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HISTORY STORIES AND PRIZE WINNERS
! The Junior Call wants the best !
story yon can Trrite. from United
States history in your oirn.lan
, puagre. The story mnst be plainlf
written on one side of the paper
only, and must contain not more
than 800 words nor less than 200.
Only one story is desired from
each contributor in this contest,
bat it is desired that each story
stall be carefully written, and
especial attention glTen to neat
ness, pecmjtnshlp, punctuation
and grammar. \
Chooee your own subject, pro-
Tided it is a true incident of
United States history; for In
stance, tell the story of Washing
ton's winter at Valley Forge, or of
Arnold's treason, or any other
story that you prefer. These two
sro cited merely as illustrations.
On the first line write your sub
ject; ca the next line, beginning
an inch from the left hand mar- ,
gin, your name, age and address,
and, if you are in school, your
school acd grade. Another rcry
important point is that each story
must be marfced with, the number
of words which it contains: write
this number in the upper left
hand corner of the first pasre.
As in the vacation contest, six
watches will be awarded each
week for the six best stories pub
Do not sen I In any more vaca
tJoo letters. Send in your history
story wneneter you haTe It com
pleted to tho best of your ability.
IT submitting stories in the history
contest juniors are requested to con
form strictly to requirements In re
gard to form, etc. Write about any
Incident in United States history that
you choose, but it must be in your own
language and must contain not more
than £00 words nor less than 200, and
must be written on one side of the
paper only, with ink or soft black
On the first line write your subject;
and the second line, beginning an inch
from the left hand margin, your name,
a.ge and address, and if you are in
school your school and grade. Write
the number of words contained in the
Etory In the upper left hand corner of
the first page. A great many contrib
utors in the vacation contest have neg
lected this last requirement, and the
editor has not the time to count the
words in such stories.
It is understood that In awarding
prizes neatness, spelling:, punctuation
and grammar are taken into considera
This contest is open to San Fran
cisco and California Juniors between
the ages of 10 and 16 years, and for
the six best stories published each
week The Junior Call awards as prizes
Xix handsome school watches.
For the younger juniors, under 10
years of age, another contest is open,
particulars of which are given on the
fourth page today.
The watches awarded in this week's
contest will be mailed In a few days.
If you are a winner and have not re
ceived yours by next Saturday, let The
Junior Call know at once.
AWARDED A WATCH
BENEDICT ARNOLD'S TREA
Taolumne, Cal., Summerville School,
liish Sixth Grade, Age 13 Years
In the history 01 our country we
have had but one traitor, and his name
tvas Benedict Arnold. His splendid
march through the wilderness to Que
bec, his bravery in the attack upon
this city, the skill and courage he
displayed at Saratoga, had marked"
him out as a man of full promise. No
man was more trusted or held in
higher esteem by Washington than he.
In 1778 he was put In command of
Philadelphia, and while there he so
abused his office that he was sentenced
to be reprimanded by Washington.;
Washington did this as quietly as
possible, as he liked Arnold.
Arnold was a man of courage, but
he lacked the moral courage which
without great abilities counts for noth
ing. He applied to Washington in
17&0 for command of West Point, a
stronghold on the Hudson river.
Arnold's reprimand had aroused a
thirst for vengeance and he conceived
a plan to prive West Point to the Brit
ish. The British agent in negotiation
was Major John Andre, who one day
met Arnold near Stoney Point.
As Andre was riding back he was
captured and papers In the handwrit
ing of Arnold were found on his per
son. Andre was tried as a spy, found
guilty, and was hanged.
Arnold heard of Andre's arrest in
time to escape. He fought against his
countrymen, and at the-end of the war
\u25a0went to England. The English peo
ple hated a traitor, and Arnold died
in poverty. On his deathbed he asked
a man what Washington had said'when
he heard what he had done. The man
replied Washington had said: "If I
had that limb that was shot oft at
Saratoga I would bury it with all the
honors of war, but the rest of the
body would hang."
AWARDED A WATCH
FOUNDING OF THE MISSIONS
1661 Washington Street, San Francisco,
M. BriKid's School, Blsbth
Grade. Agre 14 Years
The planting of the cross Is of great
interest in history. In the most beau
tiful places from San Diego to San
Francisco, missions were erected. And
ebout 100 years after this the early
pioneers built houses of the most hand-
Borne and modern architecture. The
buildings have the color and atmos
phere of California. The delicate dove
colored adobe walls, the red color of
the roof, the violet haze of the moun
tains, and the tonish . color s of the
distant hills all seem to harmonize.
