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The Sumter banner. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1846-1855, December 02, 1846, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn86053240/1846-12-02/ed-1/seq-1/

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b hA r
bill I)heTW#36'il viii
D ch rNd -t 'h 0-* y
Oa' 4 seig
*uarteriQt om iet
Ches i'doas (6de6-ti bd itu
inothlydIthe <o asaw oi e O.t
-:For'pulish~ali g(tuain itelaw dletlitreo
dollars tsillbo' carged,' 0%
All Obi r1 lotce elgl ,i'apd
iee.!:? et. es2 ng E sons,
witrA s~ent rsnte o
r lyaanti@)o1% 01,l
-All ;ett~r lay~mi must be u paid to insure a
-h-From the Peneton Muaeen'r T
oMr. ct une O i.n t i cueral
-~ & Tket -jtn 7c ;
- . onr Hl:aai . , o . 1840.
GxCIVtPed l-m i theorecei. tEatyrnote of
the 14th It an wdhefa cl.ress a ceaireo in ha
any views in relition tothe "prososed change in ur
i-itat Connsitutlont in referene to the Election or the
Presidernt and-Vice Pr~a'sint."in compina witha
yirsur I erefii' elatone' a coiimunication,
in which theyariefly asketch'ed.: To have dn
full ju~ien rtorenco heltnany and important
ltuehtion nolvled -in ihesau ject, would l.ave nmade
ay commsanicaion toirohix.
I have given iL tho'pi-esont shape, ra her thei
ha'of a oraleterin reply to your note. I~caust{
ii left me at lila ejty to airange:ny vienws in coniirmai
sy to the orde lich the subjecta requ.red.
W, th great respect;
I atus i&O. '!nc. &e.
- J.C. GA LFOUN
Messre. Jame L. OrrWillia n Sloan, A. I'inA
naid F. W. S b miaes.
It woul seem fromt the . public prints,
1hat at nlage iajorityer nce Wths, hao arei -
p,"aed to change the-:greaaenat a.dLae of-map
Ptintitg electors 7nf Preatident 'rd Vice
Presidealit of ten' United sta'tes,' arc in Cu
votr of a general ticke, iy lieu of te pre
Nenit 't M e oaf appoainting'1eitnkby the Leg
i'laatture. Thelay rest their opposhtion to. tihe
latter, and supprA of the forrmer, ont th
broald ritpi, that sall pow'er belongasto
itte People; that they 'should exercise it
directly, wiitoti the:inmervention of any
ilnrdiedite agency, whenever they can
properly do so, and that wenever thy
car st exercise at, It wvund be an actror
Itsuorpaion.ont the iart of the Goverment
tolaihohl it. -
Frem tithe tihey cotncndltae, that thie powe
erT of appetintinig clectors shioutldl be given'
oa the p.oTile directly: and that the ode
of appoitintag abudh bhtat elect thiem by
Sgenterail tic!ket. Ti foue, on the contrary.
.whn are'ocapised to Ilat prna eeI udi chae nge, a
ear the mode i,raaposed to 'he sagharittntei itt
hien of the present, adinii tte parincipah; but
deny.that itiwould give tihe npnin it
toa the peolti tho l(tet them bay a general
ticket; or thait it wouald, they could proa
petroyexercisc it in thist casen.
The'diffirenace then, betweeni themo is
vedn soed t) two quaesltions; Weouild ac'
adltion ohf the geaern tt ck gige theo
powe'r to the peopiie iu realio fiyte piiti
4eertral And, if it wohhe is hal -/' a ^se, in
which it could he properly-exercielf On
their decjision, it Is manfe;t, the treprilty
af adnpring the genera ticket mut ae'nda.
Jf Ciet sholl tipa ear on inveistigationg, that
it wotild not in f'arm oanly. btut ini trutha give
the poiv er directly to the people, iad thut
they might excreise it, wiiut distiig,
or linjurltal ffieetinag tel state, in its C.
derni orlaiteraor reigtians, thlen it might
wsitih proprleial eMdopted. - at if the cona.
trary sitould apiar, in either of the cases,
thena it couldnti Thus far, there can be
sao dhifeece iffdopimno.
