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The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, July 07, 1907, Image 16

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FIFTEEN MINUTES WITH THE
MEN WHO RULES
ROME
H. C. Williams
THE CAl^t. here presents some
flashlight sketches of Roman em
perors drawn from the: mine -of
antiQtifts presented -by • • Mrs.
fhoebe Hearst to tbc University. of Cal-*
jfornla and now in the museum of an-;
(iiropologj' at Berkeley.-
Tho genius of despotism lies in the
i<nver of taxation and may reside'
qually in any form of government. Re
ublicaa Rome acquired her vast Mealtli '•
\u25a0y the por.rr of taxation she exercised
iver a conquered i world." Her' ariito
£rat!c eonate and her ccmocratic ae
lembly controlled this power and the '
bower had resolved into'special'privi
leges that were the monopoly "of the •
Lasses that <xercirc<3 the •government -
if the Roman municipality, and her.
raluable franchises were as cagerr%-.
lougbt after then as the great prizes of ;
Commercial monopoly are, sought after
how. Collection of these vast revenues
W&a farmed cut to individuals and sueh 1
kffices were ameng the 'grand prizes to
fee fought for: In the hustings and
oonght In the caucuses, .nr.d a. Roman
tax collector could be sure of immunity
from punishment if he v.-x>uld divide his^
ttealings with the courts or legislatures
ifcat had jurisdiction owr lam. When
l pro-consul could afford to give out a
tb-ipload of gold to a r>cyublican oo'urt.
fcr a eenatorial ring as a bribe,, he and.
the brlke takers could rely upon the
irmy of graft that reached" into" the."
icnate and forum in tho earao dark lwn,
ern eerlcs. that today reaches from
;Vall etreet Into the state legislatures ,
- md iho primaries of our cities. Plebeian,
md aristocrat alike bad : grown 'entirely
•enal and were preying upon' the, help
ess masses of the empire Tbe grand
prizes fell to the sharo of the wealthy
monopolists who controlled the ap
pointing power through \u25a0 the bribes;
kvhich, with free games and free food,
they threw to the voting populace as
Its share from the general spoil. .The
tine of graft was complete from the top
to the botom. The .'despotism:' of taxa
tion has no parallel except-Jn the recent
history of tlxe United States, where un
limited powers . of . taxation have | been
fconf erred upon a coterie > of irresponsi
ble and impersonal corporations. .
During the days of the ; venal, repub
lic the ricli were preying upon th«i
poor. We shall see, as the, imperial
power developed, the condition reverse
Itself and tkc poor prey upon the rich.
Julius; and Augustus attempted to_ r<* r
form- Coinan .Institutions upon, the basis
Of its ancient constitution, and. failed
because the structure .of \u25a0 Roman.soc
iety had become entirely parasitic."
from Tiberius.' onward,'the' interests !of ,
the city became more and more subor
dinated to tho! interests of the people'
of the empire. Thc'outwar'd forms re
mained. The. senate and , assembly de
liberated on imperial affairs, but:lhe'ee
tvere carefully prepared beforehand by ;
the emperors, rand' in Trajan's \u0084 time'
popular institutions had reached the '
condition described by Pliny, "as "a.
Shadow and' an empty, name."
The array had become the rear source
Of government, and behind the army *
the people who supplied it. The rank's
were ao longer, filled by Latin's, - but
from the people of Spain, Gaul, Ger
many and Greece. The emperors" de
epised both senate and 'assembly.' When
they were needed they were * bought. >
But a force remained which; the em
perors were decidedly, afraid of — public
opinion. This \u25a0 was reflected into the
army and did not become degenerated .
by the orgies of the capital,, and finally
every c^zen of the empire acquired'
the privilege of Roman - citizenship, \u25a0'
•which, witli the franchise, was retained
by the soldier after enlistment The
Sentiment of thearmy made and unmade
c emperors,- often from their own aum-,
* bcrs, frequently t from- influential -citi
zens throughout the empire.^, and o<f- !
casionally even the lowest class fur-
nished the -man who • was to wear the
purple. The parents of Maximin were -
chepherds of Thrace. He. began ,as -a
private soldier. and: rose by, successive
Bteps to the Imperial dignity. \ In short,
the imperial authority resided ;in / the
army and the army was democratic.