About noon, on July 1, 1769, Junipero
Serra stood on the shores of San Diego
bay, and as he looked out upon the soft
waving ocean his soul was filled with
joy as he picked up a soft golden
poppy and exclaimed, "I have found
it." meaning the land of beauty, Cal
ifornia. His Journey from Mexico to
California was exhausting.
July 14. 1769, Father Crepl. by the
advice of Charles 111, started north
ward overland to found Monterey,' but
his journey, was a failure, so he was
compelled to . return.
Father Junipero Serra raised across
at the mark which is now known as
twin palms. San Diego. There he cele
brated nmss. while the colored natives
looked on with wonder. , They did not
eat because they were afraid of sick
ness. This was fortunate for the Span
lards, their food being limited. One
night the Indians made an attack on the
little band and wounded several* The
Spaniards then- removed their -mission
to the San Diego river. -^Father Juni
pero Serra left a number there under
Father Jayme. The Indians again tried
to attack them, but the Spaniards
killed many, while the others fled. and
never returned. _. '
Junipero sailed to found another
mission April 16. and Jnund a smooth
body of water and deep enough *for
whales to swim In. He landed on the
.morning of June 3,1 ; 1770, and took
possession of the place, which he called
Six Watckes Are Awarded to JuMors^'fe^
AWARDED A WATCH
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Florence Roberts, Burllngaiue, 13 Years
Lee was one of the ablest of the
confederate generals, and having suc
cessfully defeated General Hooker at
the battle of Chancellorsville, he was
encouraged to make a second invasion
of the north. .
Meade had been given command of
the union troops. He was marching
through Pennsylvania on the 23d of
July 1863, when unfortunately he acci
dentally encountered General Lee and
a large force of confederate soldiers.
Then on the hills of Gettysburg, in
Pennsylvania, was fought one of the
most memorable battles ever known
in the history of tha world. The bat
tle raged for three days. The first
day smiled cheerfully upon Lee, andJils
men retired full of hope that , they
would win. The second day the union
forces put forth all their skill and the
energy tnat was needed for success,
and at the day's end, when the sun
sank into Its peaceful slumber, victory
smiled almost assuredly upon Meade.
The third day was the fjnal test, ending
with Meade victorious at the battle 01
Gettysburg. * . , .
So terrible was the battle and bo
great the loss of llfft that it is often
called the second battle of Waterloo.
Over 50,000 men were killed and
wounded, about one-fourth of the-"en
tire armies. The loss of life on both
Kidtß was very heavy.
Lee retreated to Virginia, where he
spent the winter brooding over his de
feat. He blamed the confederate au
thorities for his defeat, saying^ that
they neglected to supply him with am
VII over the battlefield today may be
seen monuments marking places where
the battle raged thickest. Abraham
Lincoln, at the delication of the Gettys
burg monument, delivered, a most Im
pressive and patriotic oration that
deeply moved the hearts of all nls
AWARDED_ A WATCH
THE SURRENDER OF CORN
2917 Chapman Street, Fruitvale. St.
Elizabeth's Grammar School, A
Eighth Grade. Age 13.
The scene 01 tne surrenuer w<xo muou
imposing. The army was drawn up in
two lines, extending over a mile — the
Americans on one side, with General
Washington at their head, and the
French on the other, with Count Roch-
army, about 7,000 in
number, with slow step, shouldered
arms and cased colors, marched be
tween them. A prodigious crowd, anx
ious to see Cornwallis. had assem
bled, but the. haughty general, vexed
and mortified at his defeat, feigned
illness and sent his sword by General
With a fine delicacy of feeling,
Washington directed the sword to bo
delivered to General Lincoln, who, 18
months before, had surrendered at
Both S parties felt that this surrender
virtually ended the war. Joy pervaded
every patriot's heart. All the hard
ships of the past were forgotten In the
thought that America was free.
The news reached Philadelphia at 2
o'clock a. m. The people were awak
ened by the watchman's cry, "Past 2
o'clock; and Cornwallis is taken.
Lights flashed through the houses, and
soon the streets were thronged with
crowds eager to learn the glad ne\ys.
Some were speechless with aengnt.