As (n1di 'the : thee, taiking the pro.
foundestjinte~st li whlate-ver .maay htuch
the libea' r irb rltil ihestateIithaive
ves'taged thestr qetnts ti ile' it
altho g t an, fi.r the
guidhanen of'my' >di at'l have come
to the concittshior e) rse-a 'to the general
ticket ~in r ofereneei Nih questbimns. Then
inv'estigoaon.s Uia.de a eep imnpressiln
on me that 's erar iving the powyer
to the pqtig et ,e 1 2e'3ae tmust efi
aI way' tilat gotmar. oil taf d that
ihm of itah not in 114 mi0'4'it to parti
agera arnd eliqtnesd sat it it Wyere pp's
sible to oveorne tifat '~ection," It 'ought
ntot still~t9 be adopted, be'caui .v~oualdl
deegaly9d1stutb andl h''uarhioashy: ffecti.the
ptate hn i federal andli tehor regations; It,
piGW2IrEjes~f~gin'forna ance'witha yqtur re.
siedstate the reason% Wich baae
brotdglim o thii~ee onetuisih,; which I
sehillne iprocaed to do' withiout further re
gna rks. ' 7
The first and Eria obje.cilon ;o a gent
oral tlekit is, 'that where roeny are to eheck
many',' especlhily ovar a Iagge exent of
country wit des nof it ae, onsttttulegh
eleetion, bits is & merf dehucidn,.unedeserv
ingthogiaine. "Th asoani lin -the first
. pia.eesit at I iar. ijinjoIlbj fora tihe great
bodly 'of thd votert lbes g add by ethilr
inldial knibw~aig Igin ~aedtng.;lie have
d)siteseithe rio ner nai (toquaintante
sign
Man hW
crJjinar i e
ras iI t
'iid ate therea mnitifrel a'inarr
hequa to.. (0 ld1iber notds
umdgRaresenalfve&, t59 wlmu1h ti alae
may bi 4 entitle J Q r7 Wes" It .
es ihet " ie resen ,lis I Rbe
apport:iq:ed arn~o g~aeverol statiis-r -ie
hers,iihlIhshala be, etenIns by ading
iithe wvhlnumber of fre person, INu
ding thostbound to serve fornd' rrm of
*years, -and excluding Ihdjasnot taxed,
three fifths'of all ether pegsoiis."'
t fallutvs frta, thes
the federal nt nbers * pf.'visionhodilt
stes, andconisetently their relative right
lthe House of Representatives aimd
tihe electoral College, and through: 6em,
init e federai~over iment, 4depende-mrs
orless-, on theirespe .ive slave popClain
s1hit of hisstate depends 0n.,it more
than-on aty other, because she has th
greatest nuimber in 4opoion of this ie
serspitoni of-Pop~ulationm. Its federal n'uni.
ber by tihe present. census is 403,582. Of
which the free population maekes267,360;
and Its slave population 1, 222.-its ag
gregate federal ptfffber, divided ' betweer
theluwerand thu tipper country,- would
give to the .former246,80, and to the Ha.
ter 1l7,402, and a corresponding gxcess
to the low er over tie upper n the weight
of the state .i the F e government.
But their respectivewdigh is very une
fuully affctie byrtir slave population
in consequence of its very unequal distri
bution between'the twvo divisions.. Of the
196,222, which the slave pi)pUlation adds
to the federali4dht of thme state; the upper
divisiont -'adds hut 60,408 while. the'
lower adds i3,8I4 ~bein~ more than.
2 to one natle j .art'of.thelatter. The
case is the revere in referehee to thm num
her (246,180) which thes free poputaiiori
adds, or that the lower division adds but
10366 ag ainst 150,994. wihibb. thb:upp'i
adds. These estimates ar itroughout bas
ed on districts; all, lying in'the portion of
the state belwo the fallsof theriver s, wVhil
l or principally are included in the l.oer
ivision, and those above, in like anrner;
in the upper.
