Newspaper Page Text
A New Kssayist.
Time once was, and that, too. in America,
when an essayist was not without honor,
even in his own country. Nowadays, how
ever, essays are not read on this side of the
water. The short story is occupying the
literary stage, to the exclusion of nearly
all else. Even the serial story, unless the
author is fortunate enough to Vet a syndi
date to bring it out, falls fiat in almost
every instance. The reading world wants i
fiction, and wants it straight to the point.
and with that brevity that is often the i
soul of incompleteness.
But the essay, although fallen upon hard
lines in this country, and relegated to out
ot-the-way corners in the bookcases of I
those 6ld-fashioned people who, while j
they do not themselves read essays, still j
hold the ancient faith tnat they are needed
to complete a library, is stil! occasionaly
read in England.
This is the reason, possibly, why a vol
ume of essays published in this country, at j
one of the literary centers of this country, j
should he almost unknown, even at that !
center, the while it is making a very con- !
siderable stir in literary London.
It is said that literary London has all
along been at a loss to understand the sue- j
cess in America of "Trilby."' Literary Bos- i
ton can now retaliate by "a kindred wonder
over London's appreciation of Walter
Blackburn Harte's "Meditations in Mot
Judging from the reviewers, however, and
the reports of the booksellers, this
thoroughly readable volume is not only
better known in London, but even in San
Francisco, than it is in Boston, where it
first saw the light.
"Meditations in Motley" is a volume of
essays that appeal very directly to the lit
erary mind. Although he has been for
years a working journalist, and has given
his best thouglit and strength to appease
the ceaseless demands of newspaper work,
Mr. Harte is more distinctly a literary
man than almost any of the younger men
in tbe country whose names suggest them
selves in connection with literature. He
has called his "meditations" "a bundle of
papers imbued with the sobriety of mid
night," and they have been written, for
the most part, in those wee small hours
when the journalist's working day has
ended and that of the milkman and the
market purveyor is just beginning. From
the audacious whimsicality of the dedica
tion "tothe Devil and Dame Chance I 'to the
last meditation, a "RhapsodjVf Music,"
the book bristles from cover to cover with
good things. There is a delicious sense of
leisure and ease about these meditations
in snatch moments of time. It is difficult !
to imagine this genial, unhurried, rather i
bookish, a little prejudiced and old-fash- I
ioned dreamer hustling after a scoop, at
the behest of a city editor, or getting up
copy in the rush and hurry that are con
comitants of newspaper life.
Walter Blackburn Harte is only by
adoption an American. He was born in
England, in Bedfordtown, where John
Bunyan lived, and received his early edu
cation in one of the public schools of that
placye. It must have been his very early
education, for he was a mere lad — "hardly
in his teens — when business reverses in
the family forced him to leave school and j
begin life in earnest in a law office in one
of the old inns of court in London. He
taught himself shorthand and continued
his education in evening schools. At 16
he &»ve up work and secured a year and a
hal? of regular schooling, after which he
■went to work as a reporter on one of the
minor London papers. His work was not
of much account, but it took him into
Fleet street and gave the literary passion
that had consumed him from childhood
something to feed upon. But a few months
of this life showed him its limitations as
to opportunities, and. as his face had long
been turned toward America, the boy — for |
he was but a boy — decided to come here.
It was some ten years ago that he landed
in Montreal, with a few pounds in his |
pocket, and after several temporary en- ;
gaarements in various lines again plunged
"Provincial journalism,'' he says, "affords '
fome intimate acquaintance with real life, :
luit it is distinctly inimical to the cultiva- !
tion of any literary aims or graces." He I
went from Montreal to Toronto and other
Canadian cities, and while engaged in the :
]>res« gallery of the House of Commons in
Ottawa he wrote a number of articles for )
American magazines on the Canadian Par- !
liament and various social and political
themes. Finally, however, he drifted to
New York ami later went to Boston. In
1891 he became assistant editor of the New •
England Magazine, and the same year be- I
gun the series oi literary causeries under i
the caption of "In aCorner at Dodsley's"
that were so long one of the most attrac- I
tive features of that magazine. He says of j
them: "I first took down the shutters at j
Dodsley's in October, 18!<1, in the darkest, i
poorest, dismalest alleyway in all Grub
street, and for over two years I was to be i
found there by all those who cared to ad- |
venture in the literary slums. I chose the
uame partially out of a contradictory hu- !
mor, my shop being situated so very far
away "from Fall Mall, where Robert
Dodsley's smart bookshop stood in Pope's j
and Dr". Johnson's day. and partly because
obscurity and squalor are forever associated j
with the attractions of antiquarianism,
and I could only hope in such a quarter to
attract ihe curious."