Many wept, and the old door keeper of
congress died of joy. Congress met at
an early hour and that afternoon
marched in solemn procession to the
Lutheran church to return 'thanks to
Almighty God. ' ,'-'•',
All hope of subduing America was
now abandoned by the people of Eng
land and they loudly demanded the
removal of the ministers who coun
seled war. The house of commons
voted that whoever advised the king
to continue hostilities should be con
sidered a public enemy.
AWARDED A WATCH
LIEUT. CUSHING AND THE
GEORGE R. DIM3IEKMAX,
1840 Jackson Street, San Francisco. "B"'
Seventh Grnde. Pacific Heights
School. Age 13 Years
The Albemarle was a confederate
ironclad. She had for a long while
preyed upon federal commerce and was
the dread of all. union , merchantmen.
She was now anchored In; the Roanoke
river undergoing repairs. Lieutenant
Cushing was given command of an ex
pedition to destroy her.
On a dark night, with a few picked
men In a little launch, dishing made
his way up the river under cover of
the overhanging trees. Soon, he was
able to distinguish the dark outline
of the Ironclad in the gloom. But a
doer gave the alarm, and soon the rifle
bulletfl from the ship v and camp famn
splashing in the water around the.-..
As Cunning drew near tho ram. he
paw that she was surrounded with l«y--
Hastily examining them he caw that
they were moss covered and Elipp«"-"
backing out he charged the logs
at full epeed. They yielded read<
and the launch was soon alongside the
The men had meanwhile fixed tne
torpedo to a long iron rod and laid
the trigger string close to Cushlne-'s
band. He lowered the torpedo bar into
the water and raised it until he felt
It reach the Ironclad's bottom. Just
then the muzzle of a large gun was
poked out of an open port and a 100
pound shot roared- harmlessly over
their heads, dishing laid hold of the
torpedo string and gave it a vigorous
pull. There was a muflled roar, a col
umn of water rose and the Albemarle
Ordering his men to swim for their
lives; Cushinir himself Jumped over
board- Some were shot and some were
drowned, but dishing escaped and after
many days he captured a skiff and
made his way back to his ship.
AWARDED A. WATC3H
THE PURCHASE- OF ALASKA
Modesto. Eighth Grade. . Age 15
Alaska was discovered by the Ru6- ;
tians under Bering in the year, 1741.
The United States purchased this cold
region in 1887 for |7,200.000,v1t was
thought to: be;a: very foolish, act/by
the American people. -Alaska extends
from north to; south the- distance 7 of
more than 1,200 "miles and contains
about 560,000 square -miles.; Part of it
is in the Arctic zone, therefore It is
very cold. "
The Yukon river Is the largest stream
in Alaska. It is about 2.000 ; mileslong.
The Klondyke is also a noted rlvor. -
• Sitka is the capital of Alaska, There
is a large naval storing house in Sitka..
which at that Hime .was called "Sitka
of New Arki Angel."
The Mount 'Ellas- mountains are very
high, ranging from 1.400 to 20,000; feet.
There \u25a0 are many; volcanoes . and - glaciers.
Soon after the ; purchase the ; people
began, the. great fur : trade, .which '». still
exists. Many seals are -caught at : the
Pribijof islands. The fur trade In 1880
was worth $2,096,500 and has increased
= Gold mining is - another important in
dustry. The famous Iregion,
and also the Yukon valley,.: are, great
mining fields. In 1898 there wasa'great
rush to the .Klondyke and Yukon
The Sau Francisco Nov. 21, 1908; .The Junior^ Call Section.
and the yield was $10,000,000. The
chief mine was at that time the "Tread
well." . * -\u25a0\u25a0'.-\u25a0
The governor and all other .officers
are appointed by the president of. the
United . States. The first governor was
Mr. Dodge. .
There are many large trees, but the
cedar is the' largest.: At one, time a ca
noe was made from a -large -tree; grown
in Alaska" In which 200 Indian warriors
stood at one time.- -There are also great
salmon fisheries and numerous, other
And to think that the greater part
of tho American people thought this
purchase a piece ; of foolishness! How
mistaken they were-. /
THE FIRST SHOT OF THE
2236 Post Street, San Francisco, Age
It was fit, indeed, that such a great
deed, "the firing of the first shot of
the civil war," should be done under
cover of darkness. ;
When Anderson received the message
from Beauregard that in one hour he
would open, fire on Fort Sumter ha
ordered the sentries to x be removed
from the fort and the flag, which had
been lowered in the: evening, to now
bfe raised, and then settled down to
await the shook. At half past 4, just
before dawn, the first shot was 'fired.
