, we can eliminate one
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, APRIL 28, 1895.
variable and obtain the equation of the
bounding surface of the solid in which
they intersect. Lines intersect in points.
Surfaces intersect in lines. Solids inter
sect in surfaces, and fourth dimensional
objects intersect in solids.
Again, let x represent a line, x 2 will
represent a surface, an area of a square, of
which one side is a-.
.r3 will represent the solid contents of a
cube, one edge of which is z. Now, what
does x* represent? Either it has no
geometric meaning, or else it represents
some function of the fourth dimensional
object which we will call four square.
Whatever that function is it is to solid con
tents as solid contents is to area or as area
is to length.
A creature of Lineland cannot have les9
than two points or boundine* surfaces and
must have at least one line.
A Flatlander cannot have less than three
lines, or bounding surfaces, and not less
than three points. A Spacelander cannot
have less than four points, six lines and
four surfaces. And a fourth dimensional
creature cannot have less than live points,
ten lines and ten surfaces.
We will now consider some of the prob
able relations deducible from analogy be
tween a creature of any dimension and the
dimension below him". He can enter or
leave the world below him ; that is, appear
and disappear at will, and that without
changing his form. However near he may
be he remains invisible to the world below
him until actually in it.
He can be in closest proximity to the
world below and the beings in that world
and yet outside that world altogether and
therefore invisible.
From his dimension he can see the in
side of every living being and thing in the
world below him.
When he enters the world below he can
never be completely seen, and that part of
him that is seen is always of the form o
the beings of the world below.
Efis voice while still in his own dimen
sion would he heard by the being of the
world below as coining from an entirely
new direction.
His appearance and disappearance in the
world below are not caused by any change
of form or substance, but by his entering
and leaving that world.
A world and beings of any dimension
include all the shapes and characters of the
world below with the further addition of
that shape or dimension peculiar to the
dimension to which the individual belongs.
Now let us consider the relations of a
being in any one dimension with the di
mension above him and the beings of that
world.
I. All conception of a dimension above
him is impossible, though capable of a
mathematical development.
11. However vast and populous the
dimension to him, it is absolutely non
existent.
111. If he could hear such beings the
sound would appear to come from an en
tirely new direction, possibly from his
inner consciousness, and not from the
world around him.
IV. If such bungs enter hi 9 world he
j can see and feel only that part of them
that enters.
V. And to him such part always appears
' as the likeness of a being of his own world,
j the inhabitants of one world being always
j a partial likeness or a likeness of a part of
I the^ beings in the world above them.
VI. A beinj? of his own power can never
leave his own dimension or world.
VII. While in his own world he can
never see the true appearance or shape of
any bein^ in it, but only its bounding sur
-1 faces, "i et every being' of any dimension
may be able to form a conception of all the
objects in his own world.
VIII. If raised into the world above he
at once sees the true size and shape of
i ever^- being in the world below.
IX. The beings of the dimension into
j which he is raised at first present the same
: form and appearance aa those in his own
i world.
X. By careful inspection and compari
son the true difference becomes known.
XI. Even if the dimension above be
I visited and understood, it is impossible to
| draw it in the figures or to describe it in
: the language of his own dimension.
XII. All such attempts are necessarily
; unintelligent and sound foolish and irra
; tionul.
XIII. All attempts to understand or
; grasp the dimension above without having
i entered it are futile.
XIV. An eye in one's inner conscious
ness would according to analogy look in
the direction of the fourth dimension.
XV. Each dimension adds one new
direction of size, space, capacity and form
to the one below.
XVI. The visibility of a being does not
depend upon its physical properties, but
upon its position within or without the
world below.