As they .were elevated by the;. army,
the army " would often depose them.
(Maximin was murdered In his tenf by
his soldiers, his head .' sent 7 to, Rome,,
\u25a0where It was burned by an • exultant
populace.
• Tiberius, as all of the emperors ) of
the first century, . was morbidly ' hated
,by the aristocracy. Sucli - records as
iiave come down to us were 'written 'by
a. literary class who were the "clients
,and often the slaves of the wealthy
families who had been excluded ," from .
participating in the government.- This
hatred was Intensified by/ a' system of
proscription and extortion* ln which the
.rrealthy families were the victims. 'It
was easy to make : a charge of con-^
BPlracy or treason 'against an aristocrat
whose natural Instinct . was for the
ianclent regime, and if one <lid not exir.t
.It could easily be invented.: for 'the'
(Cmpcrors were . well served ' with spies,
} and treasonable -charges - were ' fre- '
( quently. made by /a wife,-, a : son "or a
sister, who hoped to profit by the de- :
.struction of the family chief." There
fore, Tiberius, Caligula and Nero \u25a0 have
,been painted in the blackest colors ' All
three of these began their" reigns* in
fthe most liberal spirit. But surrounded
"by. conspiracies, and in constant fear of
assassination, they gradually became
'morbid and, under necessity of court
ing popularity by extreme liberality
;to the citizens, and soldiers, they lost ;
no opportunity to extinguish :a patri--
f clan family and confiscate its wealth'
for use in feeding , the multitude and >
feeing the army, : and both - army - and
inelUtude • would always sustain - them
In it.
It v is now.knov/n that Xcro did uot set
fire to Eomc, nor, fiddle while It burned
but, on the contrary, aid what he could
to extfnsuiEhUhti tiames. : He had lor,~
becn.wlßliiay .to: widen -nd- straighten
Its, narrow, crooked i*. treats and Kene--
elly beautify- tJie .city, ' 'but the senate'
iajxd, people -v/ouid not. consent .to the
sacrifice. , He -is, \ known < to have»-ox-
presscd satlsfaptipn that; the, fire -had]
created [ the. desired '.opportunity,: and
this expression^ probably, gave -vise to
the aspersions .which - iiis; enemies f as-
Kcribed to him - : and .which ' thsi' mielit
easily. Indulge ;£.fter his gloooiriy;end. :
For a Roman empefor;seldom '."died !n
liis .bed.",- He ,was , killed S by
soldiers Incited by a rivai;general,«poi-";
«oned by a relative ; ambitious ..to pro- j
mote a lover or a son, /'or assassinated
by t a conspiracy ;, of ,: the nobles tthat
bated the Imperial' authority.,* i -i
The , system » of * spies ; embraced \ some
member of : every ."distinguished': family.;
find, as scon as a person . began: to ( talk
• about the plansicf Uie^emperor'hlsjlife;
was 'in- danger. .The. spies : -'hovered;
Ebotif of Icae
majeste and • spread terror^ every
where. As a* share of the' spoils Jfell to •
the' informer,, the system developed 'the
greatest abuses. and was extinguished >.
by'Nerva arid.Trajan.. Keguius amassed
nearly $2,000,000 in this'way, and many
crimeswhichhaveb^en^ascxibed to Ti
berius."* Caligula -or Nero were^due to
tlie machinations of these ' fiends", often \u25a0
without /knowledge of the emperors.
