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The San Francisco call. (San Francisco [Calif.]) 1895-1913, October 27, 1907, Image 6

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FIRST TRANSCONTINENTAL
RAILROAD TO ABANDON STEAM
FOR ELECTRICITY
\u25a0 \u25a0
Tr \u25a0RANSCONTINENTAIi trains, drly
I «n by electricity Instead of steam,
I long: the dream of railroad ex- !
perta, are on tin verge of being
put Into actual use, and on a biff scale.
Moreover, the electric power that Is
to drive mighty engines and haul
heavy cars will be generated from the
ewlft running: waters of a river, thus j
Utilising a power that is too often p«>
tnltted to go to waste.
The Chicago. Milwaukee and 8t Paul
railroad is the pioneer that will es
tablish the first road of this kind.
Nor are its plans merely In embryo*
The work of installing: the road la *o- j
tually under way, and in aCcoupl* ot j
years the swift waters of the St Jo*
river in Idaho will give the energy
that will carry freight and passenger
trains across the Bitter Root mountains
and possibly all the way from Mlssoula,
Mont., to the Pacific coast.
That this is the age of eleatrldty
has long been recognized, but the dis
placement of 6team engines by electrlo
has not been as rapid as was forecasted
a few years ago. !
Electric engines have been substi
tuted for steam for pulling trains
through tunnels in the Rocky and Cas
cade mountains in the far west, while
James J. Hill, the controlling genius of
the Great Northern railroad, has long
planned to use electricity Instead of
eteam on the larger part of his lln^.
Heretofore, however, the matter has
been simply discussed. The Milwaukee
railroad is the first to expend large
turns of money to put the plan Into
actual operation. It now has over 2,000
men at work along the shadowy St Joe
river In Idaho drilling tunnels, build
ing roadbed, cutting down forests and
making corduroy trails over morasses
and harnessing the power of the river
by means of a system of dams.
The roadbed will be opened in less .
than three years, when electric power.
•will be utilised in lifting great freight
and passenger trains over one system
of mountains, and possibly over a
second.
The stretch Qf the new line of trani
continental railroad between the Bllg
Boot range In Idaho and Rock hya
"Washington, is one of constantly r*SOfr
ring tunnels. As the survey n&fi
Btands. there will be 1* tunnels Oh
about 150 miles of line, the aggregate
length being 10.000 feet, ranging from
the 4,000 foot tunnel In Liost Pass to*
the numerous small bores through pro
jecting cliffs not more than 60 feet
long.
The River Power Engine
Following as the line does the very
brink of the St. Joe river, it would
have been strange if me engineers had
not devised some scheme for utilizing
the power which is wantonly wasted.
The value of the river on the Swift
water division will be apparent when
It Is known that theoretically 200,000
horsepower can be developed In one
reach of £5 miles. I/ams will be built
as closely together as possible and
practically every available cubic foot
of the river will be harnessed. The
cost of development Is about $50 per
horsepower. Approximately $9,000,000
will be expended in this work.
Enough power can be developed, if
converted into steam power, to drive
600 big mogul engines with 160 miles
of train, or 20,000 loaded boxcars, more
than the company now owns onfall its
lines. But a small part of this vast
energy will be necessary to lift the
trains to the summit of the Bitter Root
range and to drive them through the
150 miles of recurring tunnels. It Is
proposed to utilize the residue in pro
pelling the trains still farther toward
the Pacific coast goal.
In the 35 mile reach where the power
Is to be developed the railroad survey
runs on a four-tenths of 1 per cent
compensated grade. That is, the grade
of the curves is reduced enough below
four-tenths of 1 per cent to compen
sate for the increased friction. About
three-tenths of 1 per cent is the actual
grade, equivalent to 16.8 feet to the
mile, or SS3 feet for the entire distance.
Roughly estimated, the minimum flow
of the river Is 1,500 cubic feet per
second.