So many were inclined to adventure
thus, however, that the Dodsley papers
bare served to connect Mr. Harte's name
permanently with belles lettres. and have j
caused such critics as Hamilton W. Mabie,
Israel Zangwill and Richard Le Gallienne
to hail him as one of America's coming es
A year or so ago Mr. Harte had a re
lapse into journalism, but is now on the
staff of the Arena. He has lately pub
lished in different magazines a number of
striking short stories, and expects in time
to bring out a volume of these. It will be
a pity, however, if this should mean that
we are to have no more essays from his
pen. The appetite awakened in this direc
tion by "Meditations in Motley decidedly
calls for more. The papers are full of
quaint humor and wisdom and sufficiently
savored with an occasional judicious pinch
of attic salt to be suggestively stimulating.
They bristle with extravagances, and Mr.
Harte is by no means always to be taken
seriously; but his extravagance is of a
wholesome .sort. His constant protest
against the utilitarian spirit of the age is
timely and the literary flavor of his
thought is delicate and appetizing. He is
a thoroughly independent thinker, with
an insight that renders independence of
value. Nor is the cup of humorous raillery
he offers the world none the less enjoyable
for the tang of bitterness sometimes to be
Just here, however, lies one of Mr.
Harte's dangers. The most of us have bit
ter moments, and on the whole an occa
sional dash of wormwood is not a bad
thing for the race, only, like the aforemen
tioned attic salt, it must be cautiously
used. Nevertheless, our author's lash,
while vigorously plied, is only for that in
life which richly deserves castigation, and
8 certain sense of literary fitness that char
acterizes all his work will probably keep
him from becoming that most offensive
bungler, a literary scold. He has had a
touch from genius moreover, if time shall
not prove that that illusive spirit did even
more than touch him, at birth.
Mr. Harte is yet a very young man. but
judging from the work he has already
given us, we shall hear more and yet bet
ter things from him in the near future.
An Experiment in Altruism.
The literature of economic reform is as
suming formidable proportions. Scarcely
a week passes, nowadays, that some new
book on the subject does not demand at
tention. Most of the Work done along this
line, morever, is for the exploitation of in
dividual ideas or the arraignment of special
wrongs. In all this making many books
there is only now and again a real thought
or suggestion hidden among the countless
The author of the book under considera
tion, Elizabeth Hastings, has no theories
of reform to put forward, and, singularly
enough, although the narrator admits that
she, too, has a "cause," we do not, from
first to last of the book, find out what that
But "An Experiment in Altruism" is im
| mensely readable. There is in it a woman
i who having lived nine-and-thirty years,
at last finds herself free to do as she" pleases.
Then she comes to a strange city to follow
a "cause." Of this she gives no details.
She finds herself with a lot of people who
! all have "causes." There is an altruist,
| with his head in the clouds, given to talk-
I ing to the people and constructing elabo
rate schemes of life for them. There is "the
} man of the world," a blase boy of 14,
who plays poker and criticizes the
; drama, and an anarchist, mild and benevo
lent, looking like an aged apostle who is
near the beatific vision and miking about
destroying the Government and "wading
to peace through oceans of blood." There
is a whole houseful of earnest young col
lege-settlement men and another of earnest
young women. The young men are en
gaged in giving entertainments and pour
ing tea for their "neighbors" in the slums,
and the young women are organizing
trades unions and helping solve social
problems among the working people.
Then there is a reformer at tar%e, who
finds his life work "on the platform."
They are all self-conscious and intro
spective. Most of them are brooding over
wrongs and studying the problem of life,
and they are all devising ways and means
to correct the misdeeds of man and God.
Of all the motley, earnest throng
the only being who seems to have
any definite scheme of life, who
really knows "where be is at," is a venera
ble scientist who, forty years before, on a
height of the Andes, had discovered a new
butterfly. The subsequent years of his
life are being spent in an exhaustive study
of that insect. Through all runs a small,
fine thread of a love story, daintily, unob
trusively, delicately toldj but the "bulk of
the book, the chief motif, is the worK of
the various reformers. The narrator goes
to board and committee meetings, and
visits patients, with a sensible, practical,
but still speculative woman doctor, who
spends much time undoing the mischief
wrought by some of the reformers. There
is a description of a socialistic banquet,
given by the reformer at large, at which all
the idealists are present and make speeches,
that is admirable.
