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title: 'The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, August 16, 1896, Page 24, Image 24',
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THE PASSING OF
A SPLENDID RACE
Tke Gkinese Brought
the Lining Death
.HOPE FOR JI SCIENTIFIC
Dr. WinsloW /Anderson's Learned,
Valuable and Interesting p^per
on the Dread J^alady
The ancient condition of the Hawaiian
Islanders was like that of the natives of
the South Pacific— especially those of Poly
nesia — to whose race they belonged.
It is estimated on the beat authority
that the islands were inhabited as early as
600 A. D., and probably much earlier.
From this time, until shipwrecked Span
iards were driven by the trade winds to
the Islands of Hawaii in 1527, no defi
nite kuowlege of the inhabitants has been
obtained. In 1555 the islands were dis
covered by Juan Gaetano, and again by
Captain Cook in 1778. Captain Cook esti
mated that in 1778 there were over 400,000
inhabitants. In 1832 there were only 130,
--000; in 18ti6the population was reduced to
59,000, and in 1896 there are about 32,000
native Hawaiians. The causes operative
in the extermination of this splendid race
are diseases such as consumption and
measles, brought over by the early sailors
and settlers. Oftentimes measles will kill
off half of the inhabitants of a village
when attacked. Intemperance, syphilis
and other vices are responsible for many
deaths. The native medicine men or
"Kahunas" play no small part in Killing
off these simple-minded men-of-the-sea by
their superstitious and barbarous method
of treating the sick. The total mortality
of leprosy since its introduction into the
islands has been only about 5000.
Leprosy appeared on the islands for the
first time in 1844, at which time several
Chiness were found suffering from the
disease. It is therefore known to the Ha
waiians as mat pake, or Chinese disease.
The first case of leprosy among the native
Hawaiians occurred eight years later
(1852). At the present time (1896) there
are about 1200 lepers on ihe islands, ot
whom about 7CO are males and about 500
are females, mostly native Hawaiians and
balf whites. There are a few Chinese,
English, Americans, Germans, Portu
guese, Spanish, South Sea Islanders and
one negro suffering from the disease.
During the twenty-six years following
the time leprosy first made its appearance
on the Hawaiian Islands the disease spread
to an alarming extent; accordingly in
18t>6, during the reien of Kamehameha V,
a leper hospital was established at Kalihi,
Oahu, for the purpose of segregation and
isolation. Later in the same year a leper
colony was founded on the beautiful
island of Molokai. Here on the north
ern slopes, sheltered from the winds, is a
fertile valley comprising some 5000 acres.
This valley is surrounded on the north,
east and west by the ocean and on the
south by impassable precipitous mount
ains, 2000 to 3000 feet in height, formerly
an extinct volcano. In this garden of the
sea, with luxuriant tropical verdure, is
the present site of the Hawaiian leper
colony, where the unfortunate sufferers
are surrounded by all the comforts the
present enlightened Hawaiian Govern
ment, can give them. Here they live and
cue in sunshine and in peace!
Origin of leprosy.
As with many other diseases and social
conditions, it is somewhat difficult to de
tcrmina when and where leprosy origi
nated. It is probable, however, that
leprosy arose in the delta and valley of
the Nile in prehistoric times. Leprosy '
was endemic in Egypt as eariy as 1500 j
B. C, and existed in India, Palestine,
Arabia and China. It was also endemic |
among the Hebrews when they migrated
from Egypt.— Lev. xii.
Leprosy existed in Persia, and the j
earlier Greek and Latin writers speak of j
ihe disease. In Greece and Italy we find
it as early as the first century B. C. The '
disease was probably introduced by the ]
army of Pompey. From there it spread
to the Roman colonies in Spain, Gaul and
Britain. Charlemagne made laws regu- j
lating the marriage of lepers in the seventh
century. In the eleventh century we find |
the disease at, Canterbury. During the i
criifadcs leprosy became epidemic in i
Western Europe. It was estimated that j
at least 19.000 lepers existed in Europe at !
this time— lo96 to 1271 A. D.
