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V-(X SOTRCBLN9 DCIrE'3
1s PUSLIEnD WZKL7
DY WILLIAM J. PRANCIS.',
T E RUB:.
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All letters by mail must be post paid to insure a
Fellow-citizens of the Senate
and of the House of Represcntatives.
In resuming your labors in the service
of the people, it is a subject of congratulb
tion that thete has been no period inl our
past history, when all the elements of na
tional prosperity have been so fully level
-oped. Since your last session no afflicting
dispensation has visited our country; gen
oral good health has prevailed; abundance
has crowned the toil of the husbandman;
and labor in all its branches is receiring
an ample reward, while a contitied science,
and the arts are rapidly enlarging the
means of social happiness. The progress
of our country In her career of greatness,
not only in the vast extension of our erri
toral limits and the rapidjIncrease of onr
population, but in resources and wealth,
and in the happy condition of our people,
is without example in the history of nations.
As the wislom,strength, and benificence
of our free institutions are unfolded, every
day adds fresh notives to contentment, and
fresh incentives'to pal iotism.
Otir devout and sincere acknowledge
ments are due to the gracious Giver of all
good, for the numberless blessings which
our beloved country enjoys.
It is a source of high satisfaction to.know
that the relations of the.,t States Walih all
other nations, with a single exception are
of the most amicable' ciaracter. Sincere
ly attached to the pollyrof peace, early
adopted and steadily pursuetd by this gov
ernment, I have anxiously desired to culti.
vate and cherish friendship and commerce
with every foreign power. The spirit and
habits of the American people are favora
ble' to the maintenance of such internm
tional harmony. In adhering to this wise
policy, a preliminary and paramount duty
obviously consists in the protection of our
national interests from enrroachment or
sacrifice and our national honor from re
roach. These must be maintained at any
lizaird. - They admit of no compromise
or neglect, and mumtt be scrupulously aid
constantly guarded. it their vigilant vin
tdication, colli4ion aid conflict with foreign
powers wihy sometimes become unavoida
ie. Such has been.our scrupuloas adher.
ence to the dictates ofjtistice, inl all our for
eign intercourse, that, though steadily anti
rapidly advancing'in prosperity and power,
we have given-no just caus of complaint
to anti nation, anti have enjoyed the bles
sings of peace fur more tIhan thirty years.
From a policy so sacred to humanity, and
so salutary inl its effects upon our political
system, we should never-be induced volun
tarily to depart.
The existing war with Mexico wats nei
ther diesired nor provoiked by time U. States.
On the sontrary, all hiontorable means wvere
resorted to, to avert it. After years of en
durance of aggravated amid unredresseud
wrongs on our part, Mexico. in violation
of solemn treaty stipulations, anid of every
principle of juistice recognised by civilized
nations, commenced hostilities; and thums,
by her own act, forced thme wvar upon us.
Long before the advance of our army to
tihe left bank of the kio Grande, we haul
ample cause of wmar against Mexico; and
had the Uinitedi States resorted to this ex
tremnity, we might have appealed to thme
wvhole civilized wrorld for time jusE e of our
1Ideemi it to be niy duty , present to
you, on the preser~t occasioni, a condensed
review of the injuries wvun hiad sustained, of
the causes which led to the wvar, and of its
progress since its comnamncement, Thiis
is rendered the more necessary because of
the misapprehensions whlich have to some
extent prevailed as to its origin and true
character.-Thme war hias been represented
as unjust and tunnecessary, and as one of
aggression on our part upon a wveak anid
Injuredh enemy. Such erroneoums views,
though entertained by but few, have been
widely amnd extensively circulatetd not only
at. home, lout have been sprendl throughoumt
Mexico and the whole world. A more eff
ectual means could not have beeni devised
to encoirago the enemy and protract the
war than to advocate and adhere to their
cause, anti thus give them "aid and . comn
It is a source of national pride and ex
uhmation, that tihe great body of our people
-hare thrown no stuchm obstacles in the way
of the government in prosecuting the war I
successfully, biut have-shown-tltenselves to i
be eminently 'atlitic. audierrnifftii V'inmli- I
cato their country's honer and interests at
any sacrifice. The- alacrity ai prompt- i
,.qss with which our voluntep forces rush. i
ed to the field on their .country's (all, I
prove not only their' puitriotism, but theli-- 1
deep conviction hat our case is jiust.
