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~. WValker said heiknowteoimmenso au ei
ont was not assembled to hear hinf. atA3 ho
Inew that there- waits but ouo man wlhon thbjeex.
dtodIo. hear. Whatever rights to had.ftihs
floor, he \j1km rTkglcocddt8 a atti~l
odSnatn m i aiec Attet.t , ditt hA
AIr. Webi ranid that he felt himsefFutrtera uollp
obligation 1tithe Penators from Wincen (Mr. Walk.
or) an I Now York (IrA9,Wardi fortheir courtesY,
hiallowing hinto- itrlaie Sonatl to-day. Its
Wisited to's nik to-Aay4 not a a senator from Mas
teichusette, nor a a Northern man. hut as an Ato
icat and a4 a memb'r of the Ain trican 'miawo.
ie thoight It, was fortunate for tit entit- 'lint
thoro.w asa Seivie-that there, wan a hulv which
fitai not yet been moved from its propriety-not yet
lost to a just -orf their rwIi dignity an I high
.elfriispect-a idy to which tN .om':try looked
with confi.encefr wise nt'patriotic actiin.
It was tnt to bo denied that we live it it heiist
of otng agitaftion, a qt1.LoQoniderablo danger to
the tnstituina of our- vernment. Tih impris.
ned winds have been 1 e from the North, the
EtAt, the West, and the' v South. and they aIr"
tossing the ocearn billows the ukies, and oetpoce
to our gazo its profoundest deptin. ie di. not.i f..l1
thhat he was the suitable person to take thI h:!In in
la storm, nor had h% the skill to comhat the ele
-1enti But h i h tvl a duty to perform-not a ditty
for his own security or safety, nor to look for a fra -
mont on which to float front the wreck, if wrek
swhould enuo--but a duty to perftrn to the whole
1,untry, and -for tho gdod' of th whole countr -.
Thero vas that which should keep him to his Juty
during ithe truggle aid tie stormn. whileihr the
sun or the stars shall or sthall not a ppear ftor sevtir
'at days f It was the preservation of the Union.
Ife spoke to-day for the preservation of the Union.
Hear M,3 foramy cause.
.,4jle spoke to-day for the American heart; for the
preservation of penee, coneord. harmony aml fra
tortial rooling, which are what ren-lors ibi Uion
11dear to ii. elievo ne for mine Ionor. Thes
Were the sulo motives which govetrno-1 hint in giv
ing his opinions to the senate anl th (otntry.
It might not hatmiss to recur briefly te the evetts
equally siudden nod extraorilinary, which.i have
broight the political condition of lie country to its
In' May, IS-G, war was declared with Mexict.
lho American troopsi cronted tire line of the ein
my's territory, inva-led her provinces, and tinalily
took possonion'of the capitol. The marine ftorrcA
Alf the United States took pnscssion of all her
ports on tha Atlantic and the Pacific. In le-i than
two years front the commneement of the war, it
treaty .tmade, by whichte Mex.ic ceded to the
Uiotod os the territories on the PIitii'. It ha I
so happenod that. in consequenre of the distrar t
ed-and feeble iltate of Mexico before the war was
known in California, the people there under the
stpposed lead of Amecrican oflicers, iad over:rown
the provincial government, and run up an in-le.
pondet flag. When the news of the exi-tonet of
thu war rentched there. the intlepentlent flag was
torn down, andl the stripes hoisted lit s steadl
Before tie war was over, ottr forces hapsil sinst,.Aon
of Saln Francisco, and a great rush of enignts
from nll parts, took iIe to Califtornia. In fanita
,ry,1319, the Mornions disrovered an extranonlina.
ry rich inon or quantity of gobd at the lower ptrt
of- the Aitericai branch of the Sacramento. Thif
Wis kept secret fur -oa- time; but eventually, it
hccom, kisOwvn. Nut long anler thia, gold was di
.tt6vred in iltigher branet of tih. Saurn.-nrit riv
er.- The fame of this discovery wa sprIea nbroad,
antid population crowded into the couttry in inek.
T nds Ia took place in the winter of '4. The dig
,trng di1 not commence till the spring of '11. nnd
.Whiv tieno goid-digg ing has been prosecited with a
success hitherto tunkntowjgi All know how incred.
ulous the American public were at first; bt all
know how rupidly, from that time to the present,
assurances (fthe existence of these almost inex
bttustible mines of gold have coma upon Its.