It wa3 r systenv developed ;-oiit of th«
splrit'of greed which : had poisoned .* II
classes. Trajan loaded a ; flotilla -with
the' ppiep, had 'it towed ,out to' sea an<l
abandoned, without" sails, oars or nic!
ders.' It . Is presumed; the miscreant 3
perisherl." --" ./ : '• '." : -' \ : - >.'.. :^'i'^~'i : S'i\\'
But the decadence' of Rome was. not
sn'-, if a ' essence "political.. It was:du<3'
principally to - the degeneracy of^ Her
women. In "the early,- severe'republi
can days they "we re personified by'LiU- "
cretias,. Virginias Cand Cornelias. We
see the power, of the matron as tho
mother of \Coriolanus_ supplicates hei"
son r to turn- his. victorious -arms from
the city, 'and we see the filial duty: and
affection "as "he .reluctantly >obeysl In
the days of : - tho dying republic and
eaVly I : empire the picture^ is reversed,
and the Julias, Messalinas and Poppeas
have .become.as vicious ; and' depraved
as their antitypes had been- chaste ami
noble.' ;\u25a0.•••,\u25a0\u25a0 • . \u25a0 •
r," Both Julius and Augustus framed
vigorous' laws against 'celibacy and' di-.
vorce,' The marriage-laws,, had- become
so loose, owing to the" continual stciig- '
gleV.b'y -women for . "f recdo'm," \u25a0 that
cither 'sex 'could' be^iivorced by". mutual
consent merely." ' Celibacy p iriercase'l ''
owing ' to \u25a0 the '.prevalent ;: extravagance. \
and th« cost . of '"keeping 'up appear-i'
ances,'*:and men would : not- marry : un
less "the; woman had "-a liberal ."/lower. ..
J^fa 'sons were alarminglj'. frequent,' anJJ
one-of the": greatest 'scandals' coneerne.l
Julia, daughter of .-Augustus*- himself.
'She had been wedded, to Tiberius upon
the death of Agrippa,- her first ; hus
band.* but her conduct', was so scandal
ous that. Tiberius,; exiled himself in
Greece -for -several, years in order. -to \u25a0
avoid :her,and -not - offend . her , f ather.' .Llto'
is'" said \u25a0 that he allowed Augustus to
entirely misconstrue- his motives rather
than give his reasons. ; But the eyes of j
Augustus were finally. opened, he exiled
his daughter. to the Crimea and had her,
illegitimate child killed.. As the act,
divorced Tiberius; he. returned to Rome, I
to be adopted by. Augustus and become
his successor, r, Almost .every; emperor,
even including- N«ro; labored to rescue
Roman' society from \ these vices. But
nothing" canie •of it.. 'The cancer was
slowly ao, cat, the heart out of the Ro- •
man world. -.- • . >- .. . \u25a0 - :
Juvenal-tells the story of Ilippia.
wife of a .patrician, living, in all the
luxury of ; the' time,' who sought^a' new I
excitement' by. V leaving /her." husband's
bed arid ; ' board and running, away .to.
Kgypt.with,argladiatoiv.;And-the*easl-,:
ness of divorce." as. well;as the- laxity 'in .
moral?/. could jhardly befbetter shown
than' by 'trie" sa'me'poet:: ..
TTtw •tbf'Tirago.trlßniphs. thTis'slio reigns.;
Anon she Klekens of her .first <l<mia lns, .'. ,',
And seeks for new: hust>and-<m husband take«,
Till of hpr brWal t«-H one rent- she make*. .
A ?ato sbe tire*: azaln for cbanse-sbe- burns,
And to the bed sfoo lately If ft roturns..
WbUo'f'rerti ftp j:arlan<lg,'sn<i;unfii<Jca hougbp.
Yet derl? the portals of her \u25a0 wdnderins ' i«pouse.