Hospitals and lazarettos were estab
lished for the care and isolation of lepers
all over infected Europe. Ninety-five
such houses are recorded in England,
.Scotland and Ireland. Bergen, Norway,
established a hospital in 1277, which until
late years had 2000 inmates. Leprosy is J
met with even at ihe present day in many
parts of the civilized world, from the
frozen north of Norway and northern
Russia to the sunny south of India and
the Pacific islands. Within tha last six
months a case was discovered on the
streets of Paris ana sent to the Hospital
ht. Louis, where there were already sev- i
eral other patients. The hospitals in San I
Kenu and in Spain and Portugal are
never without leprous cases. Turkey and
the lonian Islands are also infected. '
Crole alone has over bOO cases. In British !
India it is estimated that there are over!
100,000 cases. In Japan there are 100,000 i
lepers. One hundred thousand cases or !
more will be found in China. The prov
ince of Canton counts over 10,000 lepers.
South America and Africa are infected
with leprosy, so that it is impossible at
present to ascertain the number of per
sons afflicted with the disease. It is I
safe, however, to estimate that no fewer j
than from 300,000 to 350,000 cases of j
leprosy exist at the present time in
various parts of the world. Even San
Francisco has a number of cases on hand
most of the time.
Caubk or leprosy.
Temperature, climate, aoil, race, habits
and food all have been regarded as predis
posing if not ticking causes of the dis
That temperature has no obvious influ- j
ence on the disease is manifest from the
fact that Jeprosy prevails alike in Norway
That soil and climate are equally inop
erative is shown by the fact that it occurs
both on marshy soils and at high eleva
tions, both on the seacoast and inland
regions, both on continents and on islands.
Race and habits are not specific causes,
as proven by the existence of the disease }
among persons of the most diverse and
opposite habits. Tne theory that a fish
diet is a cause of leprosy has been dis
proven Dy the fact that the disease ap
pears in many parts — such as the interior
of Spain, for instance, where only the
very wealthy can afford fish.
That leprosy originates from cold and
exposure and a want of vegetable diet ia
also erroneous, beoause the greatest num
ber of cases occur in warm climates, such
as India, where clothing is never needed
and where a vegetable diet alone is used.
The real cause of leprosy is undoubtedly
the leprous bacillus, a Email, rodlike
vegetable micro-organism similar to the
bacillus tuberculosis. The disease is
contracted by inoculation — actual con
tact of the mucous membrane or abraded
parts of the cutaneous system. It is
never hereditary, as is generally sun
posed; but children may, and often
do contract the disease from infected
mothers after birth. The most usual
manner of inoculation in the Hawaiian
Islands 13 found to be their method of
greeting. When two friends or relations,
meet they first rub noses, them embrace
and kiss. During this kissing process
their lips are firmly pressed together and
the tongue is protruded into each other's
mouth. This form of salutation is no
doubt responsible for the spread of the
disease as much if not more than any
other social custom or relation which ex
ists. Another prominent method of prop
asrating the disease in found ia the man
ner the Hawaiians care for those afflicted
Dr. L. F. Alvarez, in Pacific Medical
Journal, January, 1895, says:
•<* • • I found an unfortunate woman
in a dark, low basement. She was
paralyzed, blind, without finsrers or toes
and had open ulcers on her arms and legs.
Her friends fed her by conveying pot— a
native dish not unlike bill-poster's paste —
to her mouth with their fingers, and gave
her water by taking a mouthful of it, fit
ting their lips to the leper's and transfer
ring the water to her mouth. This dis
gusting manner of giving water to the
sick still prevails in many Hawaiian
homes where spoons are unknown. This
leper woman was returned to the hospital
at the leper settlement. Since then nine
teen persons of her family and friends
have developed leprosy, many of whom
httd been nursing this woman."
Leprosy undoubtedly occurs from di
rect contagion — transmission of the bacil
lus of Hansen — from an infected person.
All animals enjoy perfect immunity from
leprosy, occasionally reported cases to the
contrary notwithstanding, as the bacillus
in these so-called leprous animals has
never been demonstrated.
The period it takes for the disease to
show itself after incubation averages about
six to seven years.
The disease proves fatal in from ten to
It is not the object of this article to dis
cuss the pathology of leprosy. Suffice it
to say that three well-marked varieties of
the disease exist, viz., tubercular leprosy,
non-tubercular or anesthetic leprosy, and
mixed tubercular and paralytic leprosy.
The tuoercular variety being the most rap
idly fatal, the patient seldom lives more
than from eight to ten years after the dis
ease manifests itself.
Treatment of Leprosy.
In such a chronic and fatal disease as
leprosy it is small wonder that many dif
ferent kinds of remedies have been tried.