W-nWa known, also, that it became highly prtpemr
14 opivido a suitable Territorial Governmnnt for
thes people- but owing to thn differences existing
qrt 0 'a -1 it- . a ti ch governumnit was estab
Under these circumstancel, the people inhabit ing
itheco try, actitng iunder a proclamation issued by
ih, M ley, electid a Convention. which framine a
epmttution; that Contitution has been ratified; a
ALegislature lts been chosen, and Senators
resentatives have been sent hitre, who
iihhtn a authentic oopy of the Consti.
, hor State admisslon into the
- utlto sanitdxiresaprohli on
Call - aaid,and he iy)
li -hi formedil
-* ""' 1
le pam. ages leading to tire gallhr
ae and nate floor was here ivo areat that Mr.
Wfladl tQ piuse for several minutes 11 ordler was
-t could not be denied thait it was this circum
~JJ!nb~r 3Ofslterery-which hat con-1
tj is&letli' dInpute about the propriety of
Aitttng ars a State.
'I-t could not by rsail now-wvhatenver might have
hoang gi.at first as a reason for thme wvar with
Mexico-that it was not prosectfed for thc acisii
tiorn of Territory. It was argued that the only
proper miade of obtaining intdetmnit y for the expetn
~t~of the vr was to take Territory. kAnd as thie
all Inaid souith of the United Statese, and
'n~vrm ie ta,~e it was ndtutrally 'eu-eo by the
~outh, ali aculpiiih tof territory in that region
would be added to tie slavetlihig Stiie,. Events
hayc not turned ouat to be so; their xpectatiotns
hryv6 not beeni rceahzed; an I hiance thieir lisicintenti.
Aiiil now that quetiton. slavery, whlic'h i' si to ftent
alarmed the wise and gnod mien of th~ contntry,
c)Imes upon a for fresh disen'tssiona.
ie tai he woni revie w historically the'.qutestton
of slavery, partly because its character Inde the
mode of discutsssing it have been the cause of great
alienation of kind an:! friendhly feelinags.
Sltavery eisteid in all ages of thi wvorldi. i t edist
edI among the oriental ntatins. It existed among
itho Jews, anil theoc'ratic governme'nt of that ts-ople
:.dt~o tie charge of lnjtistico agaitnt it. Slaivery
'e~titedoaromong tihe Greeks, ant the phtilrophy oif
that people foutnd the niamne exuseu for it nts in st up
in this coun try lby its defend~ers anol audvoetes.
They juistililed slatvery otn the grountd of tihe inifritir
-it yof ther A fricatn, comapared with the whtin- raie.
'lireytdidl not unidertake to show, by clo- e logtii,
that thue right conuisted in the powier of the strtin
ove'r tire weak, hut placed it ont rthe groitmd uof tie -
,infutriority of the niegro race.
'rThe mrore mranly jurisprutdenrce of ii the Rmans
urstifieud it on tire othrer grorund. Frotn thes earist
] trlttprutdenc-e dowun to te fall of then empn~ire,. it wats
- ld thrat slavery wvan against ntatuiral law, hut
~untified ont thetlaw onartioins itn recounnised; they
argued- that I a5~t hawv captives tal-en ini war
might be held t).Pnsomned; or ltey tmightt, in ex
change for don-it, volntariiy becomne shaven; nn-]
tht ttheir condlitiotn as slav'es deeel to their
posterity. They also hbhi thaut a mani might vol
zimtarily teull hinmaelf to anottheur, as a slave., ftir de bt,;
taund thirdly, that parsons couldl be madte sivas four
At thes inttrodnection of Christiatnity thet Raman
-world wvas frull of rdavcs; nati nto injuiu-mitionC:int
that conrdition of tman wais found ini thte preactihing
of the gospel oaf Jeusn Christ, or aif any of hris A pus
tIes. 'hu object of institu tig, of fimtnling Chris
tianity, was to totuh the hteart anm:l improve then
mind of' man. its obijectt was to operate uii the in
.dlvidural heart antd indi oif mn.
Now, ott thu geineral naturoh ndliaractmer of
tween ithe Nor thern and the Souith;ern portions of
On the- one sid', at thre Noirthr, it wvas biebi, even
in the absence of intjnstice, to be a rigiht funinded ini
pewter and] might over fe-eblentess, and slavery in
Is hell not to lhe itn accordantce w.'ith the tteek spirit
ei tire Gio-pel. IThaese are sentime~ntn.-tcrishi-td re
ogpty wth agmetedforce by the people of the
Nrhr tat, adIt hias tatken hull (if, antd p~r
d~testm ther religious feelinigs.