The wrongs which welhive-suffiered from I
Mexico almost ever sinmce shte becnme an I
independent Power,,an*d tie patient endmum.
rance with which. we have borne them, are 1
without a parallel in thehtisiory or nioler'n
civilized nation.-'Thdre is retison to- he
lieve that if these vrongs had been resen. I
tod and resisted in the first instanc'.e, the
present war might have been avoided.
One outrage, however, permitted to pas"
with'impuinity, almost necessiarily er.cotir
aged the pcrietraiien of another, until- t
last Mexico seemed to attribute to weuk
ness and indecision on our part a forber.
unceR which was the ofTipring of magnami
mity, and or a sincere desire to preserve
frieindly relations with a sister republic.
Scarcely had Mexico achievcd her inde.
pendence, which the United States were
tho first among the nations t arknowledge,
when she commenceed the system of insulti
and spoliation, which she ha3 ever since
pursued. Our citizen% enaggeil in lawful
commerce were imprisoned, their vessels
seized, and our flag inisulted in her ports.
lrfromn'ey-was wanted, the lawless seizure
an1d confiscation ofour mnerchant vessels and
their cargoes was a ready resource; and if
tu accomplish their purposes it became ne
cessary to imprisoni the owners, captains,
and crews, it was done. Rliers superse
ded rulers in AMexico in rapid sticeession,
but still there was no clhantgo in tlissystem
of depredation. Tihe government of tihe
United States made repeated reclmanntions
on behair of its citizens, bumt these were atn
swered by the perpetration or new. oit
rages. Promises of redress made bIV Mexi.
co in the most solecmna forims were 'pIslipo
ned or evaded. T*me files amid recoards (if
the Depurtimcnlt of' Siate e'mimtnil concliusire
prooiffs caf umumrom litivless taets perpetra
ied Upon the pro perty am nid persmns of ir
eitzens by Mexico, amd of w i) ttonm inisits
to) our natinial filu. The interposition f
our governm ent to tmbtinm redress vas ami aiin
and againmm involked, itniooir ci rcu moa inc res
whmich no naion ouglit t is: .rd.
It wims hompiedl thaLt lme..se r w ou-ill ..i 't'ill
cease, Mi Ihma Meyic o would bl re.mtrained
by the Ilaws whlich re lia the onduct f
civilized N*.tin itn im thei inm''-rmurse wvillh
each other mifter thin' ire.aty s i mi *w. . I
nierce, stndl na igatio oi l Ohl- 50h Illf A p. il.
1831, wamms cmnhm-mmm'imim' bitwe.nm the1' t% %o Ic
pumiblies: imit this lome soom porovted lpo Ibe
vuin. 'iTe cmrse m-ire and*:, viznrti-c
Iioni of tihe- properly of oitir citiz.le, tle
vioantionim (if their jmo ums aii the iom lis to%
our flag iuirsedal Iy \l'xicm previs i tih a
ime, Ve4i a carcei % su-.m -nh-d orIm evenl a
brief mwri..l, abhmomug tilt- ir-r - alea .
IV ude-linies tle r .iht-1 wN l hi -11' . i te re
spective Into tit-, iimit i s i.m; 'ipos-ihle t- in.'i
memirstandml ir miist.ilik thmim. In less lh;mm
seveni % trs lmftier lt! v'omiti .im I ii l t
treaty tour grievates hadmil hIerimie so immma
leriale thait. in, tlie mpini of Prlle-silm -
Jaeksonim, they shloulditm, In hmmer he emiured.