A few moments of quiet followed this
act. Then, from Fort Moultrie. Point
Pleasant,. Fort Johnson, the floating
battery; Cummlngs Point and Sulli
vanfc island, came a steady fire. /
Anderson and his little gathering
still satin their fort, unmoved by the
battle raging without. The shells of
the enemy were loudly clamoring for
admittance, but not a shot had been
fired in return.- At » half past 6 tho
men breakfasted and then divided into
three reliefs, and the men were ordered
to their places, and the quiet of the fort
was now broken, as shell after shell
came from the mouths of the guns.
By this time the shores of Charleston
harbor were lined by hundreds "of in
habitants, eagerly awaiting the result
of the conflict.
Time after time the barracks took
fire, but were extinguished, chiefly
through the bravery of Mr. Hart, a
New York volunteer.
When darkn«ss. fell Anderson or
dered his men to stop firing .and rest,
but the enemy stillkept it up.
Again the barracks caught fire, but
this time all efforts to extinguish the
flames proved^ fruitless. . All hands
were taken from the guns to keep the
fire from the ammunition, which at
last had to be rolled into the sea.
Finally the fort was surrendered
on terms agreed to by General Wig
fall and Major Anderson. ;
THE WAR OF 1812
v DOROTHY BAROXIDIS,
1336 Spruce Street, Rerkeley, McKinley
School, A Eighth Grade. Age
One fine day, about a hundred years
ago, a ship was sailing slowly along
the coast of Virginia.* Upon the deck
stood two men, one of whom was gaz
ing with loving eyes on the fast near
ing shores of his native land. He had
been long - absent, and was eager to
meet his dear wife and children. As. ho
turned to speak to his companion he
noticed the- sails of another vessel
coming behind them.! "She carries
British colors," he said, after a mo
ment, "and seems to be galnlngon us."
"Yes," replied the other, "I've been
watching her some minutes. I think
she Is chasing us/' Jw&BSjS&'&BRHjBBQGB
By this time there was commotion
on deck and the captain: of the Chesa
peake, for such was the name of the
American boat, was giving orders to
hoist all sail. The other ship, an Eng
lish frigate named Leopard, had come
near and made signals that they were
going to search for deserters. The
American captain refused. to allow this,
and then the English fired several
times, killing and wounding many on
Seeing they were outnumbered, the
Chesapeake surrendered, and the Brit
ish came on board. Four men were
captured, among \u25a0 them the man who
had been so eagerly waiting to land
and meet his dear ones.
."I am an American, you have no
right," he began, but with many an
oath they cuffed and forced him over
into the British ship, claiming that he
and the other three were deserters.
Although it is a sad fact that he
was hanged as a deserter, it is- good
to know that a few years afterward
England had to haul down her flag
to America 12 times out of 15 battles. - T
Many citizens had been thus kid
Physical Education in the San Francisco Public Schools
— pHB system of physical education in
1 the public schools of San Francisco
as adopted by the board of educa
tion and supervised by Profs. Robert
11. Barth and George S.Miehling is that
outlined .in the "Progressive Lessons
in Physical Culture" by the- director
of physical culture of the .Uni
versity of California, which begins
with the ' first and second grades,
consisting in the simplest calisthenics,
and is developed step by step through
the different grades .up to the eighth ;
grade, where it culminates in. the so
called setting up exercises.. The suc
cess of this system was shown at the
first indoor track 'meet of the Public
School athletic league of San Francisco
at the Auditorium'on November »6,.looS,
when over. 3oo pupils from" the different
grammar schools in San Francisco com
peted* running; from: 50 'yards up ,to
BSO yards,. at weights from, SO pounds
up to unlimited weight. ;
There are exercises .performed in. the
seats which consist, of trunk move
ments as follows: ;\u25a0\u25a0> Body": erect, ;feet
together, the ., trunk' is turned, in dif
ferent directions, rights and left,, for
ward and backward,' first -with .the tips
of the ftngera' lightly;; on the shoul
ders, - then with arms vertical, front
and side horizontal.) exercises
in the seats are intended to, give the.
children a correct- position , at their
desks.^^^ MBBRRp*- . •
" After this 'come the, exercises stand-;
ing in the aisles, :bodyUerect,\hips well
back, lieadup, chip -in; arms and hands:
at the sides, palms front;, heels 'together,
feet at- an angle-'of: 60 ; degrees; the
weight on the .ball of the foot; then
"rest standing" /placing r the : lef t or
right "foot six : inches 'in front or rear,
the weight ' of ; the body resting equally
nu 'In i Mr frit ' r^^BfJEjWpW '-"\u25a0\u25a0'\u25a0
The^ next command is at /'attention,*'
which :is in v the ; position ., of |a % soldier.