The South, on titn other sidea, treat ing their shaves
weithi tie tmost kintdnessn and consideration, hamve
bren tan;;it with the Greeks toi look upn lte A fri
etian as ian inuferior crteatutre, whio.a tnt niral ate. is
of boniJng'. 'rThom are, at the Sotht, thotustandu oef
muen who, Jiuving contscien-es as tinder ani-i its ity
rigjht-tra tiny at the North, catnnot takhe the Ntarthern
view of thIs sithtJen. There are othttrs whio look
upcon thtigs n they aro, antd withourt inquittrintg fur
th , deciare, cont-cienitiontsly, that theuy haivei tn
-thnr die responasibility nor the power to clear them-n
elvort of the istitiution.
TIhen Senator from Soth Carolitna (Mr. Cailhoun)
the othrer day allud-ed to the neparatiotn ofthe Meth
o list E~pl,:opni Chutrch. This 5Cp:.raition totok
place on this subnhjeot of slatvery. I In lad examined
thje subject, had ooked at tihe separrationr wvitha anx
iety, fer ha looked'Ilpon thmat denomuinationt an one
of-ther grceat props of religion tanrttmoraility tof tihe
nwhnle people; lie had rc-ad all the argtnmentu ont
bqth sides, buit never hatd buen able to so'otny good
causa fur the separation, nor that ainy goodl could
r'nsult from it.
Whren'iuestlons of this kindu take hold of the re
ligigus mindi; tid creep into reli giotns axsembthliagt)
they nirst headl to excitemnent. All htistory showsa
Ijiat rdigioeus disptos lenAi to wvar. Ulponi all suchr
mubjeets and in all stuch controvershies, mnen think
t.heiesevisahohimnuely righat, andl all others iiTyr
in Lg from thlenis absolttly wrong, and mark ot
o strng line between: what they thipit wronig.
~lThero aire itien who cannot kei' titat int too hortlIy
pqrijigone they are apt to fall Into. nany errors.
.bvared dsi nued to mnn t tI otne duty a awar
Ir n dna ria o 9l dver others. ny deal!
snorals are as asudly eronetratedl s* an algui
reysiton. Thyh that~ Wir their
- "C 4 be
tweea ti* tru y
h' lW uIctsRne of di sin
anl' exapbrations exsting amongt e Ie.
Slavery does exisi in the Un States, and did
exist In the States before and at the tasm of tho
adoption of the Constitution. Ife propoead toshow
what wan tle state of'publib sentiment in relation
to it, at thu North and at the South. at that time,
an-r witat the-great and wine-men of all parts df ithe
-oun!ry thougTat of it in 1787. At that time there
w -a no great diversity of opinion, and it will be
(mtil thit both partiaes-South and North-hold
slavery to be a great moral rend political evil. Not
nuh. thnuh stono invective agtitattit an a cruel
condition, was uttered; but the great objection was,
it being a politieal evil, as taking the place of free
laIhor; at a labor which was lees trbong and less
IrdIve . All held it to be an evil and ascribed
t 1uly"'to the evil policy of the mother country,
Wi1 antalled it on the colonies. Etminent men
held it to be a blight, a mildew, a ascourge, a curse;
aind the North was not then so escited against it as
This wn- the light in which the Convention
whieh formed the Constitution held it. The es.
lion then was, how to deal with theevil. ey
thougt slavery could not continue ifthey prohibi.
ted t importation. ience a limit to importation
of sIave" Wla proposed. Twenty years wall propo.
Fed by a Non hern mn. Southern gentlemearn op.
po'ed that as beitig too-long. ir. Madison was
wnrm in oppoAing it as too long.
The tern "slavery," nor "fugitive slaves." is not
1tsea1 in the Constitution. "Persona bountd toatervi.
tttde." is the tern aised. Mr. Madison sail the
worl wae not rcognized by the Conattaiaion.
"Tlle Convention met in Philadelphia, and sat
fron May to) September. 1787. Contretso was lair.
ilnr the whial' 1ime in sesint at New York. All
the grent men of the country were in either one or
thet olier body. A few perapN held pepat in h'ttl.
It wats in tlia' sunmmer of 17-47. anl while the Con
e ..n. franining the Consaitution, that Cont.
gra"'s WAR framiniaz the ordinance of '87. There
,wte: n porfect moncurrence b--aween the two hodlies.
