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NATIONAL GUARD LAWS
Ignorance of Them Causes
Several Very Peculiar
DICKINSON STILL IN OFFICE.
As He Is the Brigadier-General the
Election of Colonel Bush
The new military law of this State seems
to be worse than a Chinese puzzle to nearly
every member of the National Guard from
Commander-in-Chief Budd down to the
latest recruit in the awkward squad. The
Governor's interpretation of the law has
brought about two complications. The
first, according to the opinion of 6ome
of the local warriors, is that Brigadier-
General John H. Dickinson is still the
commanding officer of the Second Brigade
and that he could, if he chose, hold office
until the next Legislature meets. The
appointment of Colonel Wartield is, ac
cording to this theory, of no value
in case General Dickinson chooses to
hold his office. The second complication
arose from the Governor's action in calling
the election in the First Regiment. Ac
cording to the old law an election for
colonel must be called by the brigadier
general upon application of the proper
person. As General Dickinson contends
that he still holds his office the election
for colonel will probably be contested.
Colonel Sullivan thinks he could have the
result set aside if he chose, but it is not
probabla he will do so. He is understood to
desire to let the whole matter drop. Gen
eral Dickinson likewise will not attempt to
retain his office, as he has sent word to
Colonel Wartield that he is ready to de
.. liver up the books, etc., of the office. Still,
under the law, Warfield, it is held, should
first be confirmed by the Senate before
taking his seat. The law on this case is
not generally understood.
A lawyer, who has made a study of the
militia laws, yesterday said:
'•Section 20U3 of the Political Code.in force
prior to the amendment made in 1892, pro
vides that the National Guard shall be or
ganized into six brigades, each commanded
By a brigadier-general, and enumerates the
counties which constitute each brigade.
By the amendment of 1695 the National
Guard is organized into three brigades,
each commanded by a brigadier-general,
'the limits of each brigade to be fixed by
the comniander-in-chief. Brigadier-gen
erals and their staff officers deprived of
their office by reason of the reorganization
hereby provided for are hereby placed on
the retired list with their rank.'
"This section is not self-operative. Be
fore there could be three brigades the com
mander-in-chief must define the limits of
each, and until he did so the former or
ganization would continue, for govern
ment never ceases, neither do the offices
and the machinery to enforce that govern
"As understood at the present time the
State has been divided into three brigades,
the First, Second and Third. There was
in each of the districts of the State form
ing one of the three brigades a brigadier
general of that brigade, duly appointed
and confirmed by the Senate, and holding
his office. In the formation of these three
brigades the territory of the State was di
vided in such a manner that the territory
heretofore constituting other brigades was
consolidated into the three, and therefore
three brigadier-generals were 'deprived of
their' office by reason of the reorganiza
tion,' etc. (section 2003), but the brigadier
fenerais of the First, Second and Third
rigade were not deprived of their office,
provided that they complied with the law
(Political Code, section 1913), which pro
vides that 'brigadier - generals are ap
pointed, and must be confirmed by the
Senate ; they must be residents of the lo
calities within the brigades for which they
are appointed ; they hold thtir office until
their successors are appointed and quali
"It has been suggested that when the
amendments of 1895 took effect the briga
diers ceased to exist. This is entirely
answered by the proposition that until the
Governor divided the National Guard into
three brigades, as required by the amend
ment, the law was inoperative, as the sec
tion—Political Code, section 2003— as
amended in 1895, was not self-operative.
"VVben the Governor divided the Guard
into three brigades only those brigadier
generals and their staffs who were abro
gated or absorbed went upon the retired
"The power of the Governor to appoint
brigadiers subsequent to the adjournment
of the Legislature of 1895 was and is only
to fill vacancies, and vacancies arising only
under section 996 of the Political Code, and
in none of the ten subdivisions of this
section is it to be found that expiration of
term creates a vacancy.
"In the case of The People vs. Bissell, 49
California Reports, page 411, the law is
set down by Judge Wallace, now of the Su
perior Court. In his decision Judge Wal
lace said :
" 'Bissell held the office of Inspector of
Gas Meters under the act of 1863, and bis
term of office under that statute being fonr
years, would have expired on the 29th day
of November, 1875. Though the act of 1863
was repealed the office he held was, never
theless, continued by the Political Code.
If we assume that he was not continued in
office under section 6 of the Political Code
as amended March, 1874, because the office
was one filled by appointment, he is, never
theless, authorized by section 879 of the
tame code to continue to discharge the
duties of the office until his successor has
qualified. Parkinson is not his successor,
because his appointment has not received
the consent of the Senate, as required by
eection 368 of the Political Code.
" 'So long as Bissell, therefore, continues
to discharge the duties of the ofiice pursu
ant to the requirements of section 879 of
the Code, even though his term of office
has expired, there is no vacancy in the
othce, in the absolute sense, nor in any
cense which would authorize the Governor
to fill it without the consent of the Senate
first had. Such a vacancy could only be
caused by the resignation'or death of the
inedm bent, or some other event by which
the duties of the office were no'longer dis
charged at all, in which case, and in order
to prevent a failure of the public service,
the Governor might appoint during the
recess of the Senate.