[i his lm essiagep tmi Cmgre'.ss, im Febri
1837, Ie present. ed hem i tie c i.leri.
tion if that boy, ai dclai rei tint '-The
leit hi ii of limle since simie of L i in ri .s
han i' been cmmiitted, liei ra';ma'tedal -%ilti mimmam
vailing lllietions Air redres.;, th e vm a.
tll cbaracter ofn somef tih iem( uo're's 1111.0
tie property and lamismns oi 'm is imi.;
upon ithe mllirrs mand flL, of th1 l'miw d 1
States, inmdmendenmtm of arecen mt ini inha tm tis
gaAve'rn i mmnt anid pemopie by the la ten ex mra
mrmdinar y Me ~riennI li mmnistear, w. i injmstiy Cin
time eyeas of mill naionj'is jiiimdm i' t r. I
In ma spirit of1 kimndneass and fommmrhmnranc',
however', lie rm'nommmenidedi riprisanis as a
mih .er nimod momf realress. ile decli~ aedithat
w'amr shl noli 11t be' usedm mis a r' 'ined'ay -by i
just mandi geineroums mmams, conmfbmljig in;
thirm strenmgih fmar inj'rimes caoimmimtmed,if ii
enni h~omnriialy iavomi,"' imndi mmblm'u, .-ii ha
occmired mo mme thamin, c'''nside'rinig thle pmre'sent
embaimrrmassed' cmonmditlimn of mmt'hat cmomary, wec
shmotuld net withm bothm wha '. m amni modiermm
timmi, by giv'ing to .\lexi. .. mine momre moppor.
tunity tmo aloneit for thme pasI, be'fore win timke
redlrese into our mwin handmis. To~ imvmiml ail
miscmnmcepion mamm m theii pairtI of' MexNiico, us
well ams toi protect' omr ownvm mialimmnal chamr
her from repirmmeh, thmis oportunlityml sahiulJi
be gi venm with thme avmowed'i des'ignm und fmlli
prepaurationm to takle ~immiai.te satisfacmtgion,
if it shoummmldl notLha be'btaine mm m'a'ii replelimtiom
of thle denmmman fol ~mr it 'T' tis en a'mi re'com.a
nmnd that mmni art lie pmassed aummthomrizximm ir- '
pmrisamls, anmd thlie mue of (tme ?avaiml frce'a of I'
lime Uimnitedm Stat Ies, by' the Exeent'im ve', agninist <
Mexicoi, to enfm: cc them ini time cu'm'. taof am
refusaml bay thme Mex ienin gmmvernmmem~t 1(1:
come to mma amicablde admjuistmen'it of the'ii mt.'
lers inm coat rmoversy beit wem' mmms tin im mmno.
timer demndmm tereof', mae from onm board l
one of iour vessels mof wvar oin time c'onst of r
Com miit tee of bothl i housesnin ofl Cong. r'es,
to which this bmssage of' is Presidnit wai
referrend, fully uustinedici his ' ie'wmi mf thn
character mmf lihe wrmniis wichi wre lada suff..
eredl from M exico, Ianmd recmm ne'mad thI 1...
amothner dienmand Imr redress uhmauild be mammde
before authiorizinig war' or reprisails. Tme II
Committe. on Foreign n..la,,.. ,,f tim,
3eiate, lin their re4)ort, any: 'After sch
dernani, siould-prompt justice be-reftised
>y the Mexican government, we .nay ap
enltoa ll-natiettis not onily for the 'equity
mnd imioleram tioin'with which we shall have
icled- tWwartli a sistet republic, but1 the
1ecessity which will then conpiel us to seek
e6dress fur our -wrnags, either by acluai
mar or by rcprisals.-'The subject will the
)o presented leroro Congress, at the con.
nemicenient of the next session, in a clear
ind distinct frinm; and the comimtlee eal
loll doubst but that such measures will' be
nrnmediately adopited as uay be necessary
0 vindlicate the ionoir of the citliry, anr
neure emple reparution to our injured citi
The Committee -on Foreign Afalires of
if the louse of Rtepresentatives made a
iiimilar recommendation. lit their report,
.hey spy that they "fully concur with the
[Iri-sldent that ample cause exists for tak
ng redress nin oaur own hands, and be
ieve that we should be jastified in the op
,itn ef iother nations for taking such a slep.
Lut they are willing to try the experiment
if unaolier demand , male in the most sol
.mnn form, upIll the justice of the Mexican
44overniment, liefire any further proceed
lags 4re aliipted."