I'i orchinance applied to all the T'erritory then
b!eonting to the I'nited States, being that north.
weet 4f the river Ohio.
.iriuinia ha- a few years previotsly ceeleel to the
I -titedl S-tate all this Territory. It was a mag
tinnmitmoat act. It was one of'the fairest clainsa of
Virgiani to our respect and gratitude. nand only fi'ec.
nal to that other clain, that fron heir counaeafs and
frot her statesnitena irst eanate.I the idea (of formt.
lnur a general Comstitmion.
Tik ordinatee wan In full operation when the
Constitution was ndopted and the government put
im operntion in 1789.
It was clear tas nn hi'torical truth, that at the
franim of tie Ctnstitution it wa th general ev
prtattn itat upn t hpeMi l' eat-inag of importation of
slavies. im the country woila he'iin to rt out. It
wn aleN an liktoricalI truth that so far as power
existed ib the Congress to prohibit the preads of
slavery in the inied States, that power was exer.
i4a' to the filli-t extent.
The Senator friom Southi caroliaaa land sni that
this oralinnree was the firat of the serien of deprivat.
nion of ith. privilaeges and equalitica of the eonith,
hit that it wa" .lone by thie Confeleration. t wiats
the net f lie Co( naatfeataion, bait wVas daline withe tle
conatcuarrence oftha whole Smith. The oralinance
war naloatedl by at iianimaoust vtite of the 8ath t
en' Stateu . hanl thle only vtet against it was a
Nortlhernt one. I[ere he mnight paie and relect
n the perf'ct necord in lithe opinion of the North
atn South oat thims abiectt 1thtt tirne.
Iltat opinion ald anigeald both at the North and
the Sotth. 'iavery was tint nw consilered at
that Sotuth aae an evil. 'Son After these events, a
'h nanro in opinion a 'cn aniad a severance of opian
It shoved Itself-hoi North giing inmre strong
Ind warm anninst slavorv. the Saith morn strong
anti warm it f.vor of it. 'What liha been the enuse
if the 'hange in athr opinion of the Satith-a
:hange which hase given slavry a new nomecla
ure! It it now ani in ,%ion, and nyt a soon e
-riot a e'aro, Ir' styi at it to beowing to the
-.ldeon riniirg anael rnpid growth of the cotton plan.
ing in'er'eat. it war this gave the desire to it.
Inta' t )r and tosa 'it.
rn -r . thin a eiaoria n worn not more,
In, :ally, than forty or fifty thtouanrd dllare; now,
.rhape. it ie a Ireld millions a year. At that
ime thert wtas onare Wax, indigo and rice raised
han cotton. It was not bellIeved in Engli d that
iy cotton was raijnedal; ennd Mr. Jeftfrsonvege, that
Ifer the treaty by xchtic Amrcn ucuwas
dowed to be carried to . V -
nnsmon t o IanIIdh by IthIe (Imie-rn c f the c rUstomIi house;
hey declaring that Cottaen was not rased In- this
They kiow bet ter now. The age of Cottou lhai.
iceut a troale'n age to athe Soauth. It ha' eleiteda ai
lesire whlich has groeyn on what it fed tupon, anal
anon It baeame the rage for newv area of Territory
to raise Cottona.
tat 190'2, Alabama was addedl to the Contf'rleracy.
In 1803, l.ainisianoa. inichidintg what now compose
the slave Statese of Missouari atal Arkeanian. Ini
1819. Flaida waas mtore slaveldlaing Tea.rriatory.
'Tho Senator from South Caraolina said that he
ltad seen in the policy of the Goavernmnt. in to
node of reguilating the revenue. causes fair the me-e.
rapidl groth of the North. This m-ty be so. iut
if aniy opernation of gnvernm--nat can hr shown to
inca"e tae poapulatiaan anal graowth of the North,
it cani hbe nthling to the operaatos of the gove'rn
mte'nt tea praomtote rsla a trritory'. It was naot thae
antt'rnat"neaof tme that broutghat in Flonra and
Louairiana. hii:ate acts oef man. Anal amteng tse'
act' eaf tian taight he inmc'lided lie anntexationt of
'Teas int 19-15. This lnst clo-sed thc ebntetar and
aa-'taed thet ac'ouant; fear thte aenonation of Texas byt
the resoluitionsleatead dial noat leave one acre of
lanaI that was not settleda as slave territory. 1By
ttaoe reseelutions it was gnranticed by haw.