Nowv as the voters consist entirely of
tie free population, and t the number of
voters in t, respetive divisions is probably
vB'rynearly Inpropfortion to their respec
Live free popuation, it is manilest, should
the general ticket be ado ted,. that te up.
per2 division, which. gis the state less
weightin the federal goverr.mtenhan the
lower, wold have deckledly the pow'er o
controlliig'thie appintment of electors, in
cosequence of having a decided majority
of vnters.
r a mode of appoi(4ting, which would
ieal.- to such a rest t wvo'ld be -neither fair
norjust towards the lower division, no one
who has any regard to equity or justice will
denyi. Ifsi do not greatly- mistake, the up.
her country has too dee f a settse of bol.h
to rish it, evni i it had the power; lnd if
ii had and should attempt to lxerise it,
the lower has to much spirit to irquie ce
in it. But thatnks to the ju~sice..and \vls
tho of our state Convention, neither of
tihe divisions his the power to encroach on
the just rights of lme other. It hassecured
to each thie power to protect itself; so that
neither can oppress or itjure the other,
sheould it desie it. If, thei, one or the
ofther ithould suffer by time acts of the g
ernment of the state, the fault wil.be its
own,-its wu'ant of sufficient intelligence to
unrderstanid its rigt' and sits 4lnterest, or
sufficient spirit to defend them. To show
het - his has beetn done, an im b ' thradop.
ii.... of the general ticket woni jstifrb and
endanger tIe compromise, by V.hich it ha
been effected, remaiisnext to heliscusse.
its discussion. 6ill rquire a briesf prelimni
inmysketch of time origin atid settlement of
the-state, as far as they have a bearing onm
establishing time compromise betveen the
two divisions,'ith thie cauises which led
to it, nd its character and the effect onthe
p.litics tf the sinte.
Our'state was first settled or) time coast
by emigranits principally from Enghlant,
but with nmeinrolisiderable intermjxtture of
Hugtienots from France. -As the fornier
wvere fof the most..pmart of the chtmchlkof
Emigland, thme tier of co~unties (nowv called
Distriets) settledi by -them along the coatt
wee dividedl into Parishes; and they were
matde tihe fotintdation tufthe political organ
izta'lion tof the colony,-and, since the Rtevo
lntion, of that portion of the state. &.
The portion-of the state-along thie~falls
of thoe'rivers and back to the nionnains
lyd..a very dlifi'erent origin and settleinenqt.
hto settlement cotmmenced lon'g after, at~ a
efyiod, but little anterior to ihe watr. or rihe
- olutiun, andi consistedi yrincipally of
y'nt on. coa
Ltl atel
thaWIM the g
ernt an Ju'dges ga ~ n~itd
sheI xect evoandu~~t
tihewholago0vernet~.
pn uliati.un, weaalila and nuhgac~gt
oilier pOrti of tet a
of 4ings .alfoni c
leading toaisContent and -uflL :.~
Thle fomeraoin allewd ta a
c et ntmenced witimna
tu e ai1plion. of the Od nstwb*i w
-onhin eedw
MDJ7/'then the ailiation and diseril~~
so sscresed, that sisiblo
me oiohusiMc beciae satshe ti
the~~~~~ c2n -e mub"lsdI. s or
ingly termina ted, not biya sreder d i
either side. hut by.B -eoapr -,it
pieced jhe iviparies on grudsde
pdlitical equalty the only y W
such confliclever can be saifactorilyan
perinanenthy adjged. I'benoIalld
of the s Pnate, asait stood co ngn
from each election Dis~retael t
diiturbed, bhichj I eld udh1ste
mtent .on the co a pu'siessln'of thqoi
trob uf that braicihs f h Legisbtt'rely
reason of its Parish repreuena~iina'..
give an etqual coprolin th'H uie of
pre'sentatived to the mnord new set
portion in the interior. ws a mUr
task. It wvas accomnplished,.'hd~evr, by
allig A.that bra'nehofte inture
124 m m'tners, .of.IahichaQ27 were assig
io the, white pplaion, anf.62 ii s
trn.A censuswias drcehelt
crri e y aron. i ecstim t h beirf
st ie antaftimae fitde
eech oen. amot h oe le dbd
preceding yearua.: The number oh'iR ero
setattives allowed to eh dtsuiciio:lle
apportloned to the two with ihe'poviii
that each districi ui nid haveb .ieast,*une
andif there shouldI be. e!ficiencei si tihet
number, .one to be a'd Jd u# he'districts
having the greates; .fractions. uaijjjw
whole should make 124. 13y this cenip nie
arrangemeesgt, not only an equel ceitioh W
secured to the more'recenty ih r of
ion i thie Statein "teAouse of ep
sentatce, but an efeictuRnl provisin ma de
againt unequal antid ppresI
umaking taxauion ani elemenf Iih the.