.mNo diflerence of opinion upon the stub
ect is believotl to have existed in Conaress
it that time; the Executive ami Legisl.ive
1eprtmeInts concmrred; ami yet such lias
,wen inur foorbenra ice, aid de'sire to preserve
ieace wiah Mexico), that the wrongs'cf
whilch we then coimpinined, mand which gave
ise to these solemi pr)ceemiiigs, not cm ly
reamaiin unredreossed tit this mdamy, bit a0iii
tioml causes of cionplain, ol amn aggirava
e:i ei-rracter, have ever since been nccu.
Shoertly after these praceedings. a spe
.i ealiessenger was ldespatched itl Aiexico,
Lm miake a finl lemiand for redress; aid onl
the twentieth of July, 1837. the demani
was ammde. The reply of the Mexican
ti'vernmeit len rs date ton the twenty
aiim tim of tie 5amne militim, a141 comntinis
Issurences tof time "anxios wish", iii
tlic .aexienn govem entmamt "not to lelay
lie maoenmmt om if, that fiiam al n'-equtitable rid.
mstisnent whicb is it) terminate the existiim,
lilieulies betwien the twts governments;'
1:mih am"nothimu Sh"euldll be left unmidoime which
mamy cni'itrmale to ime mim est speedy aim
'q minitabe deirtmiationmc of the subjects
1 hiih h:,ve si seriom.lv riefn (l the itten.
i f the Anrican gmvermmen-mt ;' that
le "lexicanm givernment wohmi adm)pt, "S
t1e 11mmlv unich-s 1imr it'. cond3fluct, the pllinecst
pricis omf public righlt, the sacrel obli.
;Iims imlipmsel by% iIte rnam1itionmamIl lIwit', nand
he religinms fitil f ir mremies;" tad tihit
iiile'e ir reas omi immo jo,,tic'e miav diiate
-11 ' 1inm each ease i ill be lone." The
nr. iiime wam fmurtler givem, that the leci
ilqn mif mite .exican g11% ernmaena 1on1 achm
anmm-e! l c'mp:ijmlniit, 1".ir which rediress had
i'een mt-m:med, shmbm11l be, CoiiiaSmmmienimtel
4j lilti gi'iverntimte of mime Uniited Situis hy
time .M-xican .\lnaister it Washigtonm.
Theisei smileiim assurances, in aiswer ti
la'r demand for redress, were diaregurded.
Bly mmamg thecma, lain.v''e'm', Micom obltman
'i further dilay. President an Burei, in
tim 3annai1a11l mmes~sae tm Comgress of the fifth
i IDecmbe'r, 1,6J37, states that clntiouaghm
he harger nuier" f our demands 1oir re
Ire'ss, " imamny ef theimagsrava tedcases
If piimenml wromgs, lave tien nmw for
ears before lh'-e lxicana government,and
hise 1)f tm- imest olil'etsive c aracter, ad
'mil eml fe ime-i ' if, simple, anl s a tist e.
ry replies, it is onlily withii few days
)InSmt 1ih;an umm sperille cellioitmmticiMoll iaa
inswver t, oir Ils demamd, mule fiv'
nieonths'm agi, haems been'~ a'ce.ivi'ed frmo m thme
\iexican niinietr;" umii timnet "lomr neet omme
>f .imr public coelmpkeints~ hami satisfacrtionm
mi'mem givi'em or iti'm'redl; thmet bumt onle oft thet
'ues' eef pler'smeml wrm ongl hams b.emm favo'irabhi'
'on msidieremi, andmm thait bummt f'our ea'se's ofI bmt im
I eseriptmionm , cmuit of all thmmse fommmerilylpre.
mi'mlt'ed, andiicmmm mnsety pr'~Tessed, have ic'is yet
>m'end ecie'd mpo abyc thle Mcex icman gumvern
nenmt." Prescienmt Vani lluremn, bmelievinig
hmat itiwnlll b ema to maimke any fuarthe.r
mt(iet t i obtin c redrness iby them orina mmiry
mneanms witinm time powie-r mit thei Execeutivye,
o m mmuijca teed tihis oplinion tin Ceolngress, in)
lie mma'mesae refe'rrm'd ten, iln wh'icha time sidi
'On mmm a e'fuml aind mluelbei'rmte, xaminu11mt dma
mali hem mmntemnts,"' (mmf time cur re'spondencce
timth time Mex ican m ger'nl mnt.) ''mund ceman
ciderinig thme spii m aii'estedi by the Mexi.