Two, and possibly three dams will be
constructed, the survey men being al
ready at work. One of the falls will be
a few miles above the little sawmill
and summer resort town of St. Joe,
where a dam 66 feet high will assist In
the development of 500 horsepower.
Another dam is to be built at Cotton
jwood Island, 10 miles farther up the
river. The construction of the \u25a0 series
of dams will result in the overflow of
the bottom lands, but these have al
! ready been bought up by the company.
I A ranch recently purchased for $ 26,000,
;er $125 an acre. Is to be completely
[submerged.
In many cases a dam from 60 to 100
'SEVERAL, SPECIES QJP FL.EAS AND a THE EPHECTIVE
Zoe G. Williams
DO cat and dog fleas feed promis
cuously?
Ask the owner of a Maltese or
Angora cat and you will learn
that they do not; that each parasite
restricts its diet to the animal it was
created to prey upon, and that high
bred cats never have any. The owner
of a Boston terrier will tell you that
ehort haired dogs are naturally flea
less, and only occasionally carry one,
received, probably, as a souvenir from
some friend. The owner of a setter
will say that fleas are everywhere In
a sandy country like California, and
that the dog only shares the common
fate in having* them. But he will add
that a dog flea,- or pulex canis of the
dictionary, never leaves a nice, warm,
woolly dog for a human — it is too wise
for that; 'the flea that worries the ge
sui homo is the pulex irritans or hu
man flea— lnhuman as its disposition is.
As to the chicken flea, which is suf
ficiently like the others to be mistaken
for them,' a walk through the chicken
yard will enlighten you. Chicken-fleas
are the hungriest and most frequent of
all. Countless numbers of them might
be estimated *to - each square inch ;.. of
chicken yard and its immediate * sur
roundings, and the aggressive Insect
•teals. a ride and a meal from every
trespasser. pHQswfeß~3Sß^S^
Once, a little Billy and his sister. Sue,
wishing to engage in the chicken'busi
ness, began by cleaning out an old,
feet high will bacn. .»mer several mltM ;'j
up the river,- although it would spread
but a few feet above either bank. \u25a0 -Am *
the average height of the roadbed \u25a0 U '§
not more than 40 feet above low water,
the height of the, dams ; is necessarily,
limited. The dam shortly above St Jot,
at what is known as Little Falls, Is to
be 86 feet high, and will back the wate;
12 miles up the river. _ . ;\u25a0; '
Sawmills Run by Water r
In addition to running the trans-,
continental trains.- the water power dt*
veloped Is to be utilized in running
sawmills, which are invading the ; ter
ritory, heretofore given over to trout*
Indians and infrequent, hardy tourists^
One company, subsidiary to the rail
road company, has recently acquired
100,000 acres of timber land in northern
Idaho, 28,000 acres of which are trflm-'
tary to the river and the new line of
railroad. Some of this timber runs as
high as 10,000,000 cubic feet to the'
quarter section.
Hundreds of thousands of . acres of
timber land lie right alongside the St
Joe river. The logs have heretofore
been floated down to sawmills at the
mouth. .Hereafter it; is proposed to
convert them into lumber at, the scene
of the felling . and transport , them to
eastern and • western- markets by the
converted ' power . of g the g river Itself.
Tributary to the St Joe, St. Marios
and Coeur d'Alene rivers; and Coeur
d'Alene lake, it ; Is estimated there are
25,000,000,000 feet of standing timber,.,
or enough to keep all the mills at the
half dozen established sawmill towns
In operation 150 years, during which
time nearly three full grown crops will -
have matured.' *
The work of surveying the roadbed,
harnessing the swift waters of. the St.-
Joe and laying out the . proposed saw
mills has meant many arduous and
hazardous engineering feats. \u25a0 Survey- .. -
ors have been compelled to dangle
over a cliff at the end of . a rope 60
feet long, a half hour at a time before
being able to establish a level. Moun
tains of rock have been blasted down
and great cuts filled up. In some places
the cost of construction is aggregating:
$1,000,000 a mile. /
The work has been Inspected by
President Ear ling and other high offi
cials, who made »a tour of the western
reaches of the line recently. -
abandoned chicken house. After work-
Ing for: an ~ hour . the children sought
their mothe» In such distress that it
tqok a bath and a fresh d/jal of clothes
to quiet them. The garments ~: they
had worn were left out in the yard so
that the fleas could go home again.