There was net a fot of landI in the United
States time character of which, as far nii slaveary or
F~reea Sail wa' 'once'rnead, whtichi wa not settled
firanly' hey haigh anda irn're'cablea laws. At the atme
of thte annex,'ationa of Te'x'as. the.- Sr'anaaor fraom
Sasab Ii('aralinta was at the lhenal oef thet States I),
partm na t: theare waas alhena itn atha Sentlae a geattla'
asrn'an-arkale faar lia netivity an-l alraoitnies,
who' hai .ineaet beena Secareta ry eof t hae Ti'reasury.
( 1r. Wt':a'r,) ail baetwee'an a themi bothi ah had''lr
aa'tth-da the c'harnae'aar of the 'rerriteorv ef Tl'a. fear
all time. It was neadly donae-a close piecet of
Mr. W.. r.-a'l that part of the resolutilons of an
ne'xationttof'le Txas partienilarly re'fe'rrinag to na'w
slave States ieb haatmarkaed att of he'r territory witha
her ceaea.nt, atnd makinig this a pa rt of the' aomf
II'elel aidtat bys thraeea rare~luation" it wvas solaemn-t
lv teacured atha~t entt aef ath" aerritory' of'le Te'ta newa
Srte'- te e ilatliha'r aif fealir Env ha" feame'd. athose
Seetith eaf it.Ile. :Iaan. iee ha - ive State,'" thoe~se Nirtla
t e If ree'. No net eef t 'eettrea's ane ia 'traeah
to tis amraty. 'ea'ss tieae'rpts ahae ta'rams ande
'eotjm inupon etm. lIe ataw wae way ine which'l
th.. Governiatneet catn raela'ansa Iself fraom 'this 'hliga-.
aten. Slavory was Iixad thaere. by poasitive' gaaraan
PTa' re'.ol ut io a'nepovie tatn free State< enna hi'
fr.- narih~ tir of t 3'hg. 50mt.; tamt ha"e'coanenat ofl
Tie'xa' is requiareda. ifeaw 'oualdI aattomnact he
foerede if lie Naorthe hiad the overthr~aowinge peow
e'r wahjaih thae Senaiator front Sotth Crralia plays it
laa heade T
at the leetns of hIaepre'setattive' th'e- ra-enelht.
eaons were mioptedl by' a'ighety S'thleerenaml fifly
.Narthlern voe"'. ina tie Setate', by a vt'e of tween
tv-evena taa twenty-fiv"'. Of this awenty'-'event,
alhi rteen atwere' fromta tihe freea Sata a-te-~ r f'raom Ne'w
F'england a. Narly oane-linadfef alae voete' as F~re
Seal tate's, lie knew n tahing sea remat~rkeala in
htistoary as tis aeflitir. This 'iT'rriaory tef Te'asa
over wih't a bairdl 'ouild tnot fly ini a wee(k---anneox
edl, anal poseiaivelhy garantida toi be slavao Te'rrito
ry, nthrla rr'e-fmth o' heel s liha 'ray-lovainatg memn
herrs ofl thea linsei froma Conntai'e'aanat aen ''ne-alf
itt athe tenatea, voteda fair it. Onie voete was givent
fear it fromta Mhainae, oane f'raam Mhtatehn eeatts. he.'t
mre catlh-de ahiemneeha s the .Naorthearni itma'arney'.
Tlhey wVenit fer the negi'itioni eef 'T'erritery. they
waentt fair thae intraolia'aaaon aof a newt' ri a nd'rel aiti - f
te'r its iantreadna'tetin they~ liropeire toa appuly tea it ate
uat~ i' t'rae of tite Wliaet P'roiv ta.
Twova .. e'toarr oe froam tC'onnaecti'ent andta o:1
fromn Newt Y'ork-'otedl fear tihe resoluaionse of tat
neaxationa, wvith their aees wvidea en~st tea the ac 'tt
athat te thten Se'cretar y eat .'inte' lada aapenaly annd
with maathiaaessa advocatedl ites ianeattion beeansere
eaf ias beinig tlavae territory.
Mr. Clhomia saidh ahat Grenaat flritaia, with the,
aid of Ahbalitionaistas lien, was aendleavoaring~ to ahe -
iash slaverny le i' exias., It wav oan this groundta lie
adhvoentedh its anntexettionm.
Air. We bster saidt it was anarly the a'metr theing.
Those twao Senatort. who lada voetea to anneai Tea
as-whet hade voted. fair acqiing niew aarriory.
have goatn home tat lernd t" great F~ree Sail ptaty.