'mmcm gecrmenat, it hase bm'cmae iy hnamnfmi
linly 10Vm retmrn Ihe sub hje'ctims' it miiowi mitandscm,
em Cmongretss, to iwhoa m it he lonmigs, to decidle
'ponmth time m', time miei, andii mhe imsmre
if mmdrmss."' Immed the Uniitec Smaem's mit thamt
immi adloptedm c'mpuilmlsery measmmreCs, and
nken'm mre'dr'ess inmto thei'r on hulammms, mall mmmr
Ii1i'dmeutie's wiith im ex j-ic wouh i pireobablly
lnivet been'm limng sincie imaute'd, andm mime ix
S liuim wa haie b heenii n t'idtm. l Mgna mni mity
mmd cnodelmio~min mm ourmi pmma't cmnly lad time
'lluert tmo cmplilim'ate thie'se dihlienitie.s; andm
emmmr i'm mii icae s ettmli'emnt ofl thiema time
mmore roarre a ss ig. Tha t suci'h mensutres
f retinres., 'mieder similalmr [rovcaiimmtion's,
oemi mjate'm by mmany cof the powiiea'fuil aion ls
ftm Eumre wouhmmi iihaive' bieena piromplt ly re'.
mmrted in by themmI USmtamtes, enimmnomt bem doumibt
i- Thie mmetiionmcl hmonmor, mandi thei prese'r
'mmtion' oif time maatmional chaunrmeter t hrinmghi
ut time woril, ais well as omur int self-res
act andm the priotection ilia tom our oiwn
itiznm. it'utld ie ee,, c..,. .....h m resor
indispensable. Thin historjg'ngtialied
'tation I modern.times has pesent9d1yith;
imi so brief'a peruda so many-Wihton atI
tacks upon the hihnor of it9flgand. 10"
the pro perty and Pnon- i f .licizizens
as hd'at that ilme been borne'b ?ie0
Stites from the Mexican uanthorialis ani
People. - But Mexico wai a uisterepublicI
I)h htioi North Amnericita continent, occupy
ing a erritory contiuous to L6r owknand
Wis in -a feeble aid distiactedcondidisi
and these 6nsiderations, it'is rillaied
induced Congires ter forbear still longer.
Instead of .taking 'redress Into our o4n
hands, a new negotiation w*isenteeldu'pon
with fair piomises on' the'part of -Meloe'o'
but with the real purpose.'as iherentlhiI
proved,- of indefinitely paisloning tie e.
piaration which we demanded, anti whith
was so justly due. This notintio'n, .atdO
more than a year's delay, rdsultednigha
convention of time eleventh oApr1;1839,
"fmor the adjustment of claims of'ciiizeis
of- the United States of Amirica upon the
government of tile Mexican Republic."
Tih joint board of conmissioners crea
ted by this convention to examine and de
eide upon these claims was nnt tiganizei
unitil ilhe month of August, 1840, and unl
der the terms of the convention they'were
to terminate their duties within eighteen
month from that timne.-Fuir of tile eigh
teenI mnths were consumed in prelimina
ry dhscussions on frivolous and dilatory
piints raised by the Mexican commission.
ers; mind it was not until the month of De
cember, 1840, that they commenced the
exarninatiun of tile claims upon Mexico.
.Fourteen mr-ntihs only remained to exam
ilne and decido-upon Lheo numerous and
complicated cases. In the ionth cif Feb
ruary, 1812, the term of the commission
expired, leaving many claims undisposed
of for want of time. The claims which
were allowed by the board, and the umpire
authorized. by tihe convention to decide ill
case of disagreement between the Mexican
and A merican commissioners. amounted to
two million twenty-six thousanud one'ltin.
dred and thirty-niie dollars and sixtv.eighim
renits. There were pening before the
imnpire when the commission expired i'ddi
tiiml claims which hind been examined and
mawtarded by the American commissiouitrs,
and had oi t been allowed by the hN3jican
comimissioners, amounting to-nine-lundred
al twemty-eight thousand six hundred andl
twenty-sevci dollars and eight cents, upon
whici lie dlid not decide, alleging that his
utathimrity had ceased with the terminstion
of the jiniat comolmission. Besides these
claimmis, there were others of American citi
zenms am1m4munting it three million three hun
ired aml( thiiry six thonsand eight hundred
mmnd4i thirty-seven dollars anil five cents
which had iei stubmitted to time boarcla14
tipln which they had not time to decide be.
fore their finial adjournmemt.