It is easy to become interested in
this species, ; though ' only the prole
tarian of fleas, because of Its respon
siveness, breadth of mind and desire
to travel and Improve Itself; and. some
people reason, if this insignificant' va
riety, can show such catholicity of
taste, a cat or dog flea, sunning: Itself
on the sidewalk, might look at the ap
proach of a pair/. of well filled open
work stockings much as an American
gazes into a French restaurant window
and says to $. himself, ; , "No I pork \u25a0 and
beans^and pie for me today. I'm in
for a many ; course ! French dinner with
wine."
In a* pamphlet ; on -household 'insects,
Issued by. the entomological division of
the United States department •" of , agri
culture, a paper :by*L. JO. Howard
tells • that; the eat and dog ' flea (pulex
serraticeps \u25a0 gerv.)' has exactly those
sentiments at times, also that the cat
and dog, are both- bitten by the same
flea.' •- ; \u25a0 \u25a0 ' .
\u25a0 Quoting from a paper by'-C.-'F.
Baker , in :. the , Canadian Entomologist
of August. 1895, Mr.; Howard
that there are ~- 47 valid • species* of
pulex ! which \u25a0 attack all- sorts of - warm
blooded animals,- but.- ther\pulexfser
raticeps gerv. •> is ; the common eat ; and
dog flea, well known over all parts of
the world. - It not only is f found oni the
cat ; and dog, but ; has > beenXreported
from various wild cats and: dogs,", from
herpestes ichneumon (Pharaoh's rat),
f oetorius j putorius » (common' polecat of
Europe), - hyaena • \u25a0:•: ' strlata 4; ? (striped
hyena). ; lupus timidus i (common \ hare) ;
and ; procyon "; lotor ; - (raccoon).' It -'i Is
also said occasionally to sip -human
blood. It i may be . told rat\u25a0 a' glanco
from thf , so ; called ; human [ flea * ; by ' ; the
fact J that" the ; latter does • riot
possess . the ; strong * recurved ; spines \u25a0\u25a0 on
the margin of j the i .
The entomologists various coun
tries have, studied this -and ?Mr.
Howard ;, gives 4 extracts from} papers
by 7 Labulbene, Ivs who W experimentally
ha tched and '. raised '? some 3 in '• France ;
W.~ J. Simmins, - who ; studied' themVin
Calcutta,"' and ; others. ;; The notes ; of ; all
these men regarding the development
of the " Insect," from • the r egg:t6^the ego,
are .very < similar^ to t "; the \u25a0 deductions
drawn". '/, I r om '. (± his ?A own ~-i experiments,
which" he made = lu'"Washlnßton,iD. C. •
, Mr; '•; Howard s ; begins l by i say ing;';"Ex-,
aminatlon of many specimens sent to
the department' in recent years Bhows
that the species which -commonly over
runs houses during the - damp summers
In " our eastern! cities ; at leas t"— and ;.\u25a0 he
could safely have < included * San Fran
cisco—"is ..." not, ' r as \u25a0?-\u25a0' many ;' have tt ~ r ' sup ;
posed, the human flea; but the" com
mon, cosmopolitan flea of the dog and
cat" * >r - '.-\u25a0^i';-:*r. J v.v--;-':- - '/ijp^i ';- "\u25a0\u25a0:.