Miss Hastings writes earnestly and
thoughtfully about them ail. There is
not a word of ridicule r.or of condemna
tion in her book, but she has a saving
sense of humor, and a real love for and
faith in humanity, that redeems her ac
count from levity* while it does not pre
vent her from showing us the delicious
absurdity of many of the "movements" of
which she writes. Despite the fact that
she turns the weak points of all her peo
ple relentlessly to the light, there is not a
character in "the whole book, from the
star-gazing anarchist to the wretched little
"man of the world" and poor gone-astray
Polly, lost in the slums, that sne does not
make the reader love for what is lovable
and human in the creature.
The book comes to no definite conclu
sion. The author leaves each reformer
working out his particular fad. "The
anarchist is perfecting the process that
shall bring his millennium to be, and the
young socialists in Barnet House are work
ing out the details of their new economic
order. The Altruist still translates the
infinite into finite terms; the young re
former is on the platform ; I toil daily in
the self-same cause, but the world is not
saved." She does not, however, close the
book hopelessly. In fact, there is not a
hopeless sentence in it, from the opening
epigram to the closing declaration: " "Ami
our foreboding, lest our faith in God shall
escape us, seems futile, inasmuch as we
cannot escape from our faith." [New
York: Macmillan & Co. For sale by Wil
liam Doxey, San Francisco. Price, 75
Children of the Soil.
The rapid development in the last quar
ter of a century of the literature and art of
Eastern Europe is one of the most noted
phenomena of our time. Compared with
the people of America, or of Western
Europe, the Slavonic race seems hardly
emerged from barbarism, and yet, though it
lacks a broad, popular education, and has
comparatively few seats of learning, it con
tributes to the world at this time a very
large proportion of those men whose extra
ordinary faculties entitle them to take
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, JUNE 16, 1895.
rank as the possessors of genius. There
seems to be a sudden awakening of the in
tellect of the race, and not only in letters,
but in all departments of art, the Siavs are
attracting the attention of men and women
of culture all round the world.
Among the most eminent leaders in
| this Slavonic renaissance is Henryk Sien-
I kiewicz, whose novels are rapidly winning
| him a fame as wide as the civilized world.
His early works, full of adventure and in
cident, reminded readers of the best works
of Scott or Dumas, and not a few critics
pronounced him the best writer on battles
and wars among modern romancers. In his
latest book, " Rodzina Polanieckich,"
which, under the easier title of "Children
of the Soil," has been translated into Eng
lish by Jeremiah Curtin, he has chosen a
quieter theme and shown himself not less
successful in portraying the growth and
development of character amid the ordi
nary affairs of life than in depicting the
terrors and the tragedies of war.
The "Children of the Soil" is a careful,
sympathetic study of society among the
upper middle class in the Poland of to-day
and is wrought out with that minute atten
tion to detail and that artistic finish even
to trifles, ttiat is so characteristic of the
I genius of Eastern Europe. It is a long,
| elaborate story, very different from the
! curt novel that prevails in England and
I America, and was evidently intended for a
people who have abundant leisure to read,
a large capacity for taking things slowly
and comparatively few fashionable novels
pressing upon them for attention. It is
in fact the work of a great literary artist,
who takes his work seriously and treats
his subject as something worthy of pains
taking study and not a mere "pastime to
amuse careless readers for an idle hour.
The plot of the story is the development
of the character of a certain Stanislav
PolanyetsKi, a young man of well-balanced
! mind and considerable strength of purpose,
; who beginning his manhood with merely
material desires arrives at last,, largely
j through the influence of his noble wife, to
' the comprehension of the highest spiritual
W. B. HARTE.
[From a photograph.]
needs of the human heart. Around the
central figures of the Polanyetski family
are gathered a host of other "families and
j individuals as in real life. Though the
! book is thus crowded with characters there
j are no lay figures or uninteresting person
' ages. Every man and woman has a dis-
I tinct individuality, and the dominant
■ traits of each are depicted as graphically as
I are those of the characters of the greatest
I masters of recent literature.
j Even in the translation, it can be seen
, that the author is master of a most versa
j tile style and has at his command a wide
! range of emotions. Though the story deals
with the affairs of a stockbroker who
ends by becoming a farmer, and flows
i always in the course of the most
1 commonplace events of life, such as love
! making, money-making and marriage,
j with the inseparable accompaniments of
disappointments and deaths, it never for a
moment becomes dull or sinks below the
level of a true intellectual enjoyment.