It is not altogether impossible to repre
sent an object of four dimensions, even in
our limited Spaceland. We can represent
a cube upon a Hat surface by means of a
perspective drawing, so we should be able
| to represent a fourth dimensional solid in
, side three dimensional space. Draw two
squares with their sides parallel and sep
i arated from 'each other a short distance;
1 connect the points and you have a rather
! rude representation of a cube. Now, take
i two cubes with their edges parallel and
separate them by a short distance ; connect
their corresponding points and you have a
i rough representation of a fourth dimen
sional object, the four squares containing
all the properties of the four-square here
tofore described. A plane cannot be rep
! resented by a point, a solid cannot be rep
resented by a line and a fourth dimen
sional object cannot be represented on a
| flat surface or plane. All attempts, there
fore, to draw a picture on paper of such an
object will be as futile as an attempt to
draw a picture of your neighbor's voice.
Few ci those who have had the interest
to read through the preceding article will
have failed to note the falsity of some of
the analogies drawn. There are no Line
landers or Flatlanders. All animated ob
jects are inhabitants of space. The argu
ment was merely introduced to add in
terest to the discussion and to show the
meager foundation upon which some of
the exponents of spiritualism base their
arguments.
Their defense of their faith would be
somewhat after this form : There is an al
most universal belief in_ a soul and in a
hereafter somewhere. Now, where is this
hereafter to be spent and what is the soul ?
These are questions that are difficult to
answer; but is it not reasonable to believe
that heaven is all around and about this
space and that the soul at death becomes a
four-dimensional creature, able to go and
come, appear and disappear, at will. For
more than twenty centuries evidence has
been accumulating that beings of a
higher order than humankind do oc
casionally appear among men. The great
bulk of "such evidence is not worthy of
credence. Yet much has been written,
both in the words of divine writ and in
profane literature, of supernatural arrivals
and appearances. Have these witnesses
all been mistaken? Does no traveler e'er
return from that bourne? All the accredited
appearances of beings, apparently from an
other world, have been in the likeness of
beings of this world. All that has seemed
supernatural about them has been their
method of arrival and departure. They
have been apparently untouchable. They
were acquainted with means of escape un
known to men. What has become of the
souls of the untold millions that peopled
this earth in the centuries that are past?
Did they migrate across infinite space to
worlds unknown, or are they here around
and among us? If near us why do not our
senses perceive them? Why, indeed, un
less they are of a higher order than human
ity and in the space beyond them.
"The question may arise, Is spiritualism
then reasonable? Can individuals from a
higher world step in among men and out
again at their own volition?
Before considering this question it may
be well to say that ttie assumption of such
a space and a new direction by mathema
ticians does not argue the real existence of
such a space; or even "ranting its real
existence, it does not follow that it is peo
pled by beings formerly of this world or
that it is peopled at all.
The spiritualist makes capital out of the
tender memories of mankind for their
dead loved ones. To the man whose home
has been made desolate the medium
appears as a ministering angel and tells
him that for a stated sum he can obtain a
message from his dead wife, father or
brother; tells him that the dumb lips may
be induced to speak words of love and
comfort. The spiritualists have seized
upon the fourth dimensional assumption as
a hypothesis upon which to base their
articles of faith. The fourth dimension
theory has its use in mathematics and the
theorems of geometry based upon it are
undoubtedly true. This, however, does
not prove that such a space exists any
more than we can show that the square
root of a minus quantity is an actual
quantity, but it does show that we can
make the assumption in mathematics
without fear that by its use an error will be
produced in the result.
MISSION RESIDENTS TALK
They Want a Park That Will
Be a Public Comfort and
Beauty.
Additional Cars Placed on the Va
lencia-Street Line to Accom-
modate Travel.
Mission residents want a park. They
believe their section has been built up and
beautified by private efforts to such an ex
tent that there should be some public ac
knowledgment in the way of public com
fort at the hands of the City. The prop
erty-owners have planted shadetrees
around their homes and otherwise im
proved their section of the City, but the
po-called park set aside by the City lies in
an uncouth condition, with no one to fur
ther its beautification except a few prop
erty-owners, who, from time, to time re
quest the City to pay more attention to the
public resort.
