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VOLTJME 1 SuMTR.VlLL'E,. S. C.APRIL 25, C~t
The Sumter Banner:
FiUBISHED EVERYI EMESDY MORNING, BY
WILLIAM J. FRANCIS.
''wo Dollars in advance, Two Dollars and
Fifty-cents at the expiration of six months, or
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sertion. Quarterly and Monthly Advertise
ments will be charged the same as a single
nsertion, and semi-monthly the same as new
All Obituary Notices exceeding six lines,
and Communications recommendi ng Cand
dates for public offices or trust--or pufling
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- 3'All letters by mail must be paid to in
'sure punctual attendance.
LEGAL RATES OF INTEREST,
IN THE DIFFERENT STATES AND TERRI
The following is a correct statement
of the legal rates of interest allowed by
the laws of the several different States
Maine, 6 per cent: forfeit of thrice
the amount unlawfully taken.
Vermont, 6 per cent; recovery in ac
tion and costs.
I Massachusetts, 6 per cent; forfeit of
thrice the usury.
Rhode Island, 6 per cent; forfeit of
the usury and interest on the debt.
- Connecticut, 5 per cent; forfeit of
the whole debt.
New York, 7 per cent; usurous con
Now Jersey, 7 per cent; forfeit of
-the whole debt.
Pennsylvania, 6 per cent; forfeit of
the whole debt.
-, Dlaware, 6 per cent; forfeit of the
I Maryland, 6 per cent; on tobacco
contracts 8, usurous contracts void.
Virginia, 6 per cent; forfeit double
North-Carolina 6 per cent; contracts
for usury void, forfeit double the u3Ury.
8uth Carolina, 7 per cent; forfeit of
interest and premium taken with costs.
Georgia, 7 per cent; forfeit of inter
est and premium, taken, with costs.
* Alabama, 8 per cent; forfeit interest
Mississippi, 8 per cent; by contract
10; usually recoverable in action for
Louisiana, 8 per cent; Bank interest
16, contract 10, beyond contract void.
Tennessee, 6 per cent; usurous con
Kentucky, 6 per cent; usury recove
Table with costs.
Ohio, 6 per cent. usurous contracts
- Indiana, 6 per cent; a fine of double
Illinois 6 per cent. by contract 1d,
beyond forfeit thrice the interest.
Missouri, 6 per cent: by contract 10,
if beyond, forfeit of interest and usury.
Michigan, 7 per cent; forfeit of usu
.ry, and 1-4 of debt.
Arkansas, 6 per cent: by agreement,
'10; asury recoverable, but contract
.Dist'rict of Columbia, 6 per cent; usu
rous contracts void.
*Florida, 8 per c'nt; forfeit interest
Wisconsin, 7 per cent; by contract,
'12 forfeit .thrice the excess.
Iowa 8 per cent.; by agreement 12;
ojrfeit thrice the excess.
*On debts or judgments in favor of
the United States interest is computed
at 6 per' cent. per annum.
Oregon-Bill to establish a territori
-al government, passed House of Repro
sentativas January 1847 no final action
.on the subject in Senate.
The President of the Vormont and Mas
sachusetts railroad, at the opening of that
toad, stated that one ledge hand been cut
throug~h, whore the steam drill in a whole
-dJay drilled only ten inches. Four miles
out of Fischbourg, forty thous.'and yards
quicksand wvere cut down--quicksand into
'which if. laborer fell, lhe required the
aid of his follow-laborers to ext riente him.
TIheo beds of rivers had been turned, innd
the rivers spaned by biridges twenty-five
tImnes. Between Souith Roymlston and
Athold, nighty thousand yardls of the hard.
est an Imagrinmuhlo were excavated, and
this wvas only accomplisheud by two scts of
Imnids work inmm irht und day.
CHARACTER OF JEFFREYS.