'■ There are in it humor and pathos, wit and
j philosophy, the sparkle of light epigram
j and the poetry of pure emotion. Alto
j eether it forms a notable book and will mi
i crease the fame of the author by showing
! his ability to deal with the subtle prob
j Jems of psychology, as well as with ariven
j ture and the dramatic elements of thrilling
Published by Little, Brown & Co., Bos
ton. For sale at the Popular Bookstore
10 Post street. Price, $2.
An A id -d<-<. mi ;> uf Napoleon.
Another contribution to the library
growing up to meet the demands of the
Napoleon craze. The present work is, how
ever, one of real interest and value to the
student of history. It is the memoirs of
General Count de Segur of the French
Academy, who cut a brilliant figure in war,
politics and letters from the beginning of
this century to near the close of its third
quarter. Count de Segur in the year 1800
was a private in the army of France. He
was made a general in 1812, and fought
continuously up to tne end of the imperial
era. Me served through all the wars of
the empire, either on the staff of Napoleon
or at the head of picked troops. He has
given to the world a very valuable contri
bution to history in his "History, Memoirs
and Miscellanea," which was published, in
eight volumes, soon after his death, in
1873. These volumes contain a complete
history of Napoleon and his campaigns,
and from them has been taken this per
sonal record which the Appletons have
just issued in a handsome octavo volume.
The work has been revised by a grandson
of the author, Count Louis de Segur, and
translated by N. A. Patched-Martin. The
soldier author is a man of letters as well
as of deeds, and the book is written in a
clear, nervous, dramatic style that gives
the reader the strongest possible impres
sion of the time with which it deals. He
is not, as so many memoirists of that
period have been, a blind admirer of Na
poleon. He often enters into a rigid
analysis of the great hero's acts and the
motives prompting them, and does not
hesitate to speak the truth with severity
on occasion, as in the matter of the mur
der, for he calls it murder, of the Due
The book is particularly interesting in
the accounts it gives of the various cam
paigns of Napoleon, particularly that in
Kussia, and there are many notable per
sonal reminiscences of the author's father,
Count de Segur, a celebrated Embassador
of the great Catherine, who concluded the
first treaty between France and Russia,
and who was one of the French combat
ants in the War of Independence of the
United States. The book will rank as a
real contribution to the literature of the
Napoleonic era, not merely because of the
interesting and in some instances new
ground which it covers, but because of the
glimpse it affords us of Napoleon from the
standpoint of a peer of France, a brave
soldier, an accomplished scholar and a
statesman of high rank. [New York: D.
Appleton it Co. For sale by Doxey, San
Francisco. Price $:>.]
Chimmie Fadden Kxplaiiis.
It seems that we are to have a series of
Chimmie Fadden stories and that the
present volume is No. 2 of the series.
In it Chimmie Fadden explains, although
his explanations are somewhat hazy, and
Major Max expounds. The peculiar style
of each of these worthies needs no exposi
Mechanically speaking this No. 2 of
the Chimmie Fadden stories is note
worthy. It is a study in black and white
and a lesson in typographic standards of
beauty. The face of the text type is a bold
black letter, being what is known as the
J?n«on type, after Nicholas Jenson, a
Frenchman, who at Venice in 1470 founded
the true Roman type. The initials, cover
and title-page for the book were designed
by Sindeiar, and all are striking and
artistic. The whole in fact very closely
suggests some of the best efforts of the
celebrated Kehnscott Press, which the
artistic designs of William Morris have
There is, however, such a thing as the
eternal fitness of things, in bookmaking as
in all else, and in bringing all these artistic
effects of antique-type Venetian black-let
ter initials and delicate tracery into play
as a setting for "Chimmie Fadden" and
"Major Max" the publishers have shown a
lamentable disregard for this fitness. The
blunder is an unfortunate one. We have
not so much of really artistic bookmaking
in America that we can afford so to
cheapen it. Mr. Townsend's work in its
antique dress is as painfully out of place,
as shocking to artistic sensibilities as —
well, as Chimmie Fadden himself is in re
It is a question whether the reading
world really wanted any more of Chimmie
just now. He is amusing, for a season —
but like the real live Bowery boy for whom
he stands, a little of him goes a great way.