scitaion of the i. I*s aegj asIt
be to increasethe i kbeo ,Rie esent
lives from the rrtlon of thae in dtaduy
tuXd,just In pr ooblio ro 'the cess of
its taixe, and thereby increase in the Sarry
paroportion Its weight is th louse, ,der
the next'aplijttonenTl1%se
wvise ljr'.viaioniv, by irequir ng (he cner
and joint consent o tho't" gonrtin
two inrtiols of.the stat#Iinen
phlcedh them on g ouinha9jir'qfJ
mn she L i r d
power of eei g ari esil.q,
in everjepar l . . g .verum n.t;
Each fiavahng tius a negapsve 43n the-oi erL
ont all the acts of the goverim~ent , posses.
sea the power. of ps'otecling itaeff aguinst
the injustice- and OPpression' of the oilier
Thus the government, ceased to beh$
exclusive organ of one portione of fihtite;
not by becomingth1lie organ ofjipth
er, but the concurrer aid joini -ran oM
both, and therehy .the~tgre ,ifa ~foi lIe
presenttive of the whole sra'e.
IThis for-nate 'comp rolnie thiuate
th~e conflict whichrhadysn1o Isi di ihlwl a6
agitatedt the agIte. Sobermpletely did ilt cnee
it, thitlfrom ite adoption sui thfi nthe.
period of almo's 14.-y ay 1al localdivl
ions and partida .1aWngoi a tihim, hav
entirely teased.'. T'ire ij per add lout".
country areOf no' lone 'rnled forl ptiiai
discord and gitaii lie'st heet
blessed with an fsy 4 teg
freedom from paries altogether wrhoa
exmpo ii any other member of the nism
Nair pfefireetbeen les hiar py r.
fere tb hei r In' eral itjan her Iblnttii
relai t To it, e ow'es, ad -agreii.
measure, her weight, hig character angI
stalding in the union, which, as inn"!sid'
rable ase she is inextent of terr :itry nf
poptulaotion, places her on 4 l'vel'ini igpu.
ence, iththe m argset and must populopiso
its mieptheru.
Destroy this just and t Vs' ciprs
by giving to 2ither'alu to rep
in the governmdtitt Of9 " "adn ,
woejiube reveasedl. 'A Dt48rdi str a ap
partiea and'fact'otns,M vl i l heir mach
ne and deorav izhng got'iseienlewyl~
follow, and sink her fair below tilel
sh1atlo-v oeeopI-s. Tha tat1 getaie t~k
p.~~ 4.1P~
V: -Z
av
~ ~ e I 4 .
frer
I Inn
4 Ia.
I a -'A 1 , ci vj
i nW
r en
RAII 'F. a
'Fig,~ ~ ~ 1:1',.1IN
Gna
nant
UA
Lw oitis dllTn
Sme
ira ea f
pir te P4iaii
A its; c
LaImeei a ree
T; 14.~
A h
darnesijb
i O
im- Ni its
an'diiirt ra
b~
ren c
I" ' it a
ets
tlai 10"
iff"
uyblet
e-Ing
it -q 41 It
-tin
nin V)t o
;7N.4
legl VoeY'~a1~I~r n
dend
an electin bva es lktc~t'
Vate fur ilaE
New, I hdhi tio nios
1hetinteihg ee o i ~r;oit,~~h~
ss f the to ,rm
uwn ignowled eirhoegpe'onai orb
reputtuiine',f hi uIp rsns, tde electo9s
dfuly litribisted er't v'rio, yis ho
hiny he f li-ly consied seately. as to
liresetiting the voice IIIe verai otina
in which. teye, tresid, " n Th
~ice -oft te wIgle s*a~ e ee, I iht
rakea far m'oe reiici p ioi talirr
w'ithi traith, not only,,tl 'fie r fmassf
voters haive not thie lknoaviedige to diske ont
it'chm u ticketfor themselves, b'uttht een
the most intelligent ,and listin e'd,
wofild be at ales. to dlo it.B C<
':iBut~wai ving tbis diffidutty, and admittling,
tiiit they -havo muiicient inteliieneto
imake uit each' a satisfactory ticket, for him-i
self, the other ohjectionj, niot less -difficolt,
woulId remain to b~ stin'mnnted lipiti is'
the seattering wvould beso geat, that the
rinult, as to who might recei've a. iu'rality
of votes and be eledted,wouild be a ;mere
accident, and no indication ofthe vhice of
the state. Thie diversity of opinion as to
the qualification ant stiiaVle'bless, awould
be as great, alimos ta thi number f vpters.