Excision of the primary lesion has failed,
as it has in syphilis, because the system
is already infected before the primary le
sion appears. Mercurials and iodide of
potassium are worse than useless. Creo
sote, salol, salicylate of soda, gynocardic
acid, quinine, arsenic, iron, gurjun oil ana
chaulmoogra oil have proven of benefit.
For external use chrysarobinum, iodine,
ichthyo!, iodoform, europhen and pyoleta
nine have proven useful.
The Goto Treatment.
This consists in bathing daily in hot
water in which are placed bags containing
hichiyon bark, taifunshi, sulphur and
yoku yaku. Internally he gives seiket
suren pills, tincture chloride of iron, qui
nine, strychnine, iodide of potash, gentien,
columbo, carbonate of soda and potash,
and Epsom salts.
Goto during his many years of residence
in Hawaii failed to cure a single case.
"The proof is lacking that cure has been
obtained in any case 1 ' (Dr. Emerson.
Government Physician, Hawaii). "Many
of the patients reported Dy Dr. Goto as
almost cured have since died of leprosy."
(Dr. Alvarez). Several Hawaiian lepers
have gone to Japan to be treated at
Go;o's leper hospital in Tokio. But
several years' treatment :n that institu
tion, "in some cases without even
amelioration, convinced these Hawaiians
that it was useless to remain in Japan,
hence they returned home and were sent
to the leper settlement" (Dr. Alvarez,
Bacteriologist, Hawaiian Government).
"Dr. Goto's Japanese treatment has
failed" (Dr. Ashmead). From per
sonal observation in the Hawaiian
Islands I am satisfied that Goto's
so-called treatment is entirely em
pirical, without the slightest scientific
foundation, and, as every educated phy
sician who has ever tried it or seen it tried
confirms, it is absolutely without any
merit in the treatment of leprosy. The
so-called temporary benefit results merely
from the cleanliness obtained by the fre
quent bathing and the tonic treatment,
which could better be established by
More recently (August, 1896) a Dr.
Thomas Holmes of Brooklyn, N. V., de
scribed in the daily press as "an aged
physician, " has discovered a cure (?) for
leprosy. He incloses his patient in a
glass case, into which he also introduces
"certain gaseous vapors, into the composi
tion of which suiphur enters largely.' 1
This vapor is supposed to kill the bacilli.
When it is remembered that before lep
rosy is discoverable there are already de
structive ulcerations of tne tissues or
pathological affections of the nerves the
absurdity of the "cure" is at once manifest.
A possible cure for leprosy exists
in using the antitoxine —an alka
loidal extract— of the bacillus of leprosy
itself. A year or more ago the present
bacteriologist of the Hawaiian Islands,
Dr. L. F. Alvarez, in discussing the sub
ject with the writer concluded to try the
antitoxine of the leprous bacilli hypo
dermically at the leper station at Kalihi.
This treatment 1 saw carefully and
scientifically applied on the islands dur
ing my recent visit, and if there are any
scientific data for the use of vaccination
as a protective against smallpox, rasteur's
treatment of hydrophobia, Koch's treat
ment oi tuberculosis, Behringand Roux'b
treatment of diphtheria, etc., then cer
tainly leprosy may be benefited and cured
by using the antitoxine of the bacillus it
self. One great obstacle is the separa
tion of the antitoxic from the toxic
elements in the leprous toxines extracted
from the leper bacilli, but this can be over
come by patient investigation, and I do
not despair of finding a scientific remedy
for this dreadful malady.
Win-slow Anderson, M.D.,
M.R.C.P., London, M.R.C.S.. England, etc.
in Pacific Medical Journal for September
THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL, SUNDAY, AUGUST 16, 1896.
Say So of Belas
LIKE BELNS SWUNG DOW.N
BY TJiE JWHR
f\&rd Floors HaVe No Terror for
Jhem, and When They Strike
Jhey JRise Up
Banp! ! There was the report of a pistol
yesterday in Belasco's Lyceum of Acting
and a young girl threw up her arms, cast
her eyes heavenward in a spasm of agony
and fell prostrate — on a soft cushion.