The sun of two milimon twenty-sixthiou
sand omie hundred antl thirty-ninme dollars
andml sixty-eigit cents, which had been a
worded to the claimants, was a liquidated
am ascertuinel debt life by Alexico, about
which there could be no dispute, and which
she wmi bound Io pay according to the
terms of the convention. Soon after the
finul awards for this amount had been made,
the Mexican government asked for a post.
ponement of the time of anukiig payment,
alleging that it would be inconvenient to
make the payment at the time stipulated.
In the spir it of forbearing kinidness towards
a sister republic, which Mexico has so long
abused, the United States promptly com
ified with her request. A second conven
tion was accordingly ecnctluded between
time two go'vernnmnts On the thirtiethm of Ju.
anammy 18i13, which upon its face declares
-thai this new arr anIgemnent is enteredl into
himrime a(ccoomm iidaitjiin of MIexico.." Byi
tihe terms of this convention, all time inter
est ildu o time uwairds which hiad been
in fmvoir of time claaimnims unuier the converi
tiuon of time elevenlth of A pril, 1839, yvas
to be pmid to them on the thirtieth of April.
i13, ndl ''the principai of the uaid aiwards,
mandi time interest acernaing thiercon," 'wun
stiplulatedl to "be paaid m five years, ill equal
inistaimmenlts every three mionths." Not.
with!standing thmis new contvention was en
tered into at time request of Mexico, and
for th~e purpose of relieving her from em
barrassment, time clauimanmts have only. re
eeivead thieinterest dume on the tiiltieth of
A hpr:i, 1843; andi three of time twenty in.
Sthnenits. Aithmmtghm the payment oi
time suthu ill~iqiuidated, anid confessed
ly due by Mexico to our eitizens as in
ademnmaity fimr necknowvedged acts of oumt.
rage andmm wrong, was secured by treaty,
time obaligaitiomns of whiich are . ever held
saicreid by mmli jamst nations, "yet MIexica'
hias iolated this solemnl enlgagemeant by
by faiing undi reafusinmg to make tihe pay
mentllI. TFhe two instalmentsiluec in Aplrii
andi~ July, I 54, uinder time peculiar circum.
stances ciinnaectedl withm thlem, hmave been
alssmmmled biy tile U. States anti dischargeid
to thea ehauimnants, bmt tile) are sttil idue by
Mexico. Ditt tii is noLt all of wvhich we
hiaie just cause iof comiplat. To provide
a reumedy finr ltheclainimat hiose cases
weLre not deidedi~i by the joint cotnmissionm
undaier tile conmvention of A pril the eleventh,
1839, it was ex pressly stipulated by the
sixthm article of the convention of the thir.
11eth of January, 1843, that "a new con.
vention shall be entered into for this set.
ilmenit of all claims of the govrent'a
id c oiti'ns o ihe O t
the' republic o i h od 'me
'tecie fate ,p
ciIins i."a : r
eene exico against l6Un Ie"
In conferiim *ith t p o*
hld' sodvnt on decn~
a 11 eea-an n
Hi tese.9. 11, j b'-nj n i4 1
o cit ~s4*ed vInay j..a
iica were 'jaaiire'sly reisuus~,n4ji
~hzlracter. Udiaa f
mens 1 ropsed the gaernme of Mce.
leo tsaime evsolas llie adu .
loyver bWiO ee inhichlgav.bioId,
iarked the an o a .
(aiida the i Sa a, a n e
rel decided whether w dvuid o kplj ,fnio
acedeto tIhem aithog h the subject #41
been repeatealy pressed upon its considc,
Mexico las jhs vilated a second ig
the faith o itreaties,'.b y failing or, refusing
1o carry into effect the sixih article df 9b.
convention of January, 1843.