' 'The judgment of the court below is re
versed, and the cause remanded, with di
rections to render judgment for the de
fendant pursuant to the specific prayer of
. "The case of Bissell was reaffirmed in the
case of the People vs. Edwards, the local
.1 ire Commissioner (93 California Reports,
pace 157). This decision was handed down
in February, 1882."
DANEETS DAEK DAY.
A '_ Young Commission Man Charged
With Felony Embezzlement.
Frank Daneri of 1112 Green street was
booked at the old City Hall station last
'night on a charge of felony embezzlement.
During the day two fishermen — Jacob
Junker and Charles Keseling, from Jersey
■Landing— swore out a warrant for his
arrest, and Police Officer Darrell found
.him on'Dupont street. ■ ' " -
Daneri is a boy of 19 years, who, for
about three months, has been the junior
partner of * the fish commission firm of
€«neo & Daneri, which has had a stall at
618 Merchant street. His partner, Charles
Cuneo,' is his brother-in-law. . ■•■■•■■• ff <:■..
.Daneri'B story is that he was induced by
his brother-in-law to purchase a half inter
est in the firm for $450, of which he : paid
$350 in cash — all the money he — giving
U note for the balance. '■/■■:.
C un eo bad been for a ' number of years
in the business, and that along with
his relationship by marriage made
Danen put implicit confidence in his senior.
On the 7th inst., however, says Daneri,
Luneo left town, for nobody knows ex
actly where, though among his neigbors
it is reported that he went up the Sacra
mento River, and with him he took about
$400, all the cash the firm had on hand,
leaving behind his sick wife and six chil
Daneri said he had supposed the fisher
men were to be paid the money due them
for their fish out of what money the firm
had accumulated, but when his brother-in
law went away so unceremoniously it left
him entirely without resources, with the
exception of $30, which he offered to pay
the two complainants. They, however,
wanted their money, and not seeing any
prospect of it coming very rapidly, they
6wore out the warrant against the boy 5 for
Miss Sadie Porter Dead.
Miss Sadie Porter, daughter of Mr. and Mrs.
B.F. Porter, died at the Pleasan ton Hotel Friday
night of pleuro-pneumonia, which disease she
contracted about a week ago at Soquel, her
home, near Santa Cruz.
3he was a young lady of prominence in both
lniiMcal and social circles in this city and was
a member of high standing in the Trinity Epis
copal Church, at Gough and Bush streets,
where she leaves a host of friends to mourn
her untimely departure.
HELPING THE HELPLESS
"The Artist's Dream" to Be
Given for Destitute Chil
dren and Women.
Society Interested— Boxes and Seats
to Be Sold by Auction Next
The San Francisco Ladies' Protective
and Relief Society is making arrangements
for a performance at the California Theater
that is bound, so the projectors say and
believe, to eclipse any other entertainment
A SCENE FROM "THE ARTIST'S DREAM."
of the kind ever given ; and it is to be given
for the best and sweetest of all things
earthiy — charity.
The home for little destitute children
and helpless women on Franklin street,
between Post and Geary, is one of the
society's charges and is in need of funds,
so the managers have decided to have a
bie benefit performance of "The Artist's
Dream" at the California Theater on May
23 and 24. The dream is a novel entertain
ment in three acts, requiring for its pro
duction a full orchestra, over 100 actors,
artistic scenery and mechanical illusions.
The projectors of the entertainment call it
"a spectacle for the eye, a treat for the
musical ear, a feast for the imagination."
The boxes and seats for the entertain
ment will be sold by auction in the Marble
Hall of the Palace ilotel at 10 o'clock next
Tuesday morning, and A. S. Baldwin of
Baldwin & Hammond will wield the ham
The entertainment committee is com
posed of : Miss Alice Brown, Mrs. J. H.
Flint, Miss Goodall, Mrs. C. 8. Wright,
Mrs. Moses Hopkins, Mrs. N. G. Kittle,
Miss Lowry, Mrs. John Morton, Mrs. W-
Mayo Newhall, Mrs. E. B. Pond, Mrs. 8. S.
The managers are: Mrs. L.S.Adams,
Mrs. L. Aigeltinger, Mrs. George Barstow,
Miss A. W. Beaver, Miss Alice Brown,
Mrs. Charles Clayton, Mrs. N. P. Cole, Mrs.
S. W. Dennis, Mrs. J. H. Flint. Miss Good
all, Mrs. Moses Hopkins, Miss "K. F.
Hutchinson, Mrs. N. G. Kittle, Miss Lowry,
Mrs. C. S. Wright, Mrs. John Morton,
Mrs. W. Mayo Newhall, Mrs. E. B. Pond,
Mrs. J. R. Sims, Mrs. A. Talbot, Mrs. H.
P. Wakelee, Mrs. S. S. Wright.
ABOUT TO CHANGE HANDS.
The First Woolen-Mill Erected
in This City to Be
It Was Backed by Millions and
Had Its Day of Pros
The first woolen-mill ever erected in San
Francisco, and rightly named the Pioneer,
is to be sold. From a humble beginning,
requiring only a few thousand dollars, the
mills became one of the largest institutions
of the kind in the country.