According to the Mission Journal the
tamale man made his appearance and is
doing a rushing business in the outlying
sections.
Last Friday evening, at the free public
reading-room recently opened by theTheo
sophical Society, aj paper was road by Miss
Clara Brokman on "Thcosophy in Daily
Life."
Next Friday evening, at the same place,
a lecture will be given by Mrs. M. M.
Thirds on "Our Many Lives on Earth."
To-day the delegates who attended the
Epworth League Convention at Loa Gatos
will report.
Sunday-school classes taught by E. J.
Brigdon and Miss Speakman will give an
entertainment in Twin Peaks Hall, Friday
evening, May 3. The orchestra of the
Sunday-school will assist in the entertain
ment.
The pastor of the church and C. W.
Coyle, editor of the Epworth News, are
arranging for an excursion party to go to
Chattanooga and other Eastern points over
the Union Pacific and Chicago, Milwaukee
and St. Paul routes, Leaving San Francisco
June 19.
Excellent progress is being made on the
new Second United Presbyterian Church
building. When completed the main Sun
day-school will move into the basement
leaving the little structure now used for
the primary department.
H. L. Dietz Jr. and A. J. Kuykendall,
two enthusiastic cyclers of the Mission,
have just returned from a week's outing
near San Jose. They covered the distance
between San Jose and Oakland on their
way home in two hours and a half.
Owing to the increase of travel in the
Mission Manager Vining has ordered eight
more cars to "be put on Valencia street.
This will cut down time between trips to a
minute and a half. It is also the man
ager's intention to increase the number of
cars on the Mission-street line as soon as
possible.
Twenty-fourth street, from Castro street
to Hoffman avenue, is being widened six
feet. Three feet of this spa^e is being cut
from the sidewalks. As the street was a
team could not pass between the tracks of
the electric line and the sidewalKs. The
work is being pushed forward and will
soon be finished.
Another cement sidewalk is being added
to the Mission list. This one is being laid
on the southeast corner of Nineteenth and
Valencia streets.
BOATING AT THE PAKE.
A New Feature Among the Amusements
at Golden Gate Park Last
Sunday.
An amusing little episode occurred at
the Casino Canal at Golden Gate Park last
Sunday. It appears that a Chinaman
came up and inquired the charge for one
boat. The boatman replied 25 cents, but
to his great surprise four or five grown
Chinamen and a half dozen little ones
were produced. The whole crowd were,
however, stowed away in the boat and
safely sped around the canal. They
seemed to enjoy the ride just as much as
the American. To be prepared for further
invasion from China a large ark has been
built the past week and several small boats
have been added. Not only will the delay
that has occurred several Sundays be pre
vented, but the usual May-day crash will
be accommodated. The reconstruction of
♦he canal has served to double the speed
and materially add to the pleasure of the
ride.
Miss Daly's Recital.
Miss Anna Daly, a talented reader, will give
a matinee recital at Laurel Hall on May 17 at
3 P. M. She will be assisted by Miss Ella V.
McCloskey as contralto soloist and a male
quartet, consisting of Messrs. Cottin, Rice,
Parent and Ward, and other local talent.
The finest Collection
of Orchins in California
There is a conservatory in Alameda
where a man has for hi 3 private edifica
tion a finer collection of orchids than can
be boasted of by any other single owner
on this coast.
The nian is .T. C. Siegfried, and he spends
money like waier and time as though life
was eternity — and all over orchids. For
tunately he is wealthy enough {o gratify
his fad, and as business takes him fre
quently to far Eastern shores he looks up
new and brilliant varieties of the parasites
that grow, crimson-throated and purple
dyed, on great trees under moist East In
dian suns.
The Siegfrieds have kept no account of
the thousands of dollars that they have
poured into their orchid-house. Some
rare specimens, brought from the very
heart of deepest jungles, cost several hun-
Fink Dendrobrumg.
dred dollars apiece; but so long as the
orchid was new and not numbered among
the Siegfried pets the sahib from America
paid the price ungrudgingly.