Tbus 1 Wells 'the list— t\gttl bus'nands in fire jrarE—
A. rare'lnscript!<«n- for, tbeir: FCpiilchxrs. . .
ilmperial .favorites: did .much to ren
der -the of ••. craperor insecure. '-[
Augustus- grew -jealous "of- thOiinfluence I
of Agrlppa. and through the intrigues
of .his .wife- Llvia,- the- mother of -. T'x
berius, .he.; was , exiled by being- ap
pointed, governor of a province.' '.Se
janus, .the. prime minister^ of Tiberius
and -.who. exerted, enormous! influence,
engaged In,, a • conspiracj' -against; the.
emperor, who got, wind of it. \u25a0 .Tiberius
was cold, patient Jand; inscrutable, i and :
\u25a0when 1 he was cruel it -was with, a' devil- :
ish calculation. . He sent Sejahus. with j
a% letter -to- the • senate, , which was \u25a0 to -^
heap ;new.!honors'.. upon'.lhlm.' ' He sat v
haughtily -before the , august . body
while, the imperial; letter; was .opened.
It -began, iwith compliments; ,'. itlldl
'grcssed;l it .returned -again to compli
'ments,.'and' again . lulling
every^ suspicion; jthenVsuddenly, before
the, adulators j'cpuld; flee' from 1 his'chair,
it exposed -.his. conspiracy,, deplored: his
cruelties "and r commended him* toVthc •
rpvenge > of the , Romans. . The,-'.*"citi-
zens" * held high carnival over.; his ; body ,
forUhiree days. .' - v. " • *-*'*-'; *
During. his last* years Tiberius '. grew:
morbid- and; withdrew "to the" island;of .
Caprea and':,secludc'd.*;iiUns'elf ;.'.froin
Rome amid; fay orJtes^whom he in turn
rewarded -and "destroyed. '" A* story '; is
told ,of : certain ; . wit .'in Rome, iwho, ?
seeing a corpse go'.bj-/ said to'it::"Tell : "
Augustus that- the- legacies* left to*the .
common ' people^-' .have ;'.not ' been - paid." }.
Informers brought the- wag^tO/Capreal;
arid 'Tiberius 'carefully 'computed »and '
p'aid'/the^share.' . VGo," ' hej said,* "and
tell Augustua' that you \ received his'
legacy." ,The : torturers ' took the vie-,
tim and "threw* him' overl a high: rock;
into ; the • sea. J-. The f auftienticlty > of ; the
story is doubtftil. ; 'It -was" r elated .by \u25a0
Suetonius;, who llvodja- century later,.
and vmay,;be^considered*-;v may,;be^considered*-;: 'aniong ".\u25a0 the'
many • legends • that i gatJicr \u25a0 around the . ,
; memory !of. eminent ,inen.-\Tibcrluslwas i
one o£-thc 'few,'cmperors--:whb' "dicd'a
natural/death,* althougli ' contemporary ;
gossip) asserts- that-: he -was- poisoned '
by . the mistress .-of ? Caligula. usj^BH^W
r Twor'of jthc •ftnesfcharacters, of chis-'c his
tbryr:;G€^manlcus>and < rAgrippiha,VjEvere<
the parents 'of and ' the mother \
of 'Nero.r- Caligula obtained? the purple/
through Itlye 5 Influencel.of ;the Pretorian j
guards, .that 1 for- faT century [and }aihalf
afterward 'madeand unmadeiemperors. ,
He did* much* tO; centralize^ Roman >au-"
thprltv .'and .*. showed J- statesmanship ' in .'
extending; Jloman . citlzehship %to ,_ the \u25a0
peoplV of ttUo 'provinces::;; He ywas espe
cially ' despotic .with the , senate, whose
iu3uence ! he 'grta.tly. reduced.;^ Toward \
Uie . as»embly t '.ho. was. even .more con
. temptubus',* - and *to jr eKowiJ it had ,'.' his;
favorite bprsei: elected fcorisuL^Heiwas
extremely, prodigral. l " anil ;ip) said; to ' have |
epeiit, liis f.fortyhc of = $300^000,000,;'.be-
sides *the;.iiTiperial 'revenues,?- on ;pubHc^
buildingp^ 'game's -'and -largesses. Ur'the..
'people^ an^ : " army. '.V.Hc^ was" inordlhajtcly*
Valn>an"drctillectedjthe=. most 'famous" of
the? statues 1 of Hhef gods 5 from J tlie' Par-J
Uh'cnbn'and elsewhcre,tbad:"thelr^heads'.