.-The ; eggs of this species are laid in
the • cat", . dog J or? animal they^ Infest;
and, not being attached, are , shed or
shaken V from « the ' : hair : of : the'/ animal
as ~ if.'; moves. >j On •; some ;{cloth| or,T. mat
where a* dog, orVcatl has ; been'; lying (they
are ? usuallyMfoundviin'%abundance'lto
gether.vwith • a? dusti composed Jot? frag^
ments of cuticle, hairs ' and! fibers. ... -As
soon I as ; hatched . th c grubs find a lodg
ment'in? the!carpet,i matting^ or; cracks
of the flboriwhereltheyj live , and 1 thrive,"
feeding on vegetable | dust"! during I all
but the last ltwol stages | of their vde
velopment, g If V rooms 1 are l undisturbed
by : sweepl ng "\u25a0 the ; fleas ; Increase '% enor
mously. For rU that \u25a0: reason i fleas • are
usually more numerous • In ; city houses,
at the end of , the summer, when people
have been awaj>»nd little or no sweep-
Ing has?beeh?done.: iA.-^i A . -^- 'i :\u25a0' iiy;-CV
1 v The i larvae Sunder , i the , microscope
: look like caterpillars. - The first? nine
segments r i ; bear,;v- :^ each 7 \u25a0 four, dorsal
bristles <' aridT one iventro*> lateral. > : ,The
two | following," eachlslxidorsali and one
f lateralsbrlstler|andif.the : penul-.
timate segment; eight dorsal . and one
ventral, ; the 't bristles % becoming \ longer
towardjtheendofithe^body." ; / . '
C.l They < move^qulckly,'; propelling them^
selves :by means of i the) bristles and; the
tubercle - like % spines i below'' the % head.'
They", feed ?on | dust, % air ; and, ; as; some
suppose^ tin \ particles iofj. dried blood
found \ in » flea < infested 4 places:, ': ;:.'",§' -
.;\u25a0;/ The; rapidity; of. : development; depends
somewhat on' the' 'temperature,^ dryness;
ormolsture f of \u25a0. th c"i siirr o undlng ; \u25a0% but
the usual y. time %it 'j takes % to ',: progress
from i the ; egg I to| the '\ adult ; flea Jis ! two
.weeks "S or .?. a" little * over. I. Within >i two
days the egg hatches, and during the
next three or four* days • the i larva - casts
two / skins * and ibegins;*'? spinning f, the
oocoon.'i If disturbed ..while > spinning] it
seems ; to ;: make Sno H difference ;J t t6
hardyj Brub3,which v goes 5 Into ?. the % pupa
state^quite ; as | happllyiwlthTohly; a • par
tial covering, and, at the end of a week,
emerges^a/perfftct^a;';,-': \u25a0f : >/'[- ; :".
\: The.larya^lsreasily'destroye'drduring
the {first > stages? of ? Its >' growth, jbut^j on
: the t'othe^ 'haxid^r it^ is a" so* jsmall ,: and
slenderAtnat;it\readlly ; J flnds}a;Crack';ln
,the : floofVor. T a secure nook in'mattlng or
carpet, where it can rest undisturbed if
the broom does not find It out But the
adult; flea wears an armor that resists
most'ofithe'flea destroyingTagents.r.'S?*
:>i These? statistics » agree X with mad*
vertent experiment \u25a0 In ' flea ' cultur* I and
flea expulsion once made in San Fran
cisco, where - the : insect' is ' so - conspicu
ously and I undeniably established that
people can now hear its name without
blushing.v:--,^;^,;-.;.';^ -.;..-.,;- ,:-.. \u25a0.;\u25a0./,.',*\u25a0;
At the time I was living in an old, di
lapidated bu t com f o rtable house In the
Western ' addition, and ; ; on : returning
home from a vacation found that some
cats | had discovered an unboarded place
In'-: the ß basement y and had made thlr
way to my sewing 'room. : ;• \u25a0'•: -'\u25a0 '":. '\u25a0 '
;• ;- It -was a small, many windowed room,