And so the Siegfried conservatory has
come to be acknowledged as the repository
of the h'nest orchids on the coast, with a
greater variety than Golien Gate Park can
Boast.
There are Cypripediums and Stnartianas
without number in the conservatories.
There are strange, wild blooms, spotted
like the skins of the tigers in their own
country. There are blossoms with dark
red stains, like spots of blood, and the
Holy Ghost orchid, with a milk-white dove
in its heart. 1 n general, the ugliness of an
orchid is in direct proportion to its rarity.
But, like most generalities, this rule has
important exceptions, and one of them is
in glorious pink and white bloom in the
Siegfried glasshouses these April days.
There are just 1100 blossoms of the rare
Phalanopsis in one fragrant corner of the
hothouse this week. 'That is the family
name, clumsy Phalanopsis, though the
Christian name, Schillenana, is not quite
such a mouthful. But the ugly orchid
name gives no suggestion of the ex
quisitely fragile and dainty orchid blos
soms, quivering at the end of long, pale
green stems. So delicately poised are
they that the heavy, scented air in the
close conservatory keeps them all a
tremble, so that the camera has to blink at
them suddenly and swiftly, or else carry
away no impression bat a velvety, white
The thousand blossoms of Phalanopsis
Schilleriana are worth, at wholesale, to
put a commercial estimate on them, about
15 cents apiece, if there were a market
for them here, and if any amount of money
could prevail on the Siegfrieds to cut
They are the brilliant harvest of plants
that came from Manila. Their hideous
Liitin cognomen is the family name they
were born to, but the Schiileriana was
foisted upon them by the German traveler
who first discovered them.
The Phalanopsis flowers are in two col
ors. One is an exquisite shade of pinkish
lilac and the other a delicate ivory white.
They are as laree as carnations and bloom
with seven flowers on one stem. They
show the familiar bird form and have a
faint and delicate perfume, like that in the
heart of a hyacinth.
These particular plants from Manila
have been drinking water and hot air in
the Siegfried conservatories for six years.
They are such thirsty plants that water has
to stand inches deep on the floors and
beds in order to satisfy them. The air has
to be hot and heavy like the atmosphere
of their own home in Manila, else they
are not satisfied. You can positively see
the moisture rise in clouds from the wet
floors and cling in beads to the wide green
leaves of the orchids. There is a fog in the
air that dims your eyes and settles like a
mantle in your lungs, until the Anglo-
Saxon, no matter how great a lover of
beauty and the quaint and queer in flow
ers, longs for the door and breathing room.
If this is Manila atmosphere, decidedly it
must be an unpleasant place to live.
These Manila orchids have a house all
their own. They require more moisture
and more heat than any of their cousins,
and for six years the temperature has not
been allowed to vary six degrees. By day
there is the sun to do it, for he loves to
linger on the roof of the glass house, and
when there is a pillar of cloud by day
there are the steam-pipes that warm the
orchids at night to see that the tempera
ture is kept even. And the Gernian gar
dener, who knows all the Latin orchid
names by heart, sees that the tires never
go out.
These particular orchids, also, are very
susceptible to onslaughts of insects. The
German gardener has to look very care
fully on the leaves to see that no ugly
thing, bred in this atmosphere, is allowed
to suck the life fluid from these green
veined leaves.
This is the sort of care these plants have
had for six years. In preceding springs
there have been a few scattering blossoms,
but this year the Manila orchids decided
that Alameda was not a half-bad place to
live, and as they had come to stay, they
might as well make the best of it and
bloom a little. And so it happens that
there are 1100 exquisitely perfect Plmlan
opsis flowers in one corner of the Siegfried
conservatory, mixed with pink dendro
brums hanging from the ceiling in orchid
baskets, and that all the countryside, the
flower laymen, are coming to see and ad
mire, as well as the men whose trained
eyes see beauties in what to other people
are merely ugly green flowers with brown
spots.