In this standing position': the "exercises
consist of movementsfor the J head, with
arms front. horizontal, i 'Bide; horizontal
and; vertical, pending fof;. the nock;; in
di ff erent : directions ; \ leg " exercises, "; half
bend and full : bend ; .balance exercises ;
alternate foot exercises; ';. wrist . and
hand ' exercises,^ flex ; and- extend : Jrais^
ing : on^toesn; full /step for
ward f and backward, "•' marching; andjexf
ercises in .marchirig;(when it. is possl-"
'. ble 'to have *, the) pupijsr perform" in the
school yards, ; mill tary i;v tactics \[: and
quickstep)' form" a t continuation of the
calisthenic ; drills and the| lesson Icloses'
.with ; deep, '-'rhythmical -.breathing : move
ments. ; ' _.; °, " * ',\ '•-" : ;
V, All these exercises are executed every
day at 10 o'clock \&. m.^and-^2; o'clock
p. in., : and each lesson;consumes- from
naped and these cruel outrages led
to the war. . .' \u25a0
v ruth laS'DKAmp;
3212 Garfield "Avenue, Aliimetla, U'ilsnn
School, :B: B Ely/hth tirade.
i , Age 14 Years
•Henry ; Brown was a slave, who, much;
dissatisfied with i his condition of be
ing held in bondage and misery, de
cided upon having himself shipped in.
a strong; wooden box to Philadelphia.
When Brown's master was . busy, or
away, from home he procured some
heavy timbers .and- nailed them: to
gether : securely. One of Brown's :
friends nailed the cover on the box.
wrote the address and also, "This sido
up,', with care." Hlb food consisted of
a dram; of water and- a few biscuits.
Sometimes in shipping the express
men" were not careful, and the box was
upside .down, bo' the occupant rested
onhis-head. > .:
When; the box reached Philadelphia
It was -iaken into a . email- boarding
house or" inn, ,to which it was ad
dressed. The people being notified of
the occurrence took the box into a
small room, bolted the door safely, and
then knocking on the box asked.
"All . right?" and a voice from
within answered, "All right."
The box was hastily opened ,and
Brown emerged from the box "as one
from the dead. , He shook hands with
his deliverers, sang songs,. and thanked
God for his deliverance. From this
time -on;'. Brown 5 was ; a free man," to go
and to come at: his own good pleasure.
This : incident and others helped to
form the later "fugitive slave law."
DEATH OF WASHINGTON
3510 Sixteenth Street, San Francisco.
Arc - 15 Years
George Washington, after a .brief ill
ness, died at his. home at Mount Ver
non December 14, 1799.
Napoleon ordered all the flags in
France to be draped- in black -for 10
days, for the entire nation was. bowed
with deep grief at the death of one
who: had been "first in war. first in
peace and first, in the hearts of his
- In Philadelphia John Adams had been
inaugurated,' and during his, adminis
tration the new capital on the banks of
the Potomac. was occupied by congress
in November, 1800. This territory was
given the ; name;of district of Colum
bia. It was 'a tract of land 10 miles
square, given by Maryland and Vir
. The new city .was named Washington
and was laid out- on a spacious scale by
Mayor -Enfant, a French engineer.
.Washington when president had en
tered '-with : unwonted ardor into the
plans projected for developing the new
capital.-; He pictured the city which
bore, his iname as an instructor for the
coming youth in lessons of lofty
patcjotism, and he prophesied for it
The I : cornerstone of the capitol was
laid* September IS, 1793, and the gov
ernment offices weri3 transferred from
Philadelphia to Washington in October,
1800. ' .
WASHINGTON'S EARLY LIFE
San Anselmo, Cal. 'San Anschno Gram
; mar School, Sixth Grtule. Age
George Washington was born at
Bridges Creek in Westmoreland county,
Virginia, .on February 22, 1732. -His
father. .Augustine Washington, was a
•Virginia* planter and. kept many
slaves. When George was 3 years old
his home, burned down, and the. family
moved to another plantation on the
Rappahannock ; river. Here George
stayed - until he was 11 years' old
.When his father died, he and his
mother went to live with Augustine
Washington, Jr., George's half brother.