'They hadu le'ft tat thea Senate' the aim eof voatinag te
carray intao cIfees th-'guartanay to admoit ew smave'
States, or that grneater-odiinmtovvote tat violatte tat
guaratnty, wvhilae they hiave goan eaame and aire niow
enigaged in makinag flamninghree Saidl speechtes.
Air. WV. ttn grave a haisetry aof hiN cousre aei thC.
sinhject ofl the atnneexationa oaf Terxas, and oan that
prniple' s aof the Wi~lmot Proiviso, shoetng that
f'rom theo year 1836, hte htad uniforamly ot~ppoased ti
former aand ensutinted thi latter; readinug freatr
speeches udehiveredl mn these subtljects. ie hadt yea
teal aigatinst the bill to coaiinamate the aannesation
acecetsin, on ac'quishionea of territory, north o1
soth; lhe always adopted the Speartatn maxim
"imnprosee, adhon whtat yOu havei, seek no furahser.'
t , in the stt faiitirs, hecudse o oth:l
mnode ofproceeditng, than to carry otat the e'aran
OPI vry by te Northern
.eight i hausus
W on aIt eihts in"ti
au in 2 bi to carry sla
tia do natul imposui
do' and Character of the
coun , end he at no selaholder would car
ry his saves to such a couptry, It was a fixed
fact that California and Now Mexico were des.
tinod to be free, and that too by the arrangeme:ts
of things by the power above. If a law now be.
lo;.L ie nat pr~vdina agrroril Tbemnt.
rtIW. Mexico, ou 4v tor o flb ion
o-rlavery. Ilo would nake to;effoirt-to carry 'out
by law, an ordinance of nature, or to re-enact the
will of God. lie wouli not voto for it- in such-a
case, because it was wounding to the feelings of
Southern gentlemen who hold opinions that the
are theorotically at leust allowed to carry thefr
Ile would treat the Wilmot Proviso, as far as
New Mexico was concerned, as Mr. Polk did it
with regard to Oregon, that in as a nugatory act,
and in that came a. senmelen act. Any man who
would vote for the Wilmot Proviso for New iex
ice, should feel himself bound to protect the etern
al snowq of Canada fron slavery, by the same
overohadowing wing of an act of Coigiess. When
any thing practical was to he ofreeted, he might
vote for it, but he would give no vote to disgraco
his own understuanling.
In these times ofexeatement it in but naturml that
mutual cruminations should take place, and that
each side should have a list of grievances with
those of the South. One of these was founded up
on true grounds. It in that the North have shown
a disinc'ination to carry out the obligations of the
Con stitution in that particular requiring that fugi
tives slave from labor shall be rendered up. n
this particular the South was right and the North
was wrong. Ile considered that by the terms of
tite Constituion, it was made the dity of the
States and their Igi-dature to give up these
slaves. Every member of a State Legislature was
hound by his oath to suppiart the Constiution, and
haul no right to consider any excuse for not carry
ing all that Constitution into efl'ct. There was a
hil now befoire the Seiuate to carry into efllct this
provision ofthe Constituin, and Ie would vote
for it. The South was right in its complaint of
injury on this point. and the North was wrong in
being uinindii ofwhat the Constitution peremp
torily reqiutirel of them.
Another subject of ucomplaint was the restulutions
sent hero for iiutructibons to membern of Congress,
some about slavery in this District or einewhere.
Ile thought that these resolutions by State Legis
laturt-, wen heeotme of too common occurrenre.
lIe agreed with some sentin-nts uttemd a few
dlays ago in the M.iasachusotts Iegiuslature by a
young member, who said he would vote for no
resolm ionsq to be sent to the members of Congress.
Ile saw no propriety in one set of public servants
inistrueting another net; they were all public ser
vants, and alike responsible to their constituents.
lIe woul be no more willing to listen to itstrue
tions from Massachusetts on a point where dlie
was only an much interested a any other State,
than he woulb, if appointed on arbitrator in a
question of private right, listen to the instnictions
of the man who appointed him.