There is a worship of orchids, similar to
the Japanese feast of the fruit blossoms,
that is the fad in Alameda just now.
PIGEONS IN THE CLOCK.
They Interfere With the Town Time-
piece of New London.
A quaint moon-faced, steeple clock, high
above the street, in the tower of the an
cient First Church of New London, Conn.,
had kept time for the old whale town for
half a century and had been about as faith
ful and true as the sun, says the New York
Herald. The clock was of old-fashioned,
liberal architecture, heavily timbered with
wood enough In it for a whaleboat, and the
movements of its ponderous wheels and its
cordaeg were measured, dignified and labor
ious. When it struck at midnight its tones
awoke half the mariners in the city and on
a still day the chucking of its pendulum
was audible to wayfarers in the tranquil
streets. But the old clock began to behave
very queerly recently. It skipped stitches
in time and out of time mysteriously, whis
tled, clattered and grunted, and one after
noon, in the midst of a fog, it suddenly
stopped with a long b-r- ! s-h ! It had never
done such a thing before in all its long
career; hence everybody wondered what
was up with it. Afterward it was learned
that time was up with it. It is the rule in
New London when in doubt to send a man
aloft. That is to say, if there is such a
thing as a loft belonging to the municipal
ity. In this instance an agile sailor for $1
quickly shinned up the tapering steeple
and disappeared into the wooden recesses
of the timepiece, while a watchful crowd in
the street below held its breath with con
cern as to his safety.
The bold sailor," after half a dozen mo
ments of anxiety on the part of the crowd,
reappeared on the outer wall of the steeple
and slipped down to the street as uncon
cernedly as a tree toad. He reported the
sum total of his experiences to his em
ployers.
"It's all owin' to the durned pigeons,"
he explained. As near as he could calcu
late about two dozen city pigeon" had been
roosting on the clock beams and bars for
several years. "Seems as if the old clock
had got pretty blamed tired of the hull
gang, he added, "specially since some o'
the cheekiest pigeons have taken to mating
on the internal small wheels and cogs,
sorter ridin' round on 'em in a new kind of
a merry-go-round. Finally," continued the
sailor, "it appears that a big pigeon got
himself mixed up with the gearing of the
hour hand, an' was sliced into pigeon pie."
That was on the day the old clock choked
and gasped and stopped. "There ain't no
use tryin' to fix her up," continued the
nautical examiner, "fur she's clock-a
block, an' there ain't no more go in her."
Nevertheless, the New London Town
Government having taken the matter into
consideration, at a special meeting, rue
fully, but with affectionate unanimity, dis-
Imtched a more accomplished expert, a
andlubber, it is true, up the steeple, and
after an hour or two, when everybody be
lieved he was lost, he also came back with
a verdict verifying the sailor's. On the
strength of the expert's decision, but with
a pathetic reluctance, the Town Govern
ment has rendered judgment that the town
must have a new clock.
Dueling in France May Cease.
Should the bill drafted and submitted to
the Chamber of Deputies by the Abbe Le
j mire become law, as seems probable, there
I is little doubt that dueling in France will
soon become a thing of the past. By its
terms dueling becomes a misdemeanor.
Whosoever takes part as a principal in a
duel is liable to from one month's to one
I year's imprisonment and a fine of from
100f. to lOOOf. Should a duelist succeed in
wounding his adversary he will be liable
to from three months' to three years'
imprisonment and a fine of from 200f. to
2000 francs, and should he kill him, the
punishment is to be from one to rive
years' imprisonment, and a fine of from
1000 francs to 10,000 francs, says the Lon
don News. Nor is this all, for the mere
sending of a challenge is to be a Dunisha
ble offense, and seconds and spectators,
and even the papers which publish the
particulars respecting duels or challenges,
will bring themselves within the clutches
lof the law. It is significant of the state of
j French opinion on the subject that even
so determined an opponent of dueling as
the worthy Abbe does not propose to make
the killing of a man in a duel willful
murder, as in England.