Here, he went to school' and became, a
good student and was very fond of
athletic games. He left school- at : 15,
when, he went to live with his eldest
half brother, Laurence.
.- Laurence had a very large estate
called Mount Vernon.: Lord Fairfax was
an English nobleman who was Lau
rence's father in law. He --w^as very,
fond of .Washington -and determined to
do something for him to help him
\u25a0Washington was very Interested in
surveying,. so Lord Fairfax, who had a,
great -many estates ,in Virginia, set
him and his brother in law with a
company of attendants out to- survey
the Shenandoah valley. They had a
great : many hardships, such as ford
ing rivers and encounters with hostile
When Washington - returned and
showed Lord Fairfax his surveys he
flve to ten nil nu tes. Every two weeks
the lessons i aro^changed. there ; being
IS different "sets ?of - exercises .in the
gymnastic \; program^: jand::- lessons ,; are
concluded V at ;: the .i find -""of ; each™.2chool
year" with a , summary" combining-.- the
principal movements .of the annual
work. •\u25a0 •, . \u25a0•\u25a0.;.. . v \u25a0 .
As already mentioned,': the - pupils • of
was very much pleased with . him.
Washington followed this business for
three -or .four-. years, but when the
French and/ English were, at -war . he
joined themilitia'and was made; major
inthe latter.- ; He was sent: with a mes
sage to a French . fort and while many
men would have been afraid to enter
tHe enemy's lines; he wasnot.vWash
ington- was very-: brave at. the battle
where -Braddock ' was defeated,' and
many say that if he had been in com
mand the battle would have been -won.
After the . war.Jhp was married and
led a quiet life until the revolutionary
war broke out. . a
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
San Frnnclsco. Elshth . Grade, - St.
, Peter's Boys'. School
It -was on. the 17th of Jun«. 1<75,
that this now f amous r battle took place.
The : British army, had been increased to
10,000 men • and was composed of vet-,
erans. ; while, on the other hand, -the
American iirmy, though -larger, was
composed of raw recruits: Their, offi
cers, .however- were men who had seen
service. Artemas Ward of Massachu
setts held chief command. ' "
On the- 16th of June It' wa» ascer-r
tajned that th.«v British were going to
seize Bunker hill and fortify it. Colonei
Prescott .was dispatched from Cam
bridge to anticipate this movement. He
marched at night and in the darkness
mistook Breed's hill for BUnker hill
and fortified the former. The men
Worked all; night, and frequently tfould
be beard the British sentries' "All's
well" on Copp's hill, Boston. Next
morning the British were surprised to
see breastworks six feet high Overlook
ing them. A council of war was held
and it was decided. to attack the Amer
icans immediately. General Howe at
once set out .with 3,000 veterans and
began , to storm the position. The
Americans were ordered to . reserve
their fire until the whites of the
enemy's eyes could » be seen. It was
difficult to keep the colonists from fir
ing, but at last the order was given
and the front part of the British • col
_umn was swept away. They recoiled
• and rallied for a'second assault. Again
they came forward and were allowed
to come to within .10 rods of the wall,
and then again the destructive fire
burst out. After rallying again they
rushed up the hill and the Americans,
after having fired theirlast round of
ammunition, met them with stones
clubbed muskets. It was of no use and
they were compelled to retreat.
Though the Americans had a decided
advantage, the' English, remaining mas
ters of the field, claimed the victory.
THE DARKEST PERIOD OF
.--..\u25a0 -- - * .
2427 Folsoin Street, Snn Fruneinco.
Horace Mnnn School: "A" Eighth .
i Grade. Age 14 Years .
The, bitterly- coiq. winter or i« < i-<*.
accounted as being one of the coldest
and most cruel winters ever known
in American history, was spent by
Washington and his army at Valley
Forge on the Schuylklll river about 20
miles from Philadelphia. -
Owing to the want of supplies and
warmth the suffering of the American
army can not be described. Washing
ton did not give way to despair, but
remained at Valley Forge, because it
was the safest place from the enemy.
This winter proved to be the darkest
period of the war. Washington had a
hard time in keeping his men together
on account of congress failing to pro
.vide money: with which they could buy
food, clothing and arms. Had it not
been for the financial help of. a few
men at this trying time- the soldiers
would have starved. But for this and
the great influence of Washington, the
army might have disbanded." At this
dark hour an able Prussian ' soldier
joined our : army and drilled the sol
Until the surrender of Burgoyne and
Great Britain's offer of peace, the
French king could not be persuaded
to help us In the war. .At this time,
however, he acknowledged- us to be an
independent nation and soon had a
fleet on its way to help us.":'.