When, in 1889, the owners decided to go
into voluntary liquidation, the commercial
world could not understand the movement,
for the company was composed of mil
lionaires, and they were apparently adding
thousands to their surplus account each
year. But such was not the case. The
Pioneer Woolen Millß Company had not
made a dollar for nearly twenty years, and
though they absolutely controlled the trade
of the coast, and had a big contract with
the Government besides, they were losing
money every year. It is said by some that
a privileged few made money out of the
mills, while others of the stockholders were
badly scorched in the long run.
In 1858 Heyneman, Peck & Co. started
the mills purely is a private venture. The
first few years resulted well financially,
and the company was just preparing to in
crease the facilities of the mill when a dis
astrous fire broke out, destroying the en
tire plant. This was in 1861.
A stock company was then formed, with
A. Heyneman as president, a position he
tilled acceptably for a long term of years.
During these early years, and, in" fact,
until twenty years ago, the company made
money. About that time it purchased the
Mission Woolen Mills, which, by the way,
was started shortly after the Pioneer peo
ple began business, and from that moment
their earning ability ceased.
The price paid for the Mission Mills was
$760,000, and it is said that one of the prin
cipal stockholders, later prominent in the
Pioneer board of directors, made several
hundred thousand dollars on the deal.
Be that as it may, the Pioneer people
never made a dollar after the purchase of
the Mission Mill. They had big contracts
with the Government, but according to the
story told by the directors now they lost
money on every yard of cloth turned out.
The putting up of new buildings further
crippled the company and they decided to
go into liquidation in 1889. The sale of
the building located near Black Point is
the ending of a corporation that had at
one time invested over $1,000,000 in build
ings and machinery.
When In active operation the mills em
ployed 800 men, with a monthly payroll of
$20,000. Since the mills ceased operation
in 1889 the owners have sold off the best
of the machinery.
There was a movement on foot at one
time to buy the mill and turn it into a
reformatory school, but lack of ready cap
ital caused the scheme to fall through.
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, MAY 19, 1895.
FROM RUSSIA TO SOUDAN.
The Missive Which a Crane
Brought to Slatin
ANOTHER BIRD MESSENGER.
An Albatross Takes the Account
of a Shipwreck to Western
Slatin Bey, the former Governor of one
of the Egyptian provinces in the Soudan,
who escaped from his long imprisonment
at Omdurman a few months ago and has
recently arrived in Egypt, brought home a
remarkable story of the killing of a crane
on the upper Nile which bore around its
neck a written message that had come all
the way from Europe. One day in De
cember, 1892, Slatin was summoned to the
palace of the Khalifa Abdulla, successor to
the Mahdi. The Khalifa handed to him a
! small metal capsule. He said it contained
some papers, and the Khalifa commanded
Slatin to open the capsule and interpret
I the writing if he could.
The white prisoner unscrewed the cap
I and took out two small slips of paper, each
j about the size of a visiting card. The short
i message on these papers was written in
German, French and English. It said that
the capsule had been fastened to the neck
of a crane that had been bred on the estate
of Herr Falz-Fein at Tskanea Nova, in the
province of Taurida, South Russia. The
crane had been released in Russia in June
lor July, 1892. The exact date of the release
' was given, but as Slatin was not permitted
j to copy or retain the writing, and depends
I upon his memory, he cannot more defi-
nitely fix the date. The message requested
the future captor of the crane to send par
ticulars of the date and place to Herr Falz-
This bird was the common European
crane, Grus cinerea, standing about four
leet high, ashen gray in color, with face
and neck nearly black. It is well known
that it breeds in marshes in Europe and
Asia and migrates far south to warmer
climes upon the approach of winter. This
particular bird, doubtless with many of his
fellows, crossed over to Africa and flew
south about 1500 miles up the Nile, where
he was killed in the Mandist province of
Dongola. This was in November, 1892,
about five months after the bird had been
released. Released while the weather was
still warm, it is probable that it did not
immediately start from Europe on its long
journey, and it is not likely that it would
travel much further south." It had prob
ably reached the southern limit of its jour
ney when it fell victim to a Mahdist hunt
er, who, of course, was greatly surprised
when he saw the metal tube depending
from the bird's neck. He took the prize to
the Emir of Dongola. As that official's
territory is on the northern border of the
Mahdist domain, where he has had many
a brush with the Egyptian troops jus"t
north of him, he is constantly on the gui
vive for any news that may come from the
nortn. But not a man in his province
could read this mysterious message and so
the Emir, knowing that the Khalifa held a
number of European prisoners at Omdur
man who could, doubtless, interpret the
•writing, dispatched a messenger in hot
haste over the great southern desert to de
liver the capsule to the Khalifa. 800 miles
away. The journey was made by camels,
and the Mahdist capital was reached about
a month later. On April 2 last Slatin
wrote to Herr Falz-Fein, informing him
of the recovery of his message and of the
unusual events that had made a bird the
bearer of a communication from Europe to
Probably no more remarkable story of
this sort has ever been recorded, if we ex
cept the unparalleled incident of 1887,
when a brief message, tied around the
neck of an albatross, was borne for thou
sands of miles across the watery wastes of
the Indian Ocean and the Southern Pa
cific; and upon its providential delivery
warships of two nations were at once put
in motion on a work of humanity. The
story, taken from the dry official records
of the day, is worthy of perpetuation as
the most wonderful instance where the
unconscious efforts of a bird have played
a most important part in a tale of human
Late in 1887 the British Embassador in
Paris informed the French Government
that a message had been received from the
Governor of West Australia announcing
that on September 22 a dead albatross had
been found on the beach at Freemantle.