The Abolition societies at th North was anoth
ersitluject of complaint. lie had no srmpathies
with thewe societ-en. They had hadl the cflut of
preventing any favoiuaile sem.s at tho South
in heltlf of enticipattion. Within the last twen
ty yeas he had ito doutbt that inmoney enough had
been contributed to A bolition presses and societies
to purchase the freedom of every slave in AMary.
landil and send thetm in .ibea. lIe hail yet to
learn that Abolition philanthropy ha-l taken that
Thte Sotth coinplhaed that the press of the
North was directed against the iuititutions of
Sonth. It was trum that in the Northern pa
p !r., stich cltrge- antd acctiations werev mtaide
lit in die South it was equally as bad. In
some of thto speechs" and dohates in
Congress were bitt little improved and better
ih in tlti lone of the presi. Every sentiment
tittered by thy Southern pross, or by Southern
men, high or low, which rofleoted upon the
North, was copied into the Northern paper3,
and sent forth to a reading people, and produ
ced a Ihi feeling. It was the ane at the Bonth.
11o saw no reamndy in the power of ContresS
odr dhts griance. iThere were remarks in
E sech o the nerator freo. Louisiana, (Mr.
aownsh)-where he contrusLed the laborurt of
1wnod four-fifth of thl pro rt the North.
Theoy were an edu11cat1as, and any coin
parison such0 as that inate by the Sonatovy,ould
t-o mch to feed the excittemnt.
SHo woiuld rather hecar Ha'tors alil dieclare
the intpossibility of diuo,,alving this Union, than
that aniy onto should say it couk! be done. Ho
hade httard of secsion-poaeable cticession!
It w~ts impt~olhlo, You mighut as well at
temtnt to disturb die o":an to its dtepth withot
ruiling th-e surfatce. H1 wt~ suirprisiel tot
h.'ar-anuy one foolish entoingh taluppo there
cotuld bi a s.eces.siotn rr disoltution without vio
lace. Didi Senatitors tiuppos ithatis [Union wa-i
like stnow unedir a vernald stat, io be imehed
g.nttly awayv That theset States. were to pairt
peacefully-m ike a c-onctrrnt ngremnnt to
soparati?-with atlimon~ly on both sides ? l
w.t'di to know wht.-re thae flag wasi to go,
where the eatgle wats to stand, or was tic to cow
er and falt to the g~round ?
I low wasc each-I State to pmrotect itself ? I Ie
laud htat that a Siauthaern C onfteey wa-s to
fo ramed. 1I:3 tid not chiarge' any one with think
i-ig of it. It was talk--d tdhomt. I le was sor
rv it was talked atboutt; laen wasi sorry it was
<Ireamn'd abotit. It wa~s imnpeile to form at
hino betwiten the slave andt t free State-i. A
titne coutld not he, dlrawnv that wVould bue satis
tiuctory to tive- man ini the inion. I Ie hail a
d: gmst for this siubjiet. II. wuhdi rathler hear
uof blightt, miihutew, it scounrge-wouild rallher
hiear of watr, pestilee; ad tni ne, thtan secos
si- nl. There wouild he noi iiuntiont, nt' seres
,i in; but the I mion would last, he. houped, foirev
II - ht:id board ot the Nadhville Coi nvenationa.
II. ie upptoed, fromn whatit hi:tl heen-t said, thtat it
wula d Ibe a( ConvtVtion' ti) reconutnteiitd conili
:iorv meaa-,tires- lto thme Sutha anil tot the Northu.
It tnt, andI they~ weire to ft'et with ii;ilrpoi-us
adv,rseu tot the Unionii and the ('ontsitatiion, thent
they~ wVero sitngiidarly'i irmpproipritle in ti r sin
heelioin of a place of mn:eling. Aflter ate treaty
of Aiins,a: miembttlr of the llritish 1 ou-ie ofi
('o:mnonras, commntiing uposn it, sail: "Thtat it
Kingu WVitinmn cutldl know wlmnt the treaty was
hea wotuhi turn in his rotlin." if this Conarveni
lion was~ to me~et to take tmeasu res ag..aist thti5
IJio n. the satn ti emph ilatic- r-emairk might ib
imlad toI tem, thai~t they were not int tIhe proer
lahce, whtent theay heldlu such I coni-si-h- over theit
soil w, wr repaoae I ie remu:liin iof Andtrew Jack
lI I thtoughlt that itT. Texo s wvould aigrie to
cede to3 the h~ited' Staites. alh ther te-rrtoury
Norih of the thirty hoimrth patraltl-i, for a mnonfy
co niderattioan, thei puroposit ona shle be coma
IlIe wioub h saty to the gentlemtarn of dte South
that if they wouild propo~nse a sceum' for coloini
zinig the free. blacik., of lte Sombi on a Ilargi
-cal-he ii wuiu vot;e fir it. li. wottuld viote- to
r.-turni to Virginiui allI the- mineya- rieceivedu
ifrom thme li hd whlieb slue.reded to thai II tited
S-htat-s, ton be apphedu~u to th~at purpoise~. Fh~itiy
. niiliins of diullaur hadt alre:idy lu-it recuived,
and. if the raiuu he- suuhl. it wub~l prouuce
two huondre-d muilionsut o31 dollars lie wouuhl he
willing to vote all thais toi amn-horaite the condi
Wiir. W. thuen cc tat d I in so -imlii generaud
reatirk-up thet ti met su-. and the, tuue.ssity bar
ateir .howaing themselves~u ht- to theijr dutii,-;
hei hoped-i there wvouIld be no pi'm:ies whlent thme
cas-. citlid aor imen; andE ini Somel r-tma~rks umpoin
the, boundlessu- prousperity (it the cunltry atnd its
h pa, tor the Itoturei.