'strpekj offhand fhis '* own *' put? in I their -
Iplace'.. He^caßt*; a" statue 'of .^himself *in '
p^ re " gold, J dressed . it* daily,* as,' he ,- h im
self/ was rdressed, and.'-called' upbn_ tho.
, people 4 to > worship J- It.' jj .These \- stories/
,tbld ' by. >; Sueton lows, ;\u25a0* are \ , tb j be r ttaken i.
s"wlth'some*gfalhs?of;salt.>-Caligula:wasVs "wlth'some*gfalhs ? of;salt.>-Caligula : wasV
•; finally.", killed rby some i; offlcers *of f tho f
*Pretorian3 guard.". ;.:.*•>\u25a0' ''j ',:,-\u25a0 ':--\u25a0'', \ : . '
' Nero ' reigned ? v well • if or^a \u25a0 tlme.l but] the"
atmosphere '"of ; conspiracy 'altered .- his '
\u25a0 character:^ His ! name j has jbecome I &\hy- \u25a0
»word'fof < despotlcJferocityr^Flnallyltl.e:
i army -in rebelled |aad Selected •'
\u25a0rGalba-^The'senatercdnflrmedttheTelec^ 1
tionrand'Nero'committedisuicidervGal- \u25a0
'[ba.^Otho '.and '.Vitcllius-^fonowed : each
other In- rapids succession, , thoir i joint
reigns lastingjbut: one ycar.---,Galba.was '\u25a0:•
murdered, ; : Otho ; ; committed '; suicide. •;
.Vitelllus,' .vwhosei' portrait *\i>- : presehteid,'* '
was v known: aa the-i imperial \ J glutton;^
After - the~ death ,of.Nero.tlieiarmy, ? ln '
Asia \ hadj followed the iexampje^of ithe ;-;
.arhiy.-of t J Gerniahy.?and".eltcted-\yespa^
sian, • who"* cam « to Rome.'Svlth his [armV»»*
;Vltellius vv f gather's v iip V "tho i-Rol«l 'of \thsL"
treasury; : guards ; in^hisirpom'^
wi th's a" fierce * dog.'r, piles f his ji.bqddlhgf -"' ;
against -the., entranced and -then, "losing^'',
spirlt.'glves himself 'up:to the mob,\who
torture him'- togdeath.. V " . %. ;
• Vespasian , and yiiis/. son .vgav*
to rt'lie "Roman *lworld~- a" period of :.' re- : '
lief from the • reign \ of sblood \u25a0-' and . did ?
much °. to'ibeautif y": the ,. ci Jy. ' ; The \ arch i \u25a0
of 1* Titus.' Is->'still;'in » fair,-: preservation-;
and : / bears < upon \u25a0 its ? panels/ sculptured ;_•"
pictures^of -the ;Ve;s߻lSj from ; the; templo.
of Jcrußalcm,* exactly ; as». the* bible '^.de-T
'scribes "them.". famous.^ cbliseum\
was' besunjjby,* Vespasian^'and : ;fihlsKedj
by Titus." ..] Both idled ,"deaths,7.
and rcontempdfary.jhistoriaris^of.f Rome-;
gave '.Titus >the v appellatldn\of ["Thel-De-.r
light /of i. Mankind.";'; ' 1^ vias j followed ".'