Around the bird's neck was fastened a
small piece of zinc on which had been
scratched in French;
Thirteen shipwrecked men took refuge upon
the Crozet Islands.
ArcusT 4, 1887.
The Crozet Islands are four or five little
specks of land rising in the Indian Ocean
far south of the usual track of vessels.
No wonder the story excited incredulity.
As a rule, only an occasional whaler goes
as far south as the Crozets. It was, in
deed, a wonderful series of fortunate
events if castaways on those far-off islands
had found a winged messenger which, un
consciously exerting in their behalf his
far-famed powers of endurance on the
wing, had carried their tidings over
thousands of miles of sea with few oppor
tunities to rest on the way, and had finally
dropped dead, probably of exhaustion,
on the shores of a civilized land.
However, the tidings were official and
the French Government could not doubt
that this albatross, with its important
message, had been found at Freemantle,
which is one of the largest towns in South
western Australia. Was the message gen
uine, or was it the work of a practical
ioker? Was any French vessel missing?
The day that the communication from the
British Embassador was received it was
distributed among the Paris newspapers.
The next morning it was spread broadcast
over France and before another day
elapsed came a letter from Bordeaux which
gave additional interest and probability to
the story". The shipping-house of Bordes
& Son wrote that they had reason to fear
that the thirteen sailors on the Crozets
were the crew of their three-master Tam
aris. which had sailed many months before
for New Caledonia in the Pacific. She was
come time overdue. Her owners bad ex
pected her to take a course not far from
the Orozet Islands, and her crew numbered
The French Minister of Marine lost no
time in sending orders to the commander
of the naval division of the Indian Ocean
to dispatch the transport Meurthe as soon
as possible to the Crozeta to search for the
castaways. The British Government also
decided to take part in the search, and her
Majesty's ship Thalia, which was about to
leave England for Australia, was ordered
to go out of her course to call at the Crozet
It was not until the early spring of 1888
that it was possible to give the sequel of
this romance of the sea. The French,
transport Meurthe, after returning from
her search, steamed into the harbor of
Diego Suarez, Madagascar, and here her
captain wrote his report. He said that he
first touched at the little island of Cochous,
one of the four Crozets. He found no
persons there, but there was ample evi
dence that the islana had recently been
occupied. There were the remains of
camp fires, biscuit boxes and other debris,
all quite fresh in appearance; and under
some stones that had been piled in a heap
to attract attention was a piece of paper,
on which had been written in French with
The iron ship Tamari3 of Bordeaux, with
thirteen men in the crew, went ashore on the
island of Cochous during a heavy fog. Some
time after she got clear and floated off, but
three hours later she filled and sank. The
crew escaped in two small boats to the island,
taking with them 100 kilogrammes of biscuit.
The crew have lived on Coehous Island nine
months, and, their food being exhausted, they
are about to set out for Possession Island.
September 30, 1887.
The transport at once went to Possession
Island, eighty miles away, across a
stretch of sea that is always rough and
choppy. Not a trace was found of the
shipwrecked men. At East Island, another
island in the group, some American
whalers who had been there for some
weeks said they had neither seen nor
heard anything of the castaways. All the
other islands in those waters were visited
without result. For some months hope
wa3 entertained that the men had been
picked up by some passing whaler, but at
last there could be no doubt that they
were lost in the attempt to make the
perilous passage to Possession Island.
Of course the 230 pounds of biscuit with
which they had reached the island of
Cochous was only a small part of the pro
visions they required during their nine
months on that desolate rock. As one
other shipwrecked crew on the Crozetshad
done, they doubtless existed largely on
penguin flesh and eggs and fish. It is not
probable that they would have starved if
their courage had held out a little longer
until relief came. But they knew that
there was not one chance in" many thou
sands that the man-o'-war bird, to which
they had entrusted their brief message,
would carry it safely and quickly thou
sands of miles to the civilized world. They
little dreamed that, eight days before they
set out from the uninviting rock where
they had lived so forlornly the bird had
finished his wonderful flight and told the
world of their unhappy situation. Few
stories of the animal kingdom equal in
pathetic interest that of this strong
winged bird, whose happy fulfillment of
the mission entrusted to him set two na
tions at work to rescue men in sore dis
THE SUMMER YOUNG MAN.
Be Vies With His Sister in Picturesque
Golf and bicycling, the two latest fads
imported from Great Britain and France,
have added two more picturesque costumes
to the wardrobe of the summer man. The
gaudy blazer has gone the way of the cum
merbund, although in England these two
discarded articles last summer enjoyed a
revival which promised, or threatened —
and the last word is the best — to re-estab
lish them in favor. The cummerbund was
an importation from India, and was all
very well in its way and in its place. But
when fat men living in town were Been on
Wall street in brigbt-hued sashes it was
high time that the fashion should be rele
erated to the Bqwerv. Both the blazer and
the sash are still seen in minstrel shows
and in performances by strolling troupes
in farce comedies.