Major Max is at once more commonplace
and more endurable, but, when all is said
and done, they are both just a little tire
some. They have so very little to say that
when the charm of novelty has worn away
from Chimmie's dreary slang and the
major's circumlocution something else is
needed to hold the reader's attention.
[New York: Lovell, Coryell & Co. For
sale by Doxey, San Francisco. Paper, 50
Familiar Flowers of Field and Garden.
We have seen nothing better of its kind
than this attempt by F. Schuyler Mathews
to identify for the uninitiated oar familiar
garden and wild flowers. Most of our
botanies are too technical. Most of our
writers on botany are too learned to be
very useful to the student who wants to
know flowers merely as flowers. The usual
way of the botanists is to give the bare
facts about plants in phraseology that re
quires reference to an elaborate glossary
and the mastering of an unknown tongue
to comprehend the simplest description of
the commonest weed.
Mr. Mathews does nothing of this sort.
He writes of the flowers and plants by
their familiar names, but gives also their
botanical names and adds a li tile personal
gossip about each, for it is evident that the
flowers are his friends and intimate ac
quaintances. He knows the family history
of each, and tells us something" of them
and their relations and associates in the
most sociable way imaginable. He is,
moreover, an artist. lie has himself
sketched from nature each plant of which
he writes, and he adds, what only an artist
can add to his descriptions, accurate desig
nations as to color. Nothing is more ho
wildering to the amateur botanist than
the absolute inconsequence with which
most scientific students of plant life write
of the colors of plants. It would seem as
though with most of them everything is
blue' that is not red, and whatever is left
i« yellow. The present work is by no
means an exhaustive treatise on the bot
any of the Eastern States, but so far as it
goes, and it covers a great deal of ground,
it is excellent and will till a very real want.
[New York: D. Appleton & Co. For sale
by William Doxey, San Francisco. Price
Washington ; or, The Revolution.
This is a drama founded upon the his
toric events of the war for American inde
pendence. The author, Ethan Allen, is a
relative of the great Green Mountain hero
of that name. The drama itself is not de
signed for production on the stage. It is
much too long, much too prolix and slow
in action for any such presentation. It is
written in a style rather stilted and heroic,
and the necessities that arise for different
speakers to make long verbal explanations
of important historic events somewhat
mar the artistic harmony of the work.
The events themselves do "not lend them
selves readily to dramatic, treatment — a
circumstance orten attending upon events
in themselves dramatic.
Nevertheless, with all its crudities, the
work holds the reader's interest. It is a
new presentation of the well-known
theme, and as such throws its own light
upon the memorable period with which it
deals. The drama is in two parts, of
which, the present volume is'but the first.
Each part is presented in five acts, and the
first part dates from the Boston massacre
to Burgoy ne's surrender. It is intended
that part second shall cover the period
from Valley Forge to "Washington's in
auguration as President. The illustrations,
bj; Robert W. Chambers, are often spirited
and suggestive. [Chicago: J. Tennyson
Christ and His Friends.
This is a volume of sermons that were
delivered early in the present year at the
Hanson-place M. E. Church, Brooklyn,
N. V., by Rev. Louis Albert Banks, D.D.
They are revival sermons, the themes and
texts all selected from St. John's gospel.
AVith rather a curious appearance of
egotism, the author tells us in his preface
that "after a few hours' study during the
morning of the day in which the sermon
was to be delivered, it was first dictated to
a stenographer, though it was afterward
in the evening preached without notes."
One wonders just why this explanation
is given. A perusal of the sermons leaves
the impression that they must have gained
much in delivery, from the presence and
personality of the speaker. They are
typical revival sermons, abounding in an
ecdote and pointed illustration, and full of
personal appeals to unbelievers. [New
Yorkt Funk & Wagnalls. For sale at the
Popular Bookstore, 10 Post street, San
Overland for July.
The Overland Monthly for July begins
the twenty-sixth of the new series. In
"Onr Spanish-American Families" Mrs.
Helen Elliott Bandini recites the story of
the original Californians, their prominent
families and what has become of them.
"Some Han Francisco Illustrators" tells
about real Bohemians of the City, with ex
amples of their work.