\u25a0 by! l hisibfother.;l)omitla™;J;'^ :\u25a0- T \u25a0 . ":'.'*.. v
J Domitian\began^hiSjreign'by*'acts{of^
; ref ormatlohH'; : i Hojv enf orced'K.th'e ', laws •;
against; adultery/ and? the"' grosser; fornisj
of>- immorality ;p erected^ inuny {temples';
and; publlc^buildingrs.Vstopped: thbuWlth-;
• drawal:^of /jarablc'f land^forf pafk^SaVcli"
'-' s because : oC»,i the y-rgrowing^
: scarcity(of.'grain^Ho^tp6k?ajpcrqdnal^
• share r in* the ? administration '\u25a0 of ? justice V
arid' exercised i : rigorous i supervision 'over;*
the . governors jof Vprovincca.;. 1 : Near; the \u25a0
' close V of p his Crcign*the*revolt£of_*the r -;
general ' lh^command^of. | tho .fo'rccs^iriV;
Germany:'- causc I d|^hisjj*tenii)m%V'tu .; sour^:
The ' re%'olt? was iConnecteii. \vi tii T."ii >; coi w
s'piracy of ; some nobles "of j tlfe fc'api ta 1. vj,
k was^ put ~li do*wn| jind turned";
:upbn.the'patricians^with r an"ihsane\furyj;i
.andfsurpasscd|SuUa°,with^hisVpjoscrip r^
tioris; ,'aofl
' eml^nce^wasTsaf e.'^TheTpatrici'aiv: or- *
der^waS; ""pfactlcally^lextlngiilrfhed.M'a'nd;-''
never.exertedeihfluenceyagalh.-f- 5 These"^
Vthreef years .have* beeh^n'amedfth'o^Rb-t;?
manireignof :terror.l!Hlsjwife,Vwhp|felF|
"; her_ ! llf e -in /dahger.'i 'conspired *withlisal:
- freedmari.l who f stabbed jDomitiah 7 \i\. his '\u25a0
\u25a0, bedroom;?; L} y. .;' Q'J.i-^f-^ .^v'V '~~.fc':Z~'-tf-'\'&*i
' the!throne.*K HefTecalled |those %
\ beenljexiled I by> Domitiahf and trestbredjj
jEuch'Ofjtheirjprop^tyJas^waslleftslThe;'
; countless^ informersgjWlio^ had ;
lafgely-responsibleJforlthc.vexcesses^of;"
f o>cj ar >: ataperoM^j^wW^epj^awa^J
\u25a0;r.,Tlms closed i the,-. stormy, ; imperial . po» :
i riodi' of " t 'f 1*0*111*;-] the t ancient! :
: \u25a0crjnatUution'iy'of i"'*theVjßomah ;' VpVbple.*;"'
jßbmo r/is'asV'mereljvlthaV
' capitarrcityrof.sthe cropire'^and.fdid -nptt:
alwaysSremainTeye"n ;'that:;;;The',dembr;j
cratic-ComitiaYexplre'd^alonglwlth^the 1 ;:
\u25a0 patrician^ dfderJ thatiliad * been , contend-"^
;Ink'."witli;it v for|six'centuries«for^polit r ;:
Eical'> supremacy. '^ ?^l6h*g *era.*Tof;-pe'a«Je'
; Qam'citd [the "woridjVand jln> that.'interval"'
jof :'ci"u»etr. theu Christian ifrcligibn' gradii-V
;ally^"aisplaced' : ,tlie*j:pagaii^. ideals. Jarid'
jmcrgedjl.by'^barbarian^b
ißpman^bishops'XputT^upon^themsclves^
*the|roanUeTof.{Caesar,fandHhrp"ug^
j inoralf f orc.ej'of 'Rome^alpne^heldiUpjthe'r;
;^amplofrChristian7ideallty|^b?gTiide^t^eJ
; new ; peopled as \ they^strugglcd^throuKltl
itJio^longjnißh"'tVofjthe]m!ddle;ai:eß^/^^
'.. -The •lcseoii..' is;' singularly^instvuctLve^
to '.'Ameriiians.-^wh'ose '>institutions?and^.