Tennis is now played with white duck
trousers, turned up at the bottom, tennis
shoes, and a gray sack-coat. A blazer is
occasionally used, but it is generally of
white flannel with a delicate blue or black
stripe running through it. The straw hat
has taken the place of tb< Tarn o'Shanter.
This year it is not as prodigal of brim, but
it allows much scope for color in the sur
vival of the detachable hat bands. Red,
blue, college colors of all kinds, will be
seen on the straw hat, and with a dozen or
so of bands the summer young man can
make himself still aDpear as a human but
terfly. For the wheel a simple Scotch
mixture, gray and black, being most ap
propriate, is the prevailing mode. The
shoes are of russet leather, and the golf
stockings or hose are used.
Of course one wheels and "golfs" in
knickers. In fact, the I# knicker" is the
most comfortable and most seemly of all
neglige costumes. It has become so much
the rage in London that men have been
seen in the best clubs during the winter in
their knickers — or mufti, as they are there
called. You are supposed to have just
come in from the golf links or from your
wheel. In fact, men drive these days in
knickerbockers, and no less authority than
Dr. Seward Webb, one of the best whips in
the country, and one of the most carefully
dressed men, was seen coaching in them
last summer at Newport. With the knick
ers are worn, both for wheeling and for
golf, heavy worsted hose in browns, grays,
tans and black mixtures. There are all
colors and combinations imaginable for
sale in the haberdashers' and hosiers'
shops on Broadway and Fifth avenue. For
golf and for wheeling soft hats or caps are
used to match the costume, says Harpers'
A black leather belt with two nickel
rings, through which is passed a leather
thong, has been invented for golfers and
•wheelmen in America, and is a very sen
sible device. An English tailor has re
cently sent out a suit of clothes to a friend
of the writer, which are to be for either
golfing, wheeling, shooting or holiday
keeping. The wearer tells me that at
Brighton every other man you meet is
dressed in this particular mufti, which
consists of drab knickers and a drab three
buttoned sack-coat, with a cap of the same
material. The four-in-hand tie is long and
narrow, and is of a bright Turkey red.
The stockings are two shades darker than
the clothes, and the shoes are of light yel
low tan. Gloves are worn of undressed
kid of the same color as the shoes. This
will give an idea of the popular "sporting"
— using the terra in the Ibest sense — rig tor
the summer of 1895.
EHYME IN ANCIENT POETEY.
Old Ideas Overthrown by Mr. Byars'
The discovery of rhyme in Homer and
Virgil is of startling: character. Mr. Byars,
says Professor Soldan in the St. Louis
Post-Dispatch, so well and favorably
known in Si. Louis as a distinguished
journalist, a careful student and a scholar
of high attainments, has announced his
discovery that all Greek and Latin poetry,
Homer's as well as Virgil's, is based on
rhyme in the same way that English lyric
poetry is. This so absolutely contradicts
the preconceived opinion in regard to the
Greek and Latin classical writings that Mr.
Byars' exposition cannot fail to attract
For 500 years Latin aud Greek literature
have been the daily mental food and
standing intellectual diet of scholars and
students everywhere, at every higher
school and imiversity. The study of
Homer, of Virgil or Horace has been the
lifework of many philologists. Every line
of these authors has been examined,
every expression analyzed and discussed.
Yet, while rhyme occurred here and there
incidentally, its presence as a regular or
essential element has always been denied.
In fact, absence of rhyme has been con
sidered aa characteristic of ancient poetry
as its presence is of modern verse.
The absence of regularly recurring, final
rhyme in classic poetry is all the more
noticeable, as the full terminations of
these languages would have made rhym
ing easy. It is no exaggeration to "say
that for every two words of rhyming ter
mination in English, ten words could be
found in Latin. To avoid rhymes in com
posing Latin verse must have been almost
as difficult as finding appropriate rhyme
in English. Hallam said: "The Latin
tongue abounds so much in consonants
that those who have been accustomed to
write verses in it well know the difficulty
of avoiding them as much as an ear formed
on classic models demands."
Mr. Byars presents bis discovery with
characteristic modesty that is not at all
inconsistent with bis "firm conviction of its
truth. He clearly realizes the difficulty
which opposes its adoption and the in
credulity with which so revolutionary a
discovery will be received. In one of his
letters he speaks of his own experience.
He himself was for a long time almost
wholly incredulous, and did not become
convinced of its truth until he had satisfied
himself with the severest tests.
Final rhyme makes its appearance as an
essential element in poetry long after the
classic period of Rome and Greece had
passed away. Milton speaks of rhymq as
"the invention of a barbarous age to set off
wretched matter in lame meter." That
this low estimate is unjust any one will
concede that takes the trouble to read the
rhymed Latin hymns of the early church —
in particular, Thomas of Celano's "Dies
Ira?." Yet, the well-established opinion is
that systematic, final rhyming did arise in
the fuurth century A. D. ; in northern
literature in the ninth century.
The question how rhyme originated in
modern literature has been frequently dis
cussed and variously answered. Some at
tribute it to the influence of the rich
rhymes of the Arabian and Persian
tongues, but it existed lone before such in
fluence could be felt in Europe. Edwin
Guest, the best authority on English
rhythm, suggests that it was obtained "in
all probability from Celtic races."