"Well- Worn Trails" is the first of a new
series of articles by the editor, Rounse
velle Wildman. treating of the picturesque
features of California.
OTHER BOOKS RECEIVED.
McClure's Complete Life of Napoleon:
Published by S. S. McClure (Ltd.), 30 La
fayette place, New York. Paper, 50 cents.
The Bibelot for June: Thomas B.
Mosher, 37 Exchange street, Portland, Me.
For sale by Doxey.
Philip Vernon: A Tale in Prose and
Verse, by S. Weir Mitchell, M.D., LL.D.
New York: The Century Company
riow We Rose: By David Nelson Beach.
Roberts Brothers. Boston. Popular book
store, 10 Post'street. Han Francisco.
Last year the sheep in the United States
grew 307,100,000 pounds of wool.
IDYLS OF THE FIELD
BY A NATURALIST AT LARGE.
Some weeks ago, in an article of this
series, I took occasion to write of spiders,
ants and bees, calling these creatures, be
cause of their respective habits, anarchists,
communists and socialists.
Since then my friends the human an
archists have addressed to me various
communications of protest. They do not
care to be likened to spiders, albeit this
hard-working insect is the quintessence of
the individualism which they so warmly
cherish. One of my unknown correspond
ents, however, is brave enough to accept
the logical conclusions of his own theories.
"Give me," he says, "the dangers attend
ing the freedom of the spider, rather than
the protection and plenty attending the
slavery of the ant and the bee.
"Government is an order of nature rather
than of intelligence. All gregarious ani
mals tend toward government. It is a
mode sometimes best adapted to perpetu
ate the race. It is in no T.'ise dependent
upon intelligent reason. In fact, the less
reason the more perfect the organization.
* * * But give me the liberty of the in
dividual, even if it must be in poverty and
isolation, rather than the comfort of the
well-fed neuter in the hive of humanity."
I willingly concede to this correspondent
the fullest possible attainment of liberty
his individuality can bear. We are not
concerned to-day with his political beliefs,
but with his entirely scientific postulate
that government is an order of Nature.
Unlike our friends, the anarchists, how
ever, Nature has no special regard for mdi
viduals. What she aims at is the perpetu
ation of the species, and to the attainment
of this end she seeks to develop in the in
dividual fitness to survive.
Just here at my hand I have secured
three blossoms. They are all common
plants, so common indeed that two of
them are usually termed weeds. They
have, however, their own special names,
dandelion, clover and dogfennel, and they
are important because they are typical
representatives of the largest order in the
floral kingdom, an order which, although
it was the last to appear in the vegetable
world, has outstripped every other and
leads them all to-day. Botanists call it
the composite order' Its members are
really floral socialists. Take this clover, for
instance. What we call the blossom is in
reality many blossoms. Look at the mass
under this "glass. You will see that the
clover head is made up of numerous mi
nute cups in a compact cluster.
If you pull one of these tiny cups from
the head and put the uprooted end in your
mouth, as you ased to love to do when a
child, you will taste a single drop of
nectar." That is what the cup has to offer
the bee who helps to fertilize the blossom.
But now study the cup. It is in itself a
perfect blossom. As we see it, it is now a
tiny tube, but it was once possessed of
five minute petals which have united in
the present tubular shape. There is still a
suggestion of the time when the petals
were separate, in the little pointed scallops
that rim the cup. Now the tiny cup is not
only descended from a five-petaled
ancestor, but that ancestor was at one
time a separate flower, growing on its in
dividual stem and trusting to good for
tune to send some fertilizing insect in its
way, that its kind might be perpetuated.
The chances of such fortune were small.
The flowers were so tiny they must fre
quently have been overlooked by the in
But those flowers that grew closest to
gether, forming little clusters, were most
noticeable, and were discovered, robbed of
their nectar and incidentally fertilized by
freebooting insects. These blossoms bore
fruit, and in time the co-operative habit
became fixed in their descendants. In
other words, unable, by reason of their
minuteness, to attract the insects and se
cure fertilization, they established colo
nies, so to speak, that in the aggregate
they might obtain that which as individ
uals they were powerless to secure. They
crowded closer and closer together until
they formed a solid, compact mass, as in
the clover here. The many-petaled flowers
found it inconvenient to arrange them
selves in the composite order, and so, as
we see in the clover, the petals have co
alesced to form a tube-shaped flower, and,
as the tubular form is better adapted to
receive fertilization by the bee, that form
has been perpetuated.