THE BOSTON TEA PARTY
PEARL E.: ROWLEY, •
Cozzcns, Sonoma County. Arc 14 Yearn.
The colony was having trouble with
England because England considered
it inferior and was taxing the people
heavily to defray the expenses of the
recent wars. They were not allowed
to have any voice in the question of
taxation, as they were not -represented
in the house of lords or the house of
commons. They refused to be taxed
and refused to give General Gage's
our schools? show the results of their
physical not ;only in. an in
creased' Vitality,' as' demonstrated in the
Indoor.- meet'ati the -Auditorium* a short
timej ago,;, but" they.-/ also /receive with
their lessons; ideas, of ;; L high:'educatiojnal
value.; Proper habits ; of .sitting, standf
ins and '; walking \u25a0'\u25a0: are i' formed* y They
learriS a f prompt and Unstantajiaous ' re
army, which was sent to Boston,
places to stay.
The sight of tents on the common,
where the army stayed, so maddened
them that they? had a tight in which
two men were killed."
England, fearing to have trouble, re
called the taxes. on 'everything but tea.
which was sold at such a low price
that " with the tax it was cheaper than
before. This angered the colonists, as
they were .fighting for more liberty
than they had befdre and not a petty
tax. At Charlestown the tea was put
into a moist place and it spoiled and
was sent back-, to England from New
York. .The tea ships in Boston refused
to leave. \u25a0 \u25a0 '
A meeting was called at once by the
revolutionists and they decided to de
stroy the tea. That nlsrht a party- of
men,' disguised as Indians, with
hatcheis in their hands, got aboard. the
English vessels and threw over 140
chests of tea into the. sea. That' night,
as they returned home, they . were
warned by an English admiral that
England would retaliate, which sli* at
tempted to do. This was one of the
causes of the revolutionary war. which
won the colonies Independence.
THE KU KLUX KLAN
104S Larkin Street, San Francisco. Age
13 Years - ,
• When the reconstruction act was
passed In 1867, the negroes were given
the right to vote.
There were many politicians In the
north and some of them were thfe worst
sort of men. A number of these poli
tician!!, learning that the negroes were
enfranchised, w*nt to the southern
states "to "run things."
These politicians were called "carpet
hangers" by the southerners because
they carried their personal effects
around in carpet bags.
The northerners told thn slaves their
old masters were going to put them in
slavery again, but if they voted for
union -men they would remain free.
The negroes greally outnumbered the
white voters in the south. The carpet
baggers, controlling the negro vote.
were thus elected to high offices by a
large majority. .
The tax payers and property owners
of the south, seeing the politicians were
robbing the states, determined to put
a stop to it.
-Natives of the south formed secret
societies. These societies were called
"The Invisible Empire" and "The Ku
Klux Klan." Members of these so
cieties rode after dark. They were
completely disguised by masks and odd
costumes and whipped and sometimes
murdered their enemies.
BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
ETHEL, M. HEXRY,
Kins City. Age 15 Years
On the 16th of June. 1777, a detach
ment of the American soldiers, outside
of Boston, was commanded to go over
to Charlestown and fortify Bunker hill.
Under cover of darkness, the Amer
icans crept stealthily up Breed hill
which was nearer Boston, and threw
up the earth in such a way as to form
trenches and forts.
On the following morning the Brit
ish looked across the water and were
greatly surprised to see the breast
works the Americans had thrown up.
General Howe, the British leader, com*
manded his troops to march up tho
hill, which they did, firing at every
"Boys," said Colonel Prescott. the
American leader, "we have no powder
to waste; -aim -low; and don't fire until
you can see the whites of their eyes."
The British, receiving no shots,
thought,, they could walk right over
the entrenchments and.capture the
Americans. When the British" were
nearly up the hill, the Americans tired
and -the British soldiers fell, mowed
down like grain before a scythe.
Again the British marched up the hill,
and again they were driven back. The
third time the British marched up the
hill," the Americans were forced to re
treat because of lack of ammunition.
This was the first regular -battle of
the revolution, and though the Amer
icans were defeated. It brought many
good results and was almost equal
to a victory.