All these theories in regard to the origin
of rhyme are, however, too narrow. It
was known to the Greeks and Latins long
before the rise of Christianity; countless
nations of Europe and Asia used it, proba
bly before the classic literature flourished.
The dictum of Isaac Disraeli seems still
true: "Rhyme must be considered as
universal as poetry itself." That the
Greeks and Latins knew and used final
rhyme seems an especially established fact.
Aristotle speaks of it in his rhetoric. In
Greek poets, notably in the Ajax of
Sophocles, incidental rhymes occur. It
is probable that in the popular Latin
poetry preceding the classic era final
rhyme was used and disappeared under
the influence of Greek writers. Yet, even
in Horace there are examples of evident
rhyme; in Ovid they are frequent, being
used to emphasize a line or word, as
rhymed couplets occur in Shakespeare's
The new discovery, however, goes be
yond the fact of the casual ana the inci
dental presence of rhyme in languages in
which it was difficult to avoid it ; it as
serts that the whole of classic verse in
all Indo-European tongues is based on
rhyming staves which follow a general
law of melody. The burden of proof for
such a radical departure from established
yiews will not be a light one, but Mr.
Byars brings to this difficult task mature
scholarship and an exquisite poetic taste,
of which there can be no better evidence
than his translation of "St. Paul's Poem
of Love." It is to be hoped that Mr.
Byars will soon publish some specimens
of Greek and Latin "verse arranged in ac
cordance with the newly discovered law.
Intelligence of Swallows.
Dr. F. H. Knowlton of the Smithsonian
Institution has published an account of
observations made on the habits of the
common cave or cliff swallow, which show
thnt this bird possesses a remarkable
degree of intelligence. Eave swallows, as
is well known, usually select the eaves of a
building for their nesting site, and some
times as many as a hundred nests may be
observed under one projection. Dr.
Knowlton' s observations are as follows:
Within my collecting-grounds is a shed
open only on one side, where for many
years cliff swallows have attached their
nests to the sleepers of the loft. In the
spring of 1878 they returned, as usual, and
soon Began repairing old nests or building
One day it was noticed that one bird re
mained in her half-finished nest and did
not appear to be much engaged. Soon a
neighbor owning a nest a few feet, away
arrived with a fresh pellet of clay and
after adjusting it in a satisfactory manner
flew away for more. No sooner was she
out of sight than the quiet bird repaired to
the neighbor's nest, appropriated the fresh
clay and molded it to her own nest. "When
the plundered bird returned no notice was
taken of the theft, which was repeated as
soon as she was again out of sight. These
movements were repeated many times with
the result that the nest of the stay-at-home
bird grew apace.
In the same place a nest remained un
disturbed, and was occupied by probably
the same pair of birds for several seasons.
One spring they returned and all appeared
prosperous, until one day it was noticed
that a number of swa.lows were engaged
in walling up the entrance to this old nest.
This work, as well as the outline of a new
nest over the old, was soo^ completed.
The closed nest was then broken open, and
within was found the dead body of a swal
low. The bird had probably died a natural
death, and the friends being unable to re
move the body, and knowing that it would
soon become offensive, adopted this method
of sealing it up. — Youth's Companion.
Coal tar yelds sixteen shades of blue,
the same number of yellow tints, twelve
of orange, nine of violet and numerous
other colors and shades.
AN AWFUL WARNING.
The Horrible Fate of a
Young Man of Ventura.
His Sufferings Were
SOW WELL, HEARTY AND HAPPY
Frank P. Qulncy of Ventura Tells a
Story That Seems Incredible— He
Vouches for the Truth of
At your request I called on Mr. Quincy o(
this place. He is a bright looking young
man— possibly 24 years old. Until recently he
was employed in a small tinshop; now he is in
the big store of this place. He said: "Through
ignorance I allowed my blood impurity to go
on, paying no attention to it whatsoever. After
a few months I began to have scales all over my
body, and 1 would itch and itch all day long.
My nights were indeed terrible. I could not
sleep. Not being able to sleep I soon lost my
appetite and was beginning to show signs of
an awful disease. Several friends told me to
try different remedies. I used to be told to try
a different medicine every day. All these
remedies iiid me no good. I picked up
one of the papers of San Francisco which
had quite a big advertisement of a Cali-
fornia remedy. It is Joy's Vegetable
Sarsaparilla. I went to a near-by druggist and
although he told me he had something just as
good I insisted on getting Joy's Vegetable Sar-
saparilla. Well, sir, from the first my bowels
began to move regularly. I tell you Joy's is &
wonderful laxative. You don't feel any gripe
or pain, or ache, yet it does its work so pleas-
ingly. After using a bottle and a quarter all
the scales left my body, and it Is just as clean
and good as it ever was. I can, therefore,
gladly vouch for Joy's Vegetable Sarsaparilla.
I know an old lady who has just told me she
never saw such a line remedy. I am told by
people who Beem to know that this medicine is
made entirely from California herbs. If it is,
and I am quite sure it must be, why it is a great
thing for our State. Yes, sir, you may say
that Joy's Vegetable Sarsaparilla did untold
good to me.