Few tickets wouls inve the sane n ne
nnD thieni, and the great body of the ets,
would b disappointed tind dissatisfied with
the result. :
It would be impossible for beh a state
.f things long to contline. 'The first con.
veqiteng would be for- a. few prominent
tud inluential individual t ntrint'
icret concert, . fcnt.ct L elinto.
whici tie not bee veryti, exit ensin-, whff'jn.
thessatering would bi s- gretat. The
nex te dibe, for otherstgenle e intolke
roncert toi defeat them;~and aily there
would growv out of this site'uof thui:Igg two
parties, wlith nll the usualietiiahinery,
of couesaS, conventions, cliqtes. cique.
anagers -to eqn rol tlie election. ihe
wile wvould be put :into active operation
very four years, ont the approach of the
Presidential el'ction, aild.eacleparty ,Would
nake u a rull ticket b what wvoul be
,alled a staite convention, and any voter,
visethier lie approve of it or not woutldlhave
i Vote for one or thother, or to throw
woy his vote on a ticket, formed without
:Incert, and which would have no -chance
,f.success.
I ~is thus, lby the-o nperationof ca uses grow
ug out of the very na ture sof a' general
ichet, it .wouhl, if it shoauld be adopted,
nud in delusion. Iastead of givin~g the ei
etion, dliretly tg the people, as its suppor
ers assumeg , it would dli-est athenm of it,
s place it under the control- of interme
ate and irresponsitble cliques ad politic
I mnagerj, as certaisnly as It is adopted.
rieht ever his aird ntiest '. Its result' and
h' t by laws,as utuifoerm ani certain in thie
norld'world, as gravitauitn is in thepho
ta l..
But setting aside this'obiijection, and as
uing that the great mass of the voters of
he state are sullicienti- inteligent and
veIl infoormcd, each to form a ticket for
imself, and tat-their Votes could ail woays
ie sufiientuly incentrated, wihout the
ovtefenone o parther, to secure
mwajy ofvte oatice formed nieheoec
ors, there would stilhremain an insupera
le reasoat against adlopting it; because, as
atated, it would disturb.and injurioeuviy af
ect the state, both in ifeaderal and inte
aior relaions. -To be.,rpiore -explicit, it
e51i-ld t hie just or diir regarding the
ta tl in its federal relations, betwveen ois'
wo great divisioits, tihe iupper and the lw:
r country; naid that regarded in its interior
elations, it would be caiculited to disturb
md'ensetiger the comeromisr., as estalish.
ad by th. costilrtutioin be tveen themot, as I
shall next procewed to shtow.
Blefore entering on the discussion of this
tortiont of-Ihe subject, it wviii he proper to
're'mise, titat our state is divided by a ve'll
lefinedl JIne, into two great psortiomns or il
eiisgip which are strongly sdistingutishedl by
hei eog raiphical features;, the character.
f their produtitons and population,' anid
he origin of their iunhabitans and miinner
af settlement,,
Of these,- one extenal from thle seacoast
o th e fails of the great rivers and1( is called
hehlower country;- anid tb,e -othserixtinds
hence to the mounlains,'a'nd is called' ti e
tpper~country. .th.
They consatitt rnpt only tetwo geat
Ieographical, bnt also the (vo great psliti
'al.ilivisiotns of the utittori which Its p'oi
trsal fabrick rests: .
I,'~aslng oiver, the Wther-' features, whice
listinguish thiem, th~r are t Wo w bic.piif
*heirj a m rtant bearing an'the polrits tlp
ler con iderntrfan tqun,d. parti:,..l..'

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