We have previoiisly copied from the
National Intelligencer, an extract of a
London letter, remarking upon the char
aoter.of Jeffreys, as drawn by Macau
lay in his History of England. That
our readers tiay be able to judge for
themselves of the justice of the sketch
we copy it, as follows:
The great seal was left in Guilford's
custody; but a marked indignity was at
the same time offered to him. It was
determined that another lawyer of more
vigor and audacity should be called to
assist in the administration. The person
selected was Sir George Jeffreys, Chief
Justice of the King's Bench. The de
pravity of this man has passed Into a
proverb. Both the great English par
ties have attacked his memory with. em
ulous violence; for the Whigs consider
ed him their most barbarous enemy, and
the Tories found it convenient to throw
on him the blame of all the crimes which
had sullied their triumph. A diligent
and candid inquiry will show that some
frightful stories which have been told
concerning him are false or exaggerated
yet the dispassionate historian will be
able to make very little deduction from
the vast mass of infamy with which the
memory of the wicked judge has been
le was a man of quick and vigorous
parts, but constitutionally prone to inso
lence and to the angry passions. When
emerging from boyhood, lie had risen
into practice at the Old Bailey bar, a
bar where advocates have always used
alicense of tongue unknown in West
minster Hall. Here during many years,
his chief business was to examine and
cross-examine the most hardened mis
creants of a great capital. Daily con
flicts with prostitutes and theives called
out and exercised his powers so effec
tually that lie became the most consum
mate bully ever known in his profession.
All tenderness for the feelings of oth
ers, all solf-respect, all sense of the be
coming, were ob!iterated from his mind
Ile acquired a boundless command of
rhetoric in which the vvlgar express ha
tred and contempt. Tie profession of
malodictions and vituperative epithets
which compcsed his vocabulary could
hardly have been rivalled in the fish
market or the bear garden. His coun
tenance and his voice must always have
been unamiable; but these natural ad
vantages-for such lie seems to have
thought them-ho had improved to
such a degree that there were few who,
in his paroxyms of rage, could see or
hear him without emotion. Impudence
and ferocity sat upon his brow. The
glare of his eyes had a fascination for
the unhappy victim on whom they were
placed; yet his brow and eye were said
to be less terr;ble than the savage lines
of his mouth. His yell of fury, as was
said by one who had often heard, sound
ed like the thunder of the judgement
day. These qualifications lie carried.
while still a young man, from the bar to
the bench. H1e early became a coin
mon sergeant, and then recorder of'
London. As judge at the city sessions
lie exhibited the same propensities which
afterward, in a higher post, gained for
him an unenviable immortality. Al
ready might be remarked in him the
mfost odious vice which is incident to
human nature, a delight in misery.
There was a fiendish exultation in the
way in which he pronounced sen
tenuce on offenders. Their weeping and
imploring seemed to tittillate hiim vo
luptously, and he loved to scare them
into fits by dilating w~ith luxurious am
plification on all the details of what
they wecre to suffer. Thus, when lie
had an opportunity of ordering an un
lucky adventuress to be whipped at the
cart's tail, 'Hangman,' lhe would ex
claim, 'I charge you to pay particular
attention to this lady!--Scrouge her
soundly, man! Scrougo her till the
blood runs down! It is Christmas; a
cool time for madam to strip in! See
that you warm her shoulders thourough
ly!' Heb was hardly less facetious when
he passed judgment on Ludowic Mug.
gleton, the diunken tailor who famncied
himself a prophet. 'Impudent rogue!'
roared Jeffreys, 'thou shalt have an ea
sy, easy, easy punishment!' One p'art
of this easy punishment was the pillory
in which the wretched fanatic was al
most killed with brickbats.
By this time the nature Jeffroys had
been hardened to that temper which ty
rants require in their worst implements.
He had hitherto looked for professional
advancement to the corporation of Lon
don. Hie had therefore professed to
himself a Roundhead, and had always
appeared to be in a higher state of ox
hilaration when he explained to Popish
Priests that they were to be cut down.
alive, and were to see- their own bodies
burned, than when he passed. ordinary'
sentences of death. But as soon as he
had got all that the city could give, he
made hasto to sell his forehead of brass'
and his tongue of venom to the court.
Chiffinch, who ivas accustomed . to act
as a broker in infamous contracts 'of
more than one kind, lent his aid. lie
had conducted many amorous and ma
ny political intrigues, but he assuredly
never rendered a more scandelous ser
vice to his master than when he introduc
ed Jeffreys to Whitehall. The renegade
soon found a patron in the obdurate and
revengeful James, but was always re
garded with scorn and disgust by Charles
whose faults, great as they were, had
no affinity with insolence and cruelty.
'That man,' said the king, 'has no learn
ing, no sense, no manners, and more im
pudence that) ten carted street-walkers.'