"From reliable information I am told that the
best people of Ventura are now praising what
is called the 'Home Remedy'— Joy's Vegetable
Sarsaparilla. It seems too ba-i, indeed, that
some druggists will try to substitute something
that is really not worth one-half what Joy's
Vegetable Sareaparilla 1a worth." j
Selling for a Mere Song.
DINNER SETS COMPLETE.
Pure White Set complete $4 00
Kich Brown Decorated Set complete 4 75
Dainty Harvest Decorated Set complete 6 75
Decorated Gold Enamel Set complete 7 00
Gold Illuminated Decorated Set complete,
exquisite 8 25
Decorated Toilet Set 1 65
Decorated Toilet Set, extra large sire 2 65
Newest and Richest Shapes, designs
and decorations. Don't fail to see them.
Gems of beauty.
A Revelation in Prices-New Features.
Great American Importing; Tea Co.'s
52 Market Street ]
140 Sixth Street
1419 Polk Street
521 Montgomery Aye.
2008 Fillmore Street
3006 Sixteenth Street
S&ESfiS San Francisco
333 Hayes* Street
218 Third Street
104 Second Street
146 Ninth Street
2410 Mission Street
3259 Mission Street
917 Broadway ) - , , ,
131 San Pablo Avenue rUM \%M
616 E. Twelfth Street j ua «""« u
Park Street and Ala- ) » In mod a
meda Avenue ) AlalHßud
To the Editob — Please inform your read-
ers that I have a positive remedy for the
above named disease. By its timely use
thousands of hopeless cases have been per-
manently cured. I shall be glad to send
two bottles of my remedy free to any of your
readets who have consumption if they will
send me their express and post office address.
T.A.Slocum, M. C. , 183 Pearl St. , New York.
For Whom ? \
Hurried, busy, nervons women are the
ones for whom Palne's Celery Compound
was especially prepared. These men and
* women with nerves all gone and feebly j
nourished need just the invigorating,
F strength-giving effect of Palne's Celery !
j Compound. Use it now and keep well.
The undersigned, GEORGE EASTON 1 , Beceiver
by virtue of the decree and order of sale In the case
of BRADBURY VS. SALOMON ET AL., Case
No. 60,246, Superior Court said City and County,
Thursday, 23d Bay of May, 1895.
At 1 O'ClOCk F. M.,
At the Salesrooms of Easton, Eldridge & Co.,
638 3VE£vx-lx.ot Street,
SELL AT PUBLIC AUCTION
To the highest bidder, for cash, the following arti-
cles of Jewelry :
Diamond Necklace: Diamond §tars; Solitaire
Diamond Earrings; Earrings, with Diamonds and
other stones; Diamond Studs; Diamond Rings,
with Solitaire and other stones: Diamond Pendants;
Diamond Lockets; Diamond Bracelets: Watches;
Diamond Lacepins: Diamond Scarfpins, etc. Com-
prising some 940,000 worth of very valuable
diamond jewelry. The goods will be upon exhibi-
tion Wednesday, May 22, 1895, at our office, 638
Market street, from 1 to 6 o'clock p. jr., and on
Thursday. May 23, 1896, the morning of the sale,
from 9 o'clock, to hour of sale, 1 o'clock p. x.
Catalogues ou Tuesday afternoon at oar office. Sale
absolute. Reserved seats for ladies.
Terms of sale— Cash in gold coin. The pledgee
and all parties interested have the right to bid
under the decree.
GEO. EASTON, Receiver.
THOS. V. O'BRIEN, Attorney, 4054 Montgomery
SPECIAL CREDIT AUCTION SALE!
Saturday, Jane 8, 1895, at 2 P. M. on the Grounds.
200 LOTS IN FITCHBURG
BROOKLYN TOWNSHIP, ALAMEDA CO., CAL,
Adjacent to Oakland, Alameda and Fruitvale, midway
between Oakland and San Leandro. with frequent and
rapid communication to each, place by either steam or
electric railroads. .
TERMS— I/5 cash, balance in six, twelve, eighteen and twenty-four months.
HiOTS 25 and SOxIOO.
1 These lots • offer every inducement to purchasers to obtain a delightful home or
insure a profitable investment. ;•* " : . ' • ', ; •
FITCHB QRG is the second station east of Fruitvale on the Southern Pacific main
line ; from ; Oakland, San Jose, Stockton, Sacramento, etc. also fronts on the San
Leandro road with frequent rapid and cheap communication .by electric cars to Oak-
land, San Leandro and Haywaras. Trains stop at Fitchburg Station hourly during" the
daytime, and electric every naif hour.
AUCTIONEERS/ '[. AUCTIONEERS,
3NTo. 14 33WXoxxtsox23L©r"3r Street, San Francisco.
Purchasers of Real Estate Should Insure Their
Deeds and Protect Themselves From Loss.
I _ -■•■■" •■ ■ - .""..■ ' •■•-.: :'■!....: . . . .: ■ ; . •. :
l> \" 1 " - :' ' • -■■'-• - . ■ . .■ . .~ ■ •;,.• - .■■••■.