Maxwell. • Age 14 Years
Narvaez was a Spaniard, and he had
heard so much about the Mississippi
Indians and their gold ornaments, that
in 1582 he. with 400 men and four
ships went to conquer the northern
coast of the Gulf of Mexico. He landed
sponse to the orders -given, as well as
the ; so.necessary, concentration of their
attention, which in their turn bring
about, successful results in all the dif
ferent branches in'their courses of pub
lic ". school - education.'
Thanks to the energetic, intelligent
and: enthusiastic , co-operation" "of -the
class teachers,' we may point with pride
at Apalachee bay and made a ram
inland. \u25a0. .
When he came back to the coast h»
found his ships were gone, so he trav
eled westward on foot for a month. Tnen
he built five small vessels and put out u>
sea. They stayed near to snore for six
weeks and discovered the mouth of th*
Mississippi. -There two of the boats
were upset and Xarva*»z was drowned.
The rest of the men sailed on and
at last they reached the coast of Texasr.
But they did not have enough to eat.
so many of the men starved to death
and" the Indians killed the rest, wtth
the exception of four. These four men
were captured by some wandering
Indians who took them to the e»t«f n
part of Texas and the western Lousi
ana. One of these men jras a nesro.
and the Indians had never seen bade
or white men before, so they thought
these men were great wizards, and
for. that reason did not kill them.
These captives traveled on foot ov«r
2.o9o' miles in eight years. They trav
eled westward until th*y reached the
Gulf of California, and here they found
some Spanish friends from *I<"clf(°;I < " cl f ( °;
They were the flm men that had ever
crossed the They had gone
only from the Unit of Mexico In th*»
Pacific, but th«y had obtained a clear
idea of now wide the continent really
WASHINGTON'S FIRST PUB
3986 Twentieth Street. Uorae*> Mann
School. B Sixth Grade.
Age 13 Year*
Th# French tried to take possession
of the Ohio and Allegheny valleys In
the name of the king of France
They buried I*ad plates at the head
of all the streams and rivers that'
flowed into the Ohio and Allegheny
rivers, claiming all the land they
*The governor of the French territory
of the new world sent a message to
the king of France, telling him that
the buried plates would not hold tna
land if there were not fort 3 built to
protect it. mBHp "
It took the ktns? three years to de
cide whether he should build forts or
not. He at. last decided he had better
Governor Dinwid^ie. hearing of this,
made up his mind to send a messenger
to the commander of the. French, and
tell him to surrender.
The governor was »vejy much ex
cited about this building of forts. He
had two good reasons. First, that he
was the governor of Virginia, and in
her new charter of 1609. that the land
was hers. Second, that Dinwiddie was
the owner of a large land company.
He chose a young man named George
Washington, and sentjhim, to the com
mander. Washington -set forth the v*ry
day he received the message. He was
a surveyor and knew much of tn«
wilderness. He had many miles to go.
and ne took Irut one man. with him.
When he reached his «Journ?y"s end
he gave the commander the letter. The
commander refused to surrender and
said, "He would have to see the gov
ernor." Washington returned and told
CONCORD AND LEXINGTON
533 Ashbnry Street, San Francisco.
I.ow-11 Hlsh School. Low 1.
Age 14 Years
General Gage was the British gen
eral at Boston. Hearing that the
Americans had been collecting powder,
shot and muskets at Concord, about
20 miles away, he sent out secretly a
force of SOt) men to seize the supplies.
The Americans decided to send Paul
Revere to warn the American patriots
of the danger.
Signal lanterns were hung out from
the tower of the Old North church in
Boston to show that the soldiers were
to cross the harbor, and soon alarm
bells and swift riders were waking
the farmers and minute men.
As Paul Revere galloped along tho
road to Concord some one called to
him: "You are making too much
"You'll have noise enough before
long." he shouted back, "the regulars
The regulars marched to Lexington.
There the soldiers found a body, of
minute men drawing up by the meet
ing house. The British commander or
dered them to disperse. But not one
of them moved. Then the commander
fired his pistol into the little band,
shouting for his troops to fire. Sev
eral of the minute men fell dead. . The
British then marched on to Concord.
Here the Arcericans were drawn up
'by the small wooden bridge. The
British fired and killed several. Then
th* American commander gave the sig
nal and the minute men fired. Thia
was the beginning of the revolution.
The men who died in these two battles
were the first to die in battle for our
to the fact that our school children
show.rthe graat advantage in .their
physical appearance when compared
with such pupils who have not had th«.
good fortune to receive a systematic"
and 'harmonious physical training. '