with matting on the ; floor,' inside .blinds,
but ';; no . curtains Sor :. shades. . and, on
sunny days, ' was as . hot ias a conserva
tory.:7 * During.' the two -months ' of -my
absence .the -\ dust, cats - and fleas "\u25a0; had
owned ; the : place.* ,. When I entered sey
eral large cats scampered away and a
mother , " cat> surrounded >5 by ' : kittens,
looked jan j* indignant protest 'from T the
middle of my mending basket i: ;,
Banishing the cats, I put the. room In
'order/ and U. settled^down . to ' sew, • only
I to , realise ; In ) a ; short time ; that sitting
s tl 11 was impossible, f o r something as
powerful as th.c seven plagues
sessed 1 me. \u25a0" . Horfl fled/41 r : next % noticed
that a border of black specks i had:ap
peared ; close to j the hem of \. my light
woolen dreas skirt and was spreading,
as in ancient times the Goths and Van
dals overspread the'map of Europe. :
i'my^whole^ outfit^ in "the
- bathtub, >J I ': turned *" on <i. • both ;4 faucets,
donned,! fresh . clothes, v and i- sent •>: for
l .,CleopatrßV>who;;;at , $1.50 ;ajday; : never
failed me •; in -my i hours of . stress . and
:distres's.:^.''""r:i'-";.';.' \u25a0; ; . ; -_ _;--v : <..- - :
: Cleopatra arrived,, puffed herself into
.the * kltchenj 3 ? took i off r. her : bonnet fand
shawl* laid them on \ top of i her basket
and sat down. to get her breath. V'Well,
honey7V?she^said.v: >-:-- 'A ii v \ :^r: t^ r ,
c*. 'fWhat's i that?" « I : asked, displaying ' a
;ba'dlyjmottled > arm.?f ;"*:"; "* : " \u25a0\u25a0••'>;.\u25a0:\u25a0- \u25a0-\u25a0 .;
-. \u25a0> The : old*! woman's ' brows contracted
as \u25a0 she \u25a0 examined - and deliberated/, J She
• Power Generated
a the St. Joe River in
Idaho, the Chicago^
Milwaukee and St. Paul
WUI Move Its Trains
Frbna Montana to tiia Pa*
W \u25a0»-»"T-W"»"»W"»"»"»-»"»"»"»^»"» \u25a0\u25a0'\u25a0\u25a0'\u25a0"\u25a0"I \u25a0' \u25a0 \u25a0"\u25a0 I
j was as good a doctor as she was a
-nurse, cook and .cleaner, and never
'risked by too hasty a guess her reputa
tion as a diagnostician. - - »\u25a0
. i |«n ; ain't : perxactly , d» chicken pox,
honey,", she murmured. . "But — " , She
.' rubbed - her f glasses / and : looked - again,
"Seems moV'llke you'sbe'n a-hangin'
'roun' some yere chicken yeard." «h» in
sinuated : ; and - waited for an explanation.
/ X took her to the sewing room. and.
~l laying a piece of white ' paper >on the
: floor, watched the fleas drop Ilk* grains
lof | pepper, on • it, while I recounted the
history, of my home coming.
"Defeats brung 'em," she declared,
1 "anY de cat ; kind •is de bltlnes* of aIL
• How's * you gwlne to get shot of d e m
I bef o' . dey pervades de . whole premises?
Seems like. you'll have to move an' give
.\u25a0'em de house.** ; .
"I can't afford moving, Cleopatra.
Every cent went during my vacation."
"Wouldn't. a friend lend you non« 7"
' ""Not enough,". l admitted. "It takes
-money to; move." ;
; -Bhe calculated. ; "Well. <de Johnslns
; Is. away now, dat gives me Mondays,
an', de • Tuesday r people Is rustlcatln*
,'tooi % and :\u25a0 de': Wednesdays -; is " Inter
mittent. I reckon we's got time enough
totry, chlorldy; lime. It says on de can
'dat varmints,; microbes,; rats 'an* germs
,'caln'tnone o* dem'stan'^up against it"
;/;.; "Howdo you applyittri asked. {
>:— VMix; it iwid sao'ian',- sweep it ; Into
,de /mattln* an', den out agin. .Dat'll
fetch ..'emi'BhoV* :/".." . '.' .