Work was to be done, however, which
could be trusted to no man who rever
enced law, or was sensible of shame;
and thus Jeffirovs, at an age at which a
barrister thinks'himself fortunate if he
is employed to lead an finpotant cause,
was made Chief Justice of the King's
His enemies could not deny that he
possessed some of the qualities of a
great judge. His legal knowledge, in
deed, was merely such as he had pick
ed up in practice of no very high kind;
but he had one of those happily consti
tuted intellects which, across labyrinths
of sophistry and through masses of im
material facts, go, straight- to the true
point. Of his intellect, however, he
had seldom the full use. Even in civil
causes his malevolent and despotic tem
per perpetually disordered his jud gment
To enter his court was to enter the den
of a wild beast, which none could tame,
and which was as likely to rage by ca
resses as by attacks. He frequently
poured forth on plaintiffs, and defend
ants torrents of frantic abuse interinx
ed with oaths and curses. his luohs
and tones had inspired terror when he
was merely a youthful advocate striug
gling into practice. Now, that lie was
at the head of the most formnidahl- tri
bunial in the realm, there were few in
deed who did not tremble before him.
Even when lie was sober, his violence
was sufficiently frighful; but, in gener
al, his reason was overclouded, anl his
evil passions stimulated by the fl.es
of intoDication. Uis evenings were or
dinarily given to revelry. People who
saw him only over his bottle wouil Lave
supposed him to be a an grossi indeed,
sottish, and addicted to low comnpany
and low merriment, but sacial and good
humored. He was constantly surround
ed, on such occasions, by buftons, selee
ted for the most part, fron among the vi
lest p)ettifoggers who praetised leore
him. Tfhiese men hantered and abus0d
each other for his entertainment. Ie
joined in their ribald talk, sang catch
es with them, and, when his head grew
hot, hugged and kissed them in an eces
tacy of drunken fondness. Bit, thougsh
wine seemed to soften his heart, the ef
feet a few hours later was verry dill'er
cnt, lie often came to the jaidgmewnt
seat, having but half slept oli his die
bauchi, his cheeks on firec, his eyes sta
ing like those of a maniac. WVhenm he
was in this state, his boon comp~anions
of the preceding naighit, if they were
wise, kept out of his wvay, for the recol
lection of the famniliarity to which he
had admitted them itflamed his maltig
nity, and lie was sure to tatke ;evr op
portunity of overwhtehn'ng thetm with
exctration anid inveeive. iNot thle
least odious of his many peculiarities
was the pleasure whtich hie took in~ pub
licly br-owheatitng and miortifyinag thaose
wvhomn, in his fits of mnadlin tcedernss,
lie had encouraged to presmne~ in his
The services which the go-ernment
had expected fromi him werec perfonnitedh
not merely without flinching, but eni
gerly and tritumphatly. 11lis first ex
ploit was the judicial murtder of Alge
non Sidney. What followedl was int
pefet hiatrmony with this b~eginnaing.
Resp)ectable T1ories lamientedi the dis
gr-ace which the brbariy aitd itndeeen
cy of so great a functionary brouighit
upon01 the administration of j istice, bunt
the excesses which filled suclh mten with
horror were titles to es-teema of d1ams.
Jeffreys, therefot e, after- the death of
Charles, obtained a seat in the cablintet
anid the peerage. This last honr wasi
a signal mark of royal approbattiona; f r,
since the judicial systemi of the realm
had been remodeled in the 13th ceta
ry, no Chief Justice hias beeni a lord of'
Execution of Gn'L ays 6 in
Among the mrany barbarous act of
General Toussainti Louverture, "'di'ing
his reignl over St. Dditiig, t xhenxecu
tion of hus nephew Moyse, a young ant
of excellent promise, -may properly be
classed as the most atrociou's.: When
Toussaint was made, governor, most of,
the French. planters had left the Island;
but by proclamations, suggested: no
doubt by the English abolitionists, and
full of words of kindness and promises,
of a strict and impartial government, it
was sbught to lure them back, 'and the
endeavor was crowned with comylete
success. As Toussaint was surrounded
.and counselled by.oficero -sent froni
France,for the protection ofp!anters;,
what treachery could -they suspect?.
But the seque, will show that tlese
French officers were nore. brutish' and
worse enemies of the French 'plantors,
than the uneducated slaves tlmlisel vCs.
At the period of the tragical ocdur
renco which we are about to narrato,
Toussaint Louverture was in theo-'ery.
zenith of his fame and height 6f-his cri
minal career. Age, with its stealthy
step was crawling over him, and,- with
cut iinairing his ability or weakening:
his5 systen, was gradually confirming
his mind in blood and guilt. All those
softer traits of ebaracter of which, in his
younger days, lie bad nct been entirely
destitute, were now passing away, leav
ing but the (lark shades of muisanthro
py and blood-thirstiness carefully hidden
under the mask of virtue and religion,
by the most devilish hypocrisy. In
persoin lie was slightly under the middle
size, niot very wellshaped, and the few
wrinkles which time had placed on his
brow, were deepened by toil and care.