Now, as we have seen, the chances for
the survival of the isolated individual
were very small in the cases of these tiny
flowers. By co-operation, however, this
order of plants has, as I have said, become
the largest in the floral kingdom, although
it was the latest to appear. The compo
aitse have circled the globe. They (ill our
gardens and flourish in our hothouses.
The pretty goldenrorl, the dig
nified asters, the aristocratic chrys
anthemums, the dainty daisies, all
belong to this great socialistic order. Heli
anthus, the big, beaming sunflower, is a
charter member. So, too, is the wretched
little tarweed with its pungent balsamic
odor. One could almost fill this page of
the Call with a list of the composite
It is quite true that in every instance the
individual flowers have sacrificed some
thing to the race. The single tiny blossom
that I can pull from this dandelion, for
instance, has no individuality whatever.
By and by, had I left it alone, it micht
have taken to itself wings and sailed
flutfily oft upon the breeze, to sink to
earth and renew its life again, perhaps a
thousand miles from here. Seeing it
floating a poet might have found in it the
theme for a poem. A scientist might have
seen in it universal law. or a seer have
reasoned from it to life eternal, but the
little seed would be merely a dandelion
seed — one of many hundred that the
blossom sent out. But for the co-opera
tion of its fellows in the floral body social
it could never have been at all. Neverthe
less, but for it and its fellows, the blossom
could never have been. The law of co
operation, like all of nature's laws, makes
for Tightness and fitness along the whole
Nature teaches us, with evorepeated
emphasis, the lesson of interdependence of
kind. The isolated being is everywhere
the comparatively helpless being." He is
surrounded by dangers. He wastes in
caring for himself the energy that might
have made him a more useful social unit.
Even apparent exceptions to this rule but
go to confirm it. The tree growing by
itself in the open field often attains to
greater size, to a more rounded symmetry
of branches and a higher perfection of
beauty than the tree in the crowded forest,
but woodsmen tell us that the forest tree
makes the better timber.
I have said that our composite flowers
survive by virtue of their having associated
themselves together in colonies in order
that their aggregate endeavor may accom
plish that which is beyond their in
dividual efforts. Ido not i'mauine for one
moment that this association was volun
tary on their part. The first aggregation
or blossoms was probably adventitious—
because it has been better for the species
the composite form has persisted. Those
flowers with a tendency to separate them
selves from the mass are so small as to be
overlooked by insects. They do not get
fertilised and. therefore, perish. Thus the
individualistic type does not become per
petuated. I have sometimes founu a
blighted clover-blossom with a single
dower occupying the head in the full glory
of its individuality. Such a blossom is
Studying my dandelion, with its wealth
of yellow flowers safe and comfortable in
the beautiful blossom which each helps to
make, I am moved to wonder whether my
anarchistic correspondent has ever stopped
to consider what would become of this
plant if the government of which he so
contemptuously speaks as "an order of
nature rather than of intelligence" were
to cease its operation — if the composite
organization were to be dispersed into its
individual elements. Much the same fate
would overtake the individual flowers, I
fancy, as would overtake him should
! human government suspend operations.
: Nature's laws hold good aJI along the line
of life, and he says wisely that one of these
laws is government. Nor are her laws to
jbe cut across with impunity. Floral an
; arohy would mean death to the individual
j flower, and human anarchy just as truly
j would mean death to the individual and
I to that composite rlower of the human
i race — civilization.
Australia is the only colony in the world
to which ruminating 'animals are not in
digenous, and yet cattle and sheep of vari
ous breeds thrive there amazingly.
This means seasonable goods
at greatly reduced prices in
; order to close out such goods
as are intended for spring and
LADIES' JERSEY RIB-
BED LISLE UNION
SUITS, long sleeves, M AW 606
price was $1 I>U>V UUu
HEAVY QUALITY ALL
SILK MOIRE RIBBON
1% inches wide, all colors, "VTrv-nr 1 f\n
price was 20c IIOW IUC
ED CREPE for drapery
use, handsome colorings
and patterns, width '17 "VT AW IXp
inches, price was 25c liU J. t)\.j
WASH DRESS GOODS,
handsome printed designs,
light and dark colorings, "\T «r -i (\ n
price was 15c 11 OW IUC
Our new catalogue now ready. Mailed
free to any address on application.