T:;."Sand *,will -cnever ; do," \u25a0 'I "protested.
• i'They, thrive in ;sand." J :
:p \ I'Deyril .'die i in ; It . mighty quick , when
1 dat chloridy tetches ,'em. , aY if it , don't
•Jes'" strike ' 'em" de' power ob de smell
move ;>•: •«!». -Pretty you'll
seem a-settlnVon de winder sill a-look
vln',, f o'j a r uofi spot i in \u25a0de \u25a0 yeard ; to ; Jump^
"to-^-Jes'ltke dey- sets ionVde 'aldge ; o*
fde tub'after de doag's.had his bar, an*
; dty*s f a-.waltin%f o'J him : to git dry an'
come back along • dat ; way." \u0084 : / '."',
'/Chloride -of ; swept lit and
out ; of: thd'i room'- for* the rest ' of * the
week -without i any « apparent < eft ect --i. on
the fleas. On Saturday I studied the situ
ation, and concluded that the -matting
\u25a0 mvs t . com© up. "Thinking a bathing suit
I the; safest costume to work -In on 'ac
count ,of ; Its being -farthest '; from 4 the :
~, floor, '\u25a0' I , put ' on©" on and , attacked t - the -
'matting.- Working s .wlth ; hammer.- and
hands I soon pulled It up, threw It out
Tha San Francisco Sunday CalLi
of the window, and after it every, mov-.
able thing in the room..
On Monday Cleopatra scoured the
place with boiling water, strong with,
soap, soda and chloride of lime, and
the room. was closed for a few days to
test the remedy. It was a failure. My
next visit there disclosed the fact that
a flea can shut down Its thoracic seg
ments and swim through mineralised
boiling water as happily and securely
as a submarine boat sports In the
ocean.' I was still weeping when Clio-,
patra'came again. *
"Never mln', honey," she crooned,
*T» ben a-vestlgatin' dis yere worri- ,
ment, an' dey tells me dat coal oil's d»^j
business dafll settle it. Now I'll scrub
dat room .agio, an' befor* .do fleas U
recovered fr'm dare 'stonishment at da
: bllln* water an* chlorldy, and dey*s
kind o' boozy, we'll pour coal oil along
do cratcks ob da flo,' an' If dat don*
. penertrate clar down • to dere algs Til
help you move fo* nothln' an* hire de
express wagln." .
The treatment was like a miracle.
After a few hours, the room was again
habitable. . Cleopatra turned her atten
tion to. the rest of the house, sweeping,
.'dusting.' and afterward going over car
pet, woodwork and unupholatered fur
niture with a cloth moistened in a half
and half mixture of turpentine and
kerosene. The odor made one's nose
ache", but' after a few, hours' airing of
the rooms it was ov«r and /the fleas
were killed. I was too grateful and
happy . at the result to inquire ¥if the
absence of the Johnsons and the Tues
day and Wednesday people had de
ferred-the.use of the kerosene.
I -Returning to Mr. Howard's report.
• he-mentions that as remedies the ap
plication: of benzine, pyrethrum, and
•California buhach is not entirely satis
factory. - Tne placing of 'some raw
meat, on fly .paper. in the middle. of a
room has: been tried, but it never de
ceived even the most gullible flea, but
the incasing of the' janitor's legs in
sticky, fly paper and making him walk
around until all the fleas were caught —
it jWas^ tried at Cornell university— lp
perhaps": worth while. . He - recommend^
the thorough scrubbing of a/place Wiflk
soap '• and " water and the sprinkling of
benzine; \u25a0. but \u25a0 If- he had consulted m»
he r \would >\u0084 probably. : have said that
"Cleopatra an' coal oil is ds business
dat settles 'em."* • v \u25a0

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