Frederick Belasco fired the shot and
Miss La Faill* fell. There was no bnllet
that penetrated the heart of La Faille, but
she fell just the same and lay as though
she were dead. There was nothing at all
unusual about it because Miss La Faille is
shot at three days in the week and falls in
Frederick Bclasco In the Act of Hurling a Fair Pupil to the Floor.
a way that makes the observer's blood
Miss La Faille was not the only aspiring
young actress that measured her length
on the cushion yesterday; a half-score of
others followed her. They wero not all
shot at, either. They were seizad by the
hair and hurled down by their stern
One of the most important accomplish
ments of an actress is to be able to fall.
They must learn to fall down with a min
iature crash and not yet really injure
themselves. It is a hard thing to learn,
too. "I devote an hour a day," said Miss
Drinkall, "to my falling. I fall on the
hard floor now and it does not hurt me in
the least. But when I began you may be
assured I was covered with black and blue
spots and sore in every muscle."
"There is quite a science attached to the
accomplishment of falling. It looks easy,
the same as swimming does," said an
other future debutante, "but when you
come to actually practice it you find it an
exceedingly difficult matter.
"It requires nerve, too," chimed in an
other coming histrionic heroine, the pos
sessor of a mass of golden curls. "When
your head strikes the floor, unless you
The Fair Pupil Hnrled to the Floor, Lying Prostrate Yet Unharmed.
know how to fall, the sensation is not at all
"We all like to fall though," exclaimed
a third. "It is real fun when you get used
Mr. Belasco took his position at the end
of the cushion and called to one of his pu
pi!s to go through the ordeal. Suddenly
his genial expression changed to one of
suppressed fury. He grasped the young
lady by the hair and hurled her with
great force to the floor. She fell. The
noise of her falling was distinguishable
above the din of the wagons on the cob
blestones of Market street She lay a
moment with her eyes closed and then got
up, smiled and said:
"It didn't hurt me the least bit."
The young lady, who fell with perfect
grace and abandon, was fortunate, from
the onlooker's stana point, because one or
two falls were considered sufficient by her
teacher, and she was allowed to sit down
and arrange her fallen hair and watch the
others. One of the iron-clad roles of this
particular lesson is that the pupil remove
all the hairpins from his or her hair and
allow the tresses to flow as nature in
tended. But if a novice exhibited the
slightest timidity or lack of faith in the
softness of the floor and strove to lessen
the force of her fall by her arms, she was
placed under the ban, and reauired to go
through the operation at least twenty
"There are several kinds of falls," said
Miss La Faille. "When one's senses reel
from uorrow one falls directly backward,
the shoulders being the first portion of the
body to strike the ground.
"A front fall is when one is reduced to
the depths of despair. Then the fall is
flat on the face, the hands being used to
protect the face.
"When one is shot or stabbed there is
first a reel and a stagcer and then a fall to
the side or partially on the back, as the
case may be. The hands are then at the
side and the eyes are closed.
"Whenever we fall we imagine we are
in the midst of some terrific passionate
scene and fall as naturally as we would on
such an occasion.
"At first it produces headache and
causes nausea to fall and the tendency is
to throw oat the arms to protect yourself,
but with the right kind of practice this all
wears off and it becomes really a pleasur
"The first lessons are always on the
cushion, but this only continues for about
three weeks of daily lessons. After we
aro thrown down on the hard floor and fall
down ourselves on it.
"At home we practice falling down a
flight of stairs, and trip ourselves pur
posely to fall.
"It is not always the heaviest women
who fall the heaviest. It is all art. A
light woman unversed would fall with
great weight. We simply relax every
muscle and fall as though we had no con
trol whatever over our limbs."
Longevity of /\nimals.
Rabbits and guineapigs live 7 years,
squirrels and hares 8, cats about 10, dogs
about 12, foxes 14 to 16, cattle 15 to 18,
bears and wolves 20, rhinoceroses 25, the ass
and the horse 25 to 30, the lion 30 tc 40, the
camel 40. According to Aristotle, Buffon
and Cuvier the elephant lives two
centuries; some authors say even four
or five. After his victory over Porus, Al
exander consecrated to the sun an ele
phant that had fought for the Indian mon
arch and gave it the name of Ajax, and
then, having attached an inscription to it,
he set it at liberty. The animal was found
350 years later. Buffon says the stag's age is
35 or 40 years. Fishes, especially the
large species, are long-lived. Acccording
to Bacon, eels reach 60 years, carp have
been known to live at least 150 years, when
they seemed as lively and agile as ever.