Parcels delivered free in this and neigh-
boring cities and towns.
Country orders receive our best and
prompt attention.' Samples on application.
107 AND 109 POST STREET,
i .' :, ? '■■•'»! ■'■■ ", : :-'. -
1220-1222-1224 MARKET ST.
The most certain md safe Pain Remedy. In
water cures Summer Complaints, Diarrhoea, Heart-
burn, Sour Stomach, Flatulence, Colic, Nausea.
I %%. SHOE GO.
— AND —
CHILDREN'S AND MISSES'
Square Toes and Tips, Spring Heels,
and Fine Black Paris Kid Button,
Square Toes, Patent Leather
Tips, Spring Heels.
PRICES FOR THE ABOVE:
Sizes 5 to 8 goo
Sizes 8V? toll $1 00
Sizes Hl/2 to •2...... $1 05
YOUTHS' HEAVY TAX BUTTON" SHOES.
Double Soles, Spring Heels, Square Toes and
Tips, sizes 9to 13y , widths I). X and XX,
*1 .50 per Pair.
LADIES' DITTOS SHOES,
Latest Style, Square Tops and Tips. Heels and
Spring Heels, widths C, 1), X and XX,
•1.75 per Fair.
OUR OWN MAKE.
LADIES' FINK TAN KID BUTTON, Latest
Style, Razor Toes, Pointed Toes, and Now Style
Narrow Square Toes, widths A A to XX.
$£.5O per Pair.
OUR OWN MAKE.
LADIES' FIXE TAX KID BUTTON, SPRING
HEELS. New Style, Square Toes and Diamond-
shaped Tips, widths A A to XX.
$~.50 per Pair.
ladies' Tan Kid and Black Kid Oxford Ties,
Pointed and Square Toes.
75c, SI and SI 25 per Pair.
Same as above with Black or Tan ( 'loth Tops,
latest style razor toes, pointed toes, narrow square
toes and hand-turn soles,
51. 50, 51. 75, #2 and 52.50 per Pair.
LADIES' TAN AND BLACK
Latest style razor toes, pointed toes and narrow
square toes, diamond-shaped toes, hand-turn soles,
51. 50, 82 and 52.50 per pair.
Extra fine quality TAX CBOMK KID,
SS:! per Pair.
MEN'S TAN SHOES.
Men's Tan-colored lace shoe $2 00
Men's Tan Hnsaia calf lace shoes, sewed
soles, pointed and Piccadilly toes 2 50
Men's Hue Tan Russia calf lace shoes, Good-
year sewed welts, latest style toes .. 350
Men's extra fine imported Tar. Russia calf
shoes, band-sewed welted soles, latest
style razor toes, pointed toe-sand new style
narrow square Yale toes....' 5 00
You have nothing: to lose and all to
If our SIIOKS are not as .-t«-nt*»d
return them and we will cheerfully re-
I fund the money.
Largest Store and by Far the Largest
Stock to Select From.
When you can't get fitted elsewhere, al-
ways goto "Nolan's" and get fitted there.
£&~ Mall Orders tilled by return ex-
! PHELAN BUILDING,
812-814 Market St.
CAMPING OR TRAVELING
Shawl Straps 9 25
Leather Club Bays.' 1 00
Gladstone Traveling Bags 2 80
Shoulder Bags 2 00
Twine Bags 25
Tourist Knife and Fork Sets in Full
! Pocket Flasks 75
Collapsing Cups 25
Wood Pie Plates 10 per doze»
Paper Napkins 15 perflOO
Tin Cups 05
Coffee Pots 10
Tin Flasks 10
Alcohol stoves 16
Coal Oil Stoves 60
Knives and Forks 05, each
Teaspoons 10 per doze*
Tablespoons 25 per dozen
Corkscrews 10 each
Straw or Canvas Hats 25
Outing Shirts 50
Three-Jointed Fish Poles 10
Gutted Fish Hooks 10perdoze»
Kinged Hooks 10 per 100
Telescope Baskets 18
Splint Baskets , 05
Fine Mexican Grass Hammocks.. 1 00
Croquet Sets 75
Camp Stools 25
Steamer Chairs - 75
Electrical Construction and Repairing
of All Kinds. Estimates Given.
Special attention given to Sporting
Goods and Barber Supplies. Razors,
Shears and Knives ground and repaired.
818-820 Market Street
Factory— 3o First Street*