Stch is the history of the wrongis wich
ire have suffered and patiently enkhred
from Mexico6through a lung series oif ypai.
8o far from afflirding reasoabisbtisfac
tion for the (njuries and insults we
b6rne,-a -rea aggrav.ation ofr hrn ,h o
sists in e fact, that wile. the 'Unted
States, anxious to preserve a -good under
standing with MeiC6, have been coitanl.
ly, bait vainly, employed in seeking'redress
for past wrong's, new outrages were con.
staiitly occurring, wideb bare co ndined to
increase our causes. of chinph19' 'nd t
swell the amount or onr demands. 'Wliile
the citizeni h ed Sates vere epn
ducting a law ful..coinnarce wti Mezicq
under the guaranty af n treaty gf 'amity,
cormnerce, knd navigatio," manyf- thim
have suffered all the. injuries witichtvout4
have resulted from open war. Ti ls'treaiy,
inistead'of affording protection to oprcri r
zens, has beeo'she tmeas of inviting ther.
into the ports of Mexico. ihat. they inigay
he, as they hav.ebccn' ini nurous instan
ces, plundered ofU theit prbagerty .anj
deprived of their peponP4'liberty j(I'hay
dared insist on thi riglatsmidie
tinlawful seizures of Amer*ian 'rpry
and the violation of personal libbriy -of -or
citizens, to say nothing of-the-indls to our
flag which have-occurteiiil 6the 'orts of
Mexico, taken pisce on the high seas they
iould theinselves long since'have gonsit
tuted a state.of actual warIbetwe n~
two countries, In so lohg sufferin exe
co to violate,her. most -so.emn treaty 'obli
gations, plender 'our citizensof their pro.
perty, and imprison their persons withou
aifrording them any redress, wvd have failed
to perform one of the first, -and highi.st
duties which every government owes to its
citizens; and the consequence has been.that
many of them have-been reduced from a
state of allniente to baikruptcy. The
proud name of American citizen, :*which
ought to protect nil who beat it frsi ihaull
and injury throughout the. world, has
afforded- no such protection to our citizens
in Mexico. We had ample -cause of'war
against Mexico long before the 'breaking
out of hostilities. Blt even then we forbore
to take redress into our own hands, until
Mexico herself betame the aggressor by
invading our soil in hostile array-and sbedi
ding the blood of our citizens.
Such are theI grave causes of complaint
on the part of the United States against
Mexico-causes which existed long- before
the annexation of Texas to-the Americ'an
Union; andl yet, animated by the lovo of
pcace, and a magnanimous moderation, we
didl not adlopt those measurcs of raresa
whlich, under such circdmstancs, ire' the
justified resort of 'injnred natlouis.:
'The annexation of Texas in the United
Srates constitutedf no just cause of offence
to Mexico. The pretdat that it~lid .o Is
Wthiolly iiiconsistenit,' and" "irrecoiadilable
with well'authenticated facts connected '
with tho revolution by which Texas became
independent of Mexico. Thot5 ma oy
be the more tminlfost, it mnay er to
adlvert to the causes and to the isory ofI
the principal' events of- that revolution.
Texas'constituted a portion -or the an.
cient prheinteeor.Louisiana, ceded to the
Unitedl States by France in the year 1803.
in the year l8l9, the United States, by the
F~lorida treaty, ceded to Spain all that part
if Louisiana within the present limits of
i'exas; and Mexico, by the Revolution
which separated her from Spain, and rep.
lered her an independent nation,,succeed.
d to the rights of the mother etutitry over
his territory. In the year 1824, 'Mexico
~stablished a eerl 'constitution, Uender
which the Mexican Republic was comnposed
)f a number ofst'einSa ,aneer.
ated together in a federal Union simia . to
aur own, Each of these Statcs had its own
Bxecutive 'Legislature, andj~diciary, andl,
or all eteelit federal purposesiwas .as in
iepenudent 6fI thec general govantent, arid
hat of the'other States,'as is Prin~ylhania
r, Virginia under outr cons'titution. Tex&s
ndl Coahulianited and' formedl uie of
hose Mexican' ttes. 'Tr.S:.to . an
titution which they allopteddiuJd'whd&
ras approved by the )Texiean con