Dolphins, sturgeons and sharks live over
a century and attain a huee size. Pike
have been known to weigh 1000 pounds,
indicating a great age. A pike caught at
Kaisers-Lautern was 19 feet long and
weighed 350 pounds; this was in the year
1497. It bore in its gills a copper bolt
with an inscription stating that it had
been put in the pond by the order of
Frederick 11, that is, 261 years before.
Whale-fishers have exterminated the huge
whales of the polar seas. Those that were
formerly met with were of prodigious
size. It is supposed, with some prob
ability, that they lived several centuries
and that they may even reach the age of
It is not known with any degree of pre
cision how long birds live, except that
their longevity is great. An eagle died at
Vienna at 103. Buffon says the life of the
crow is 108 years, and Hesiod says 1000
years. A paroquet brought to Florence in
1633 by the Princess Provere d'Urbia when
she went there to espouse the Grand Duke
Ferdinand was then 20 years old, and
it lived fully 100 years after. The cele
brated naturalist Willoughby had certain
prcof that a goose lived a century, and it
is conceded that the swan's is longer yet;
some authorities give it two and even three
For Feed mci nc a Horse.
An ingenious man has invented a device
for feeding his horse, and he does it with
one of the ordinary alarm clocks. For in
stance, if the horse is to have its morning
feed of grain at 5 o'clock, the alarm is set.
and when the morning comes the horse
gets its breakfast before its owner's eyes
are open. It is so arranged that the alarm
pulls the slide, letting the grain run
through a sluice to a manger.
The tone of a piano is best when the in
strument is not near a wall.
Strange Story of the
Little Woman in
JILL-DJIY VISITOR WITHOUT
Jhe Ten-year-Old Qirl Who Reads
/Iristotle and the "Reflective
In the reading-room of the Public Li
brary may be seen day after day a slight
youne man, with a pale, refined face. His
clothes are neat, but old, and however
well kept they will soon become sbabby.
He comes in every morning at 10 o'clock
and leaves about 5. Sometimes he goes
ont at noon for a few minutes: at other
times he remains during the lunch hour,
and taking a roll frexn his pocket slowly
eats it. He reads one paper after another,
and seems mostly interested in the adver
tisements. He makes a memorandum of
some of them, and for the moment his
face brightens. Then he takes up the
magazines and looks them over with a
listless air. Upon rare occasions some
one recognizes him and he return? the
nod shrinkingly and goes on reading.
One of these chance acquaintances in
speaking of him said :
"Two years ago he bad a prosperous lit
tle business in the country. He failed,
and his wife persuaded him to come to the
city. He would make a good salesman;
he is also a bookkeeper, but he has never
been able to obtain a position. He can
vassed for a while, but his sales were few.
His modest retiring manner was against
him. Once he obtained a position as
brakeman on a streetcar, but the work
made him ill. Now he goes downtown
early every morning, looks for work for
an hour or two and then comes here, where
be remains until night."
"And his wife?"
"Oh, she invested a little money she
had laid by in a tiny shop which she tends.
She also Eews for the factories, and takes
care of the baby."
"Why, pray, doesn't he remain home to
"She prefers that he should not. If you
happen to ask for him she says: 'John is
downtown. Poor fellow. He leaves home
at 7 o'clock and walks around all day
looking for work.' Then the brave little
woman sighs, waits on a customer, sews
and soothes the fretful baby. With it all
she is falling behind and before long the
shop must be given up.
"Her husband does not mean to deceive
her, but if he went home after two or
three hours she might scold and say he
did not try. When he comes in at night,
tired and dispirited, she says quite cheer
fully, 'Any news, John;' And when he
answers 'No,' she says: 'Never mind, get
up early to-morrow morning and look
Another frequenter of this library is a
consumptive-looking man of middle age.
He comes about 7 in the evening, selects a
book, remains reading it until iO o'clock,
and then lakes it home. The next night
be appears again, takes out another book
and proceeds as on the evening before.