A Sensible Woman.
If reports are true ex-Queen Liliuokalani
has accepted the situation philosophically,
and is really enjoying herself in her en
forced retirement. She is posing neither
as a martyr nor as a political prisoner with
the hopes of release and advancement.
The fact is generally getting abroad that
Mrs. Dominis is a sensible woman.—Balti
more Herald.
NEW TO-DAY. "
S _i-_i-*-r-iu-»-'— "~ ■«—»■—■—■—■ — — — ■— m m m m m *i~^
Shoes
Built
For
Two
Classes of people
—those who are saving and those who are
not.
The big difference between the prices at
our factory and those the retailers are com-
pelled to charge will buy other necessities
and comforts for the economical; more
luxuries for the lavish spender.
Shoes built for you— built on honor —
with due regard to Madam Fashion's
whims.
If $2.50 buys an exceptionally high grade
Ladies' Russet Shoe— of unusual beauty of
style and workmanship — you pay $3.50
to $4.00? .
ROSENTHAL,
FEDER
CO.,
WHOLESALE MAKERS OF SHOES,
581=583 MARKET ST.
* NEAR SECOND.,
Open till BP. n. Saturday Nights till iO. .
MONTGOMERY & CO.
GROCERS. .
For the ensuing week we quote :
Eest California Cheese, per pound • 10c
Pearline, 1-pound packages - - 10c
Gold Dust Washing Powder - - 5c
Heinz' Tomato Catsup, per hot. - 20c
Shrewsbury Tomato Catsup, pr bot. 25c
Dnrkee's. Salad Dressing, large boL 40c
Best Ranch Eggs, per dozen - - 15c
Goods delivered to all parts of the
city, Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley.
(81 Sixth Street.
STORES \ 118 Third Street.
1164.3 Polk Street.
SAN FRANCISCO.
FURNITURE
FOR
4Roons
$90.
Parlor— Silk - Brocatelle, 5-plece suit, plush
trimmed. .
Bedroom- 7-plece Solid Oak Suit, French Bevel-
plate Glass, bed, bureau, washstand. two chairs.
rocker and table; pillows, woven-wire and top
mattress.
Dining-Room— 6-foot Extension Table, four
Solid Oak Chairs. — ,
Kitchen— Xo. 7 Kange, Patent Kitchen Table
and two chairs.
EASY PAYMENTS.
Houses furnished complete, city or country, any-
where on the coast. Open evenings.
M. FRIEDMAN & CO.,
224 to 230 and 306 Stockton
and 237 Post Street.
Free packing and delivery across the hay.
WHALEBONE.
PACIFIC STEAM WHALING COMPANY'S
Genuine Shell Whalebone "Orea Brand."
Specially Prepared and Selected for the
DRESS GOODS AM CORSET TRADE.
All Sizes. Every Package Guaranteed.
One trial will convince you of Its merits and
superiority over all other brands in the market. ■ .
T AT\ 1" "L"' Bee that your dressmakers do
-Li-£xJL»AJEjO not. use inferior grades or substi-
tutes. '
ME EQUAL TO OUR "ORCA BRAND."
Never breaks, most elastic, lasts longest, cheap-
est and best. I
For sale by all the leading dry-goods bouses
Office and Factor yT3(T California Street,
SAN FRANCISCO.
San Francisco Women!
Feeble, ailing women are made well and
strong by that great modern nerve Invlgo-
rator and blood puriffer, Palne's Celery
Compound. Weak, shaky, tired nerves on
the verge of prostration need nothing so
much as this food for the nerves. Try it
and be well. j
THE LATEST DESIGNS
In WOOLENS-FOR SPRING 1895,
HAVE ARRIVED.
H. S. BRIDGE & CO. stairs, opp C . Pal. Hotel
17

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