Ife had lost all his teeth, and cat noth
ing but sponge cake, which was made
for him in every town as soon as it was
publicly anniounced that lie was ap
proaching. Such was Toussaint Lou
verture, about 1708.
Ils nephew, General Moyse, was
almost the counterpart of this. He
was a dark imulatto, of handsome face
and person, untl deservedly rentowhed
for courage and humanity, the exercise
of which last excellent quality cost him
his lit, at the hands of his detestable
uncle. The ei:-eumstances of his inur
dei, for suich only it can be called, wore
The inhitr.an policy of Toussaint
Louverture's goverinent was worthy of
a Nero. In order to destroy the unfor
tunate Iplanters with dispatel anl secn
rit'y, lie divided his army into two bod
ie.5, oneC of which he took the command,
whi!c that or the second lie gave to his
nie! hew. Moyse had private orders to
imar:iich on and attack a certain point,
which he conseguently did. while Tous
saluts esrps d'araee reniained station
e'd at sonie distance fironi the scene of
cti-m. When tie niews of the attack
w.:s b-1rit to 'o1'ussaiut hie womi I fall
into a terriic passion, swear ve. ..,eance
on the diturbe.s of tihe public peace,
andh s.-t out with his troop s t3 d-hiver
the attarked t 'nIi'fom the oppressrs.
'These; previousiv nottiled of his ap
proac by spies set foir thme purpose. va
caited the p lace ini time to poven'Ct collis
ion1 with JTausainit, who thus arrived
too late, though of' courise, loaded with
raies an Mecsing for his eclicient tae.
tini h i'reuases by the unafortunate
inhabitantso the~ distressed place.
I Iere it was that lie would receive in
tormationi of ant attack made~l onl another
guarter', and mairebi forth againt with thme
avowed intention of' chastising the reb.
els, but, ini reality, with that of leaving:.
this and othier places uinprotecteid, to thme
tender mieri'es of' the savage horde un
der' the coiinuanid of Mloyse. This was
what Tencissainit called, im thme negro
dialeet, '"rir' la ronde' a mon.''
Them. operations; of' Aloiyse were highly
unisatishetory to his uncle, fromt the lfeet
of the hiiumintyV of' the former sparing
mtanyv who weire hated by rte latter, and
who were' conIseguen~tly martked f.l -(deS.
trucmtiou. 11 ence thme resolution of Tons.
saint, tollowini; the bloody- instinct im.
p lan t ed in. the Ibreast of every mnani,
whither' ini a civih'i d( or a savage state,
to destroy 3o cs' by force or' fraud, ais
soon as~ fort in e unghit ch anice to thbrow
the meanuts in ii power. These, unfor.
tuntatel, fr' jAloyse, were soon1 forth.
comig, and the po wer ad' 'PTussint was
equ dm to th' taisk ofi putting; aill his lloody
prm'j'cts into bloodumier execution.
Tfhe ([inaire's hind beent fixedh uponasi
thme next to lbe attacked aftter' Tomussinut's
!hvoit phm of upeationsm. anal neati'l
chne toi bu he place of residhene oh
imimster, (who~ wais also his godhfatherQ
whomn he bad rcoled to destroy, nnd
and with heavy heart e
work of-deathui't-wa ..,ptd a i4d
the b6 6si e wa
Inf fake il i
placer. rfn~fe#'i WJoilvB~ W
attacked, and the tidin du ) "
nhs wa os Mo ne he
were gone through, batvloba dIot
risewhbnyplesding;anddan d 4n
the road before~him qlehtl tebd
of-his .mpster LpegiingQ~ch
besidq.i,,anl k, i sk,
over aPd ve' ti d
down his rklin hdous
1:.h chiledwnklehaen dfounratc rae
th r'r i"'diliilof6ieIl g
bitterness 'obbfIl,9wdhd iw'klly, is 1
heart was full of the most exceediigdy
at the acemplishment of h IreI
dad his' inad'glbtiui'Trh g tlie
probbectiveckhlffiredtMo h fii ft-4ir
ther.in mookery ofaveryhmuk fbeline ,
he caused arggavoe.to be' dig, jand'le
bodyr,tobbrm hal e oe
vance,' qtimjig hiq inteptigonark
ing t potto94n e . n
continued his march for .Gonaurs Ut
wherfEF ari thefoe enin
had of cdursedisappe red. dsgaint,
as usual, took 0up uiquit6t fo thit.