Evidently he sits up half the night to fin
ish it, for he is engaged during the day in
some light occupation that doe? not over
tax his feeble strength. He is a bachelor
and a most Baying man. Books are his
only diveraion. The only pleasure he has
taken in twenty years was his trip to Chi
cago during the exposition. He lives over
and over again the delights ot that visit,
and his conversation is chiefly upon that
subject He tells you between the inter
vals of a hacking cough that in 1900 he in
tends going to Paris, and it is noticeable
that the books he reads are all works of
travel. Not a possibility of his not sur
viving until then ever crosses his mind,
although his frail figure, his halting step,
his weak voice, make one doubt whether
the next night he will be reading in his
The busiest time at this library is after
school hours. Then come trooping in the
school children, from the tiny tot just be
ginning to read to the boy or girl ready to
leave school. Of course they choose books
according to their age and taste. One iit
tle girl about 10 years old comes regularly
twice a week. From her appearance she
is evidently the child of poor parents, but
she has a bright winsome face, and a
thoughtful air far beyond her years. She
attracts attention by the books she invari
ably selects. They are always works of
philosophy. As she was trudging off with
"Aristotle" the question was put to her :
"Are you going to read this book your
"Yes," she replied, gravely, C l am going
to read it to papa."
"But why does not papa read it him
"Oh," she said, with a sad little smile,
"papa is blind."
"Mamma goes out working, and poor
papa is lonely until I come home from
school. Then I read to him."
"Don't you ever read stories?"
"No; papa doesn't care for stories. Be
sides he's going to write a book on philoso
phy some day. He's going to tell me
what he wants to say, and I'll write it
down for him. Papa says we'll make lots
of money, and then mamma won'tfneed
And, with a happy smile, the child put
the learned volume in her satchel and
trotted down the stairs.
The Mechanics' Library on Saturday
afternoon presents a brighter and livelier
aspect than at any other time of the week.
Owing to its convenient location it is a sort
of rendezvous for ladies, young and old.
Here, when bent on shopping tours, visits
to the theater, etc, they meet their friends
and forth they go together. Many of
them return later when the male element
appears in the shape of homeward-bound
brothers, husbands and husbands-to-be.
A regular Saturday visitor there is a lady
dressed in deep mourning. She is young
and has a refined, spiritual face. There is
a strange Btory connected with her coming.
For two years she had been in the habit
of meeting her husband in the library on
Saturday afternoons. He always came a
few minutes after 5. When she saw him
enter her face would brighten, she would
quickly lay aside her book and, arm in
arm, off they would go like two lovers.
One Saturday, a few months ago, she
sat waiting aa usual. Five o'clock came,
and her eager face, needing only the light
of the one prescenceto enkindle it to radi
ance, was turned toward the door. A few
minutes later a close observer might have
noticed that her face blanched, that she
half rose from her chair and then sat
down with a gasp. But her husband did
not appear. Half-past 5, her look had be
come anxious ; at 6it was distressed. The
library was now almost empty. She could
no longer read, but rose and walked about.
She went to the outer door and looked up
and down the street for a familiar form.
None was in sight. She returned to her
seat. Then, as if unable to keep her anx
ious thoughts to herself, she turned to a
lady whose kindly face invited confidence
and said :
"Do you think any accident may have
happened to the Oakland train?"
"I do not know; but why do you ask?"
"My husband had to go to Oakland to
day on business, but he promised to meet
me here at the usual time. He has never
yet failed to keep his appointment, so I
fear something has happened."
"May not his business have detained
him longer than he anticipated?"
"Possibly. But what worries me is that
at the time that he always comes I thought
I saw him stagger in deathly pale and
holding his hand to his head. Once he
said jokingly that, dead or alive, he would
The lady waited until 7 o'clock, then
"I won't wait any longer. I'll go
As she passed out she laid her card in
the hand of the sympathetic stranger.
The Sunday papers were full of a terri
ble accident that had happened the day
before at a little after 5 in the afternoon
to an Oakland train. Among those who
met death was the name of a man corre
sponding to the name on the card. The
man had been struck on the head and in
stantly killed. Whether his spirit had
kept the appointment or whether it was
a fancy of bis wife's brain the reader may
The lady still comes to the library on
Saturday afternoons. She sits in an ex-
pectant attitude, with her eyes riveted on
the door. A little after 5 she leans for
ward, a startled look comes into her eyes,
her pale face grows paler, she sighs deep
iy, then rises and goes home alone.
The Mercantile Library has a more re
tired air than the -other libraries. It is
never crowded. The people come and ro
softly ; they do not congregate in croups
to laugh and chat, and there are never
many who remain to read. In the recesses,
where there are tables and chairs,
there is entire privacy. In one of these
nooks may frequently be seen a small,
middle-aged lady, with deeply set eyes
and gentle face shaded hy soft gray hair.