TITLE INSURANCE AND TRUST COMPANY
Issue* policies which guarantee the holder and his heir* against every latent
i defect In his title. i.onus money on real estate. Collects L and, remit* rent
and pays taxes for property-owners. Makes and continues .abstracts for at-
torneys and clients at the shortest possible notice. Verities abstracts made by
other searchers. Holds property in trust for syndicates and Individuals. '
Acts as executor and administrator of estates.— - — Buys and sells real estate in
trust for purchasers and guarantees the title. Transacts a general trust busi-
»•■"". ' * .. , . . ,
Paid Up Capital, $250,000. Cash Reserve Fund, $25,000.
i • L. R. ELLERT, Manager.
. : . AUCTION SALES. ■: -
REAL ESTATE AGENTS, ;
Rent Collectors and Auctioneers.
OFFICE AND SALESROOM, .
14 Montgomery Street,
AS PER CATALOGUE,
MONDAY, HAY 27, 1895,
AT 12 M.,
Of Investments, Flats, Cottages, Residences and
Building Lots located as follows:
; Investment Corner on 25th Street.
Southeast corner of Twenty-fifth and Bartlett
sts.: 4 good 2-story houses; one of 9 rooms and 3
of 6 rooms each; rent $87 50; lot 93:6x100 feet;
both streets accepted by the city.
Elegantly Situated Corner Residence.
Southwest corner of Twenty-fourth and Dolores
streets; 2-story house of 10 rooms: lot 125x114;
commands grand views of almost entire city.
'■-fi>V ' Corner on Capp Street.
Southeast comer of Twenty-third and Capp sts.:
house of 8 rooms and bath: rentf $28; lot 40x70
feet; room for another house.
Four Flats on Nineteenth Street.
North side of Nineteenth st., between Guerrero
and Dolores* good and substantial flats; rents
$67 60: about one-half of the frontage and almost
all of the rear part of the lot is vacant ; lot very
large, 84: 1x309 feet.
Nos. 628, 630 »nd 632 Eddy St., X. side, bet. liar-
kin and Polk; 3 substantial 2-story and basement
bay-window houses' of 8 rooms and bath each ; brick
foundation ; stone walks, etc.: street accepted:'
houses in good condition ; rent $129 ; lot 57 :6x93.
Douglass and Eureka Streets- Building
W. line of Eureka st. and E. line of Douglass, 75
feet 8. of Eighteenth: 6 lots, each 25x125". feet;
level on grade ; ready for building.
• Six Lots.
A— Lot on E. line of Eureka St., 99:8 feet S. of
Seventeenth: 37x125. ,
B— Lot 237, Gift Map 1; 25x70; level; near
| Cortland aye.
C— 4 lots on the BW, cor. of Noe and Alvarado
j sts. ; corner 26 :6x105, and 3, each 26x114.
. r,' Duncan-Street Lots.* j ,;.";■'"•; '*i
N. line Of Duncan st., 55 feet K. of Noe; lot 78:4
xll4 feet, orin three equal subdivisions of 26:11/3
xl 14 feet each ; easy terms.
Investment on Bryant Street. ,
518 Bryant St., NW. side, bet. Third and Fourth;
3-story bay-window house of 3 flats in front and 2-
story house in rear; rents 46; lot 20x80 feet.
• Cozy Mission Cottage.
I 2421 Harrison St., E. line, bet. Twenty-first and
: Twenty-second; a nice nearly new bay-window
cottage of 6 rooms and bath; brick foundation;
stone walks, etc.; nice garden; lot 25x100. , .
No. 1120 Gough st., east line, between '" Ellis and
O'Farrell; elegant 2-story and basement bay-win-
dow house of 9 rooms and bath; all modern im-
provements and conveniences; in good condition:
lot 30x103:6 feet; good location for a doctor.
Residence in Mission Warm Belt.
No. 323 Nineteenth st., between San Carlos aye.
and Valencia st. ; a nice 2-story bay-window resi-
dence of 8 rooms and bath; brick foundation;
stone walks, etc ; street accepted ; lot 37:6x85.
No. 928 Folsom st., northwest side, bet Fifth and
Sixth sts.; 3-story house in four fiats; rents $52;
Columbia Heights Cottage.
East line of M a]estlc avp., bet. Ottawa aye. and
Hearst street: cottage, and lot 25x100; this place
Is only two short blocks from the electric road on
San Jose aye., and is two blocks north of Ocean
View and is offered cheap.'
: Cottage on 25th Street.
No. 326 Twenty-fifth st., north side, bet. Folsom
1 at. and Treat aye: new bay-window cottage of six
I rooms and bath; brick foundation, etc. lot 25x75.
Call at office and get catalogue and further par-
I ticulars. •:•:-.-
G. H. TJMBSEN & CO.,
14 Montgomery Street.
fe fe — ° p — fe fe
HIGH-BRED GELDINGS, FILLIES
PALO ALTO STOCK FARM,
THURSDAY - - - MAY 23, 1895,
At 11 o'clock a. it., at
Salesyard, Cor. Van Ness Aye. and Market St
IS" Horses may be seen at yard Monday, May
20th. Catalogues now ready. - «
KILLIP & CO.. Auctioneers, /
! • -■■'■• 30 Montgomery street, S. F.