\u25a0laws ij-tiear". so^ close^ ;a'ii-'r9.«cmb!arice<;to r r
; \u25a0.tJibse^ ( \i ir e^h"ave^briefly^out" incd.^irAnd^
ISvhile^our^iridustrtallrelitionithaVeip'oJ
parallel V;lri^human|history;rtit|ls^clearJ
arel apprqachirig|aTcrisis 'ff, in^bur^*
I national Sllf e,^ and|thel crisis j is "| finding:^
yuslsujbject',tbithe<s^ame7»pa"sslbns|and^the^
: saniel:; human -;r;:the-';-'Tsame>
' greed .for; money.*;, the" same C growing!
ilaxityjin|the : mbrarnatuf e^^nd^ th*e*sarne ;
'sySptoinsS^of^decay.^yh^'^^vH^^
\u25a0.will'bfingrforthfmaylnotibe'lnibwn.^
;have | va stKmasse6lof^capltal|controJledi
|byj ag single |hand^using|the '£ t lands . J ot I
s lnd lvidu^l|capi^iists^asj;if|they^'^re|
' his| persbhalf pVoperty^ and^we 4witneßß|
the con cen tra t tin/of,o n /of ,; th is jj wealth'^ tm ill*
I J l-: "«*9uld^seemWas]? if | sometCaesar^fof H
fl " a «pe# mustf arise| and f controls I ti|all. s 5
, Agaln^we , Bee^^S^atio^^ilag
bor'combihe/anaiall'its 6nergies Jxe^-smo'
wielded : by. j a ; . commit tee • or ,' By ca \u25a0; single j
man. "labor? have
come; imperionaljandf a"- la\\v unto'them-
selves, { and*, both ireaa r-the ? doom > of \ the :
middle?class*"outi'bf iwhichithey ' sprung-.
The| energies ifof/modcrhJHfe 5 have ;be;^
corned a I tremendous i tirilt «land I tlie % lndi-_'»
vidual|hai|becbme v ; sut)raersed^un.der.*.a
y asttmacianejtlfat inVust-Vbe i,wtelded£by *
R^slngle? bVainXor-i tiwill TnotS go j atVall.J
S^h^expre?sionJas"itHeiJndivldual*niay^
makejheßmust^ex^rtlth'rouyH^a.Jrepre--.
sehtativelwhol already^ lias 1
delegated Ipbwers^Canithefprocess^b'eJ
reyei^ed/|qr^must{itfgo^onr4«htli:tiit l 5
mergesMntoTcompleteldespbtism?^\Will^
tsl *ii9 a e a i ar * of j \u25a0 cap! tal s? suc.ce.ed w
tiirough Jalliaiice? with i tbeja^aregatloh" 1
Qf;labor,fasjJulius]didf2o,S:en.turies:ag6?; ;
I^iit^p'osslble;f or;, the] equity --of *thelindl-';
vWual,*irlch?aQdJpoorr?tp3.bfico!Ti"eicrys-r
tallized|into|law» that ;can>b*e/€xecuted -
and robejre'd? J^illithej'era ofiwhich |tne, r
presehtiisJa Ijpreparation.rdeVfclbp*int1 jpreparation. r deVfclbp*into St ar
democratic^ aociaHsno -i qrj In to fa 5 ; f «?juda 1 ;
ariatocracy?/^lfj.Ui"e)pfs.tJ4tbreJc6niposi-J
tion'fof Isoclety^mustsbelmilitary^iiiiiits''
c **?. n .< ;e > 1 j for-fneXresulari army a 'isUoday,;
the | most j i f * not «the Yonly^really^demo- E
cratic machine^in*the T Ainertciu" L syßtem?i
U ithe : second^itlwilljoia^c'iittle ; differ-/*
ftrhe^San; Francisco CaU-
*. encef to ith&Tav.erage'citlzen .whether \u25a0 the
> overlords! b> ?from £ the ;
iuniohslforuniie^trusts.MOr "'will
iandstft»,^barbarJans?tljat.'Bhalir 1 destroy i
fc ourciviliza tlo a*be'tb,e< oiitsxowUi'of 'oux; ?
own institutions ;; and tsocjety. be d«-
; voured-j by;, lts] parasites.*, '/All of = these
questions areJpresJeated'in-tHia human
drama, of arid: fall> r Qflß«sa ».
Some .of . theiarat*^.^anyweTertraJid the
answers^ornot'tendUolreassuretii .

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