She always comes in the morning, and,
choosing a sunny corner, seats herself at
the table, clasps her hands upon her lap
and gazes intently before her. She re
mains thus for hours, and appears to lose
consciousness of her surroundings. Her
attitude of constant meditation has made
her known as the "reflective lady." and
many are the surmises as to the subjects
upon which her thoughts are centered.
One morning her meditations were dis
turbed by a lady who sat down at the
same table and began to read. As she
read she passed her hand across her fore
head and pave a slight sigh. The reflec
tive lady noted the movement, and catch
ing the expression of pain said gently:
"Excuse me, mad a me, are you suffer
The other looked up surprised, not only
at the question, but at the sympathetic
"Yes," she replied, "my head aches
"Let me take your hand," said the
thoughtful lady. "Now, think that you
have no headache, that you are entirely
well. Do not allow your mind to wander
from this point."
The two sat thus for some time. Then
the one who had been suffering said
"How well I feel. Have yon hypnotized
"Not at all," was the answer. "I have
simply cured you by will power. My
mind has convinced yours of your error
in supposing you had a headache."
"Well," said the other laughing,
"whether it was an error or a headache, I
am relieved and truly grateful. Do you
often," she continued, "exercise your heal
"Yes; I have helped many people. I
am helping sufferers in the distance when
I sit silently here. In this place a peace
falls upon my spirit, such as will not ad
mit of the existence of any suffering,
physical or mental. This morning I have
been treating a man in the Mission who is
paralyzed. To-night I will hear how he
is. lam sure he is better."
The lady whose headache had been cured
opened her purse.
"No," said the other, interrupting the
movement, "don't offer me money. I
couldn't take it."
"Well, you'll let me thank you, won't
you?" extending her hand, which was
warmly pressed, and the two ladies parted.
The one who had found relief from the
headache went blithely out. The other re
sumed her former attitude of deep cogita
From the Collector it is learned that
Presidential years brings out a crop of in
teresting autographs. Sometimes it brings
entirely new men into the market, but
generally it lifts 25-cent and 50-cent speci
mens to a higher plane.
A Republican nomination will carry a
50-cent man to $150, while his election
will make it $3. if an entirely dark horse
should be chosen, his letters might easily
be quoted at from $5 to $10, as there would
be a great rush for him, and probably an
For a long time Arthur was $10 to $12,
but is now $5 to $6. Collectors who have
complete sets of Presidents desire the new
men at once, and their competition drives
up the price.
As ex-President Harrison generally dic
tates his letters the price of his autograph
letter continues very high.
The Democratic Convention at Chicago
will help the value of some man for a
time, but it will probably fall back after
McKinley's letters have never been very
plentiful and have generally sold atfl.
He is already worth $2 and will be higher
The letters of Vice- Presidents are never
in very great demand unleis for other rea
sons than holding that office. It is an of
fice of possibilities and amounts to very
little in itself.
With the new 1 President comes a new
batch of Cabinet officers and it generally
includes several unknown men. It is gen
erally months before any of their letters
turn up, but they come in time.
The autograph fiend is very busy in
these times, and bis pressing communica
tions form a large part of the mail of each
Presidential candidate. Liite the poor,
the fiend is always with us; but let us be
gentle with him, as often he graduates
into a reputable collector.