night at Gonaiie. I a' 'i -
The next morning -a Iessage wageLt.
to Moyse, desiring his i nedite r
sence at~onavdalon ieins df zor
tance.' o '.ut Mo sooner ha' be a e
than-he waa.arrested and thepw* into
solitary, dyngepn, ~ohnrithhe~
murder of Monsio e Ir-,, ,whon, n
long, izowqvery, ogq dhpuot
day dawned, whoen a ppurt nartials
ordered to be conyoenedfao histriA8 a
form mei-cly,- since thuenieihber*
severally ordered by thb'eroldantinii y
rant tofind him gai ith 9W laAdw'
any decree his exec4obb . v r
ever, ia'ving t thoir 'ietik aed
at doitig this, the 'doit w as oidered to
be dissolvdd 4ndi Touaist,'d66iny,
Moyse to be-broughtto'Porr domi- , of
his own authority declared him ,guilt
Of murder, and. orde;cs liis itamediate
exocution. A .
TFhus wastilia Yu c~aLq
dene to db , ; $uq . p d
bempig given him, ande refus even pe, r
mission to plead hi6w' en
he attenipted-to speak,-the driis iWdr
beaten in -imitatiot'of'" 0timi"tint
Sauterre, ht the executionm of' '6is
XVI, lest he should plead the prderstof
his sanguinary, relntiv-in t.jqsti tion.
of his crime. At noon of the sarneday
lie was b'roughi, dresse'l in whit an
with a White band;o' ovei liih f es to
the"Place d' A aim nihe"iM'P a
whiich was' filled with sldthb i '"
himself gave thewordbf-comlmitd iiad
fell pierced by six billetsftotnw hiah.
R ESTORINO DECdASED Ivd tr(
La ?ard, in his'- recent explorations
Iamong the ruins of famous:oi Iiv,
discovered many~ornaweits of "lass,
whichi shows tl at 'thlf a~i dMf far 'an
terior'to our k'n$te 8 did i8'
were acuitdvith te17
'mking"it. mon. tan wo
discoi'eriesimade li the&a.
ard exhnped 'some yP wo of
airc d inivdoy h
th'at it o6~tnld e6i'le a p
into lhis. iro'~Of, i tilt~1
'cause of deay to the Ei
albuime't f ein'thed ,Tid"ecoma~
mnenaded the articlas t6be boiled ii an
albmnen solution. Todx~ei-itti's
tried with most happy results. 'The
old ivory has been thereby-rendered as
fim and solid as when it mvas eotombed,
anid the probability is that. these aspion
did works of ancienit~ssyrias .ciyviliza-~
tion will astonish 'fpture genera.tions a
thousand years hence., ''
T H E RronT WA.iI limo' 8f
much religions excitoment,'iida es
qjuent discussion1' an honest" hid'~utOh
farmer of the Mohawk' *as e askedshbib
oj'inioti as to'whioI doeinition bf
Chriist ains were fid.thf lgted t
wei ride our whatvtbagsida
Idis is de pest roadg jand say dat' is de
pest; Amt it-donittbkereneh di~illce
wbicharoadeve'takeyfoTL w~fen wekget
thierojtheymuoved~ask us fuliolideff &f
eame -and it is wOne idgb#ie
if our whoat is good 1"
MV 'Ax'M-wMsoitimes amuse
al kftl a WfMiews Fhean
twb'ehass.'anoth e .9it
inall or great importa ienga
isin cf 4 address
V n - him
ane, ence e ser
Mvhter; 'ri n di
Dareer ilut~ I~U
#16t =mwy o
thatform of development, acco$i t'to
the eemensspe5Wih it -deals' It
"M.D % $4eir
relt s such whereer it 1o
Tt10*r1 -HE 1.1 IdSK#'Wifb*LW&ft1A
a~orthrn IgatseW in
the formowing anecdote aingto
et o w h ispeve tit he swas worth fre
hundred thfoand d-lla -1. sojourn
J ImOru* In
he fnlloine nte41 "Mjc A
ist m ia deal W -h a-i o ida.
isnadreadesand dlhat . sh soouren
outsk eeatsason4i ^ Aiagr
260nausag mkes,6 ro svdelers
imufi tkradad-6 fors@jeleGg
he- andjtavt!T".ide i aA o'
1e&fyiitn ge tounteaeri..n
pubicas andsnters mie
prv ca tiles, triktu w
wres 76 publiseaah
y hee re fo