HoW Derelict Public
TO RESPECT DE.MJUJDS
OF TJiE PEOPLE
Jhe Gour\cil Disbanded the Fire
Department, and the Indig
nant Citizens Reconstructed
If there is a city which more than
any other in this mighty State of
California seems assured of a certain
steady prosperity it is Salinas. By its
very situation it is admirably fitted
geographically to be the county seat of
Monterey. It is but a few years since
Salinas was s babe among towns — it has
steadily grown into a healthy youth, and
is about to attain its majority and enter
into the full bloom of manhood. Its mu
nicipal health and stability and broad
promise have not been attained without
several struggles worthy of a page in the
annais of civil government. Its last and
greatest fight for its liberties has been in
full accord with its peaceful, rural sur
roundings; it has been a fight for all that
is near and dear to every patriotic citi
Like all incorporated towns the citizens
elected their City Council, "from the peo
ple, to serve the people, for the people,"
but a factional fight arose within this
Council of Fathers. Its inception is hard
to trace, but the City Council (whether
through pique or false notions of economy
is immaterial so far as results are con
cerned) disbanded the Fire Department
without providing any other means what
ever of protection against the possible
ravages of fire. This action, so unex
pected and so menacing to the public
safety, took the citizens by surprise. For
some days this was the great topic of dis
cussion, on every street corner and at
every place of congregation. A public
meeting was called and resolutions passed
"prayiig the City Council to take steps
to protect the property and lives of its
citizens." It was a fair demand made in
a constitutional manner, by the best men
and wemen of the city, but for three long
weeka ibis request was ignored, and then
two fi«es, claimed to be of incendiary
origin fthe firebugs are now in jail await
ing trid), awoke the citizens to the neces
sity of in immediate reconstruction of the
Fire Department, and, if necessary, the
impeadimer.t of certain members of the
Witbthat swift action which ever char
acterize the aroused temper of Americans
an indjrnation mass-meeting was held, at
tended by over 1500 taxpayers, and for
three sours the Salinas Pavilion echoed
with tie rise and fall of the voices demand
ing inttant action for the public weal and
safety. This meeting unanimously rein
statedthe old Fire Department, gave back
its coitrol to the esteemed Chief, "Tom"
Joy. a young man whom the citizens es
teem for his proved ability in fighting
flamei and directing his charges. This
meethg even went further and appointed
a coamittee of four of its leading citizens
to take immediate steps, if found neces
sar}',to impeach the derelict members of
the Gty Council.
Su«h then is the brief sketch of a fight
for ptotection which was fought openly
and ron honorably in Salinas, the valley
city. When one comes to consider that for
three-weeks by a foolish action of the
countil hundreds of thousands of dollars'
wortl of property was jeopardized,
thouands of lives in danger and a wbolo
townliable to have its policies canceled —
or rewritten at much higher rates— one
recojnizes how miserable it is to see public
officeused to satisfy private spleen, and
how ommendable was the action of these
Salitus citizens in effecting the reform in
sucln peaceable manner. This action In a
gravf public situation has won the hearty
approbation of the insurance companies
espedally and thousands of Californiana
It i to these citizens that Ciaus Spreck
els las decided to give the largest sugar
beet actory in the world. It is from these
peope that this industry is to obtain its
latest and greatest impetus. It is from
such public-spirited and loyal actions that
the yesent and future welfare of Cali
fornii is to be maintained and strength
Derliction of duty in public officials
needaimmediate reproof, and this lesson
in mmicipal correction given by the citi
zens if Salinas to its City Council is worthy
of emulation by all those who wish pure
goveoment, which defined means the
greatJ3t good for the greatest number.
OHd Facts for the Curious.
Pot toes made their way very slowly
into, popular favor England, and were
so coily that they, were ; only seen on the
table; of the very rich. Fifty cents per
pound was the price of them in the reign
of Janes L %, Shortly after the restoration
the Government and the Royal Society
tried jo encourage their cultivation, but
progn is was extremely slow and it was
not unil nearly the end of the eighteenth
centu: ' that the tuber came into general
use. ; ;
Secc id-hand plateglass dealers do a
large iusiness in San Francisco and other
large titles. } Nearly all of it is bought
from . Insurance companies. . The large
plates 4 are insured when put in the win
dow, ■;. ad ; when any of them is broken
the owe: usually prefers that the insur
ance ouiDany should replace the broken
plate^kther; than that he should be paid
its pri*. . . The dealer in the* second-hand
glass ontrives to utilize what remains of
the uibroken part of the glass, cutting it
into pjoes of smaller size and disposing of
them c opportunity offers. ; :
■ The smallest tree in the world is the
Greenland birch. It :is only three inches
high, #t it covers a radius of nearly three
feet. •: •■'.-■;;} ■--';- ■•-._ ,;/.,. ;•.: .;'
Cycrfts in France must not only carry
a bell s id a lamp, but i must have a name
plate, dinewhere bearing their full name
and atSress. Riding on the sidewalk is
allowedwhen the roadway is under repair.
Rudjird Kipling's "Letters of Marque,"
descriptions of the old cities of Rajputana,
.written when he was a reporter for the
Pioneei will soon be brought out in Lon
don. *fiey : were r reprinted .in ■ pamphlet
form iiilndia, but could not be published,
owing some -"difficulty about the copy
right, fhich has now been removed.