.t Calhouna. I rise to correct what I c-on
eive (tib an error iof th isliitigiuiishdi Sena
our fromtt Maassachusetts ns to the nmotives
whmich indiuttced thme acq ui.it ion of Floridta, I snm
isianta itndt Texats. t l it ittutedi it to thett g real
grawthI of co ttonai, andl the duesire o f thme SothI
ern people lto get an extensiont of Tertritory
with limo viewv of cuhiivatintg it with more prodi
thian they could in a compact anti crowdeid set
tlen~t. Now, 31r. Preusidont, the history o
theoso acquisitions I think was not correcto
given, it is wvell knownt that the acqutisitiomi
of F-loridla wats the reftult of ant Indiuan war
TIho semtintok Indians residling nloong time limu
nitnekc-d one of our fortre'uec: troops were or.
74f .;;, "Alp
were collected tniy I' tribes of 1ulla
the Creeks, the oc**s, ChIckasawsa
the Chokes, about tlirty thousand . I
-who hold conneticot, almost the whole e
thom, with the Spunish authorities In FIori
andtcarzried-on a perpet with thei
It was wil known twf'a most polhlclous intflu
eace wasthus eor4W over thon; and it wA
the desirro or preventing conflict between t
Indians ail ourselves in the South, as I believe
Which itn~eud the acquisition of Florida. I
come now ia Wse well know thal
the immo4 n nm for tho-acquisition of Lou
Islana wasthe suspension of our right of dopo
site at Nehv Orei '. Under a treaty wit
Spain we had a rigft to the navigation of th
river an fag ad NoA Orleans, and a right t<
make deposites in he port of New Orleans
The SpanIsh autiprities interrupted thai
right, and that intctruption produced a great
agitation at the Wet, and I may say through.
out the while Unitd States. The gentle.
men then in op>si ion, a highly respectable
party-the old 'ediral party, which I have
never said a word ddisrespect in regarl t
-if I nistjake not, Wok the lead in at desire to
resort to arui to aiquire that territory. Mr.
JefTerson, mnore prulent, desired to procure it
by purchase. A pirchase was mnde, i, or.
der to remove the difflculty and to gi. anl
outlet to the West b the ocean. Th-it *as
the iinrnediate cauw of the acquisition -0
lAiiana. Now, air, we come to Tex,
Perhaps no gentleine had more to do wk,
the acquinition of Texas than myself; rnd.
aver, Mr. Prusident,that I would have heets
among the ery laistindividual in the United
Stated to hare made any movement at that
time for lie acquisition of 'exas; and I go
further, if I know nerlf, I was incapable bf
a'mttrmrig any terristy sinplyfen the ground
that it was to be an onlargeneit of slave rer.
ritosry. I wirill justas freely hiwve acquired
itif it had bcen (in the Northern as on the
SIuthern side. N sir, very difT'ret. me.
tives actuatel me. X knew -it a very early
period--I will not iito :e h:atory of it
the British Gtveraint had gi ven encoarage.
MIet to the AXlitionsts of the IJoited States,
who were repreentlo at the World's Coi.
veintion. The peAton of the abollition oi
slavery was atgitated n that Coinvention. One
gentleman stated th4 Mr. Adan informasI
hu,,i hat ifthe BratisiGovernigent washed ISO
abolbsh slavery in lse United States they
moust begin with Teyis. A cwmiwnian was
sent from this Woild's Convenition to the
liritish Set-retary of itte, LorJ Alerdeen;
aniid it so happened thit a gentleman was pre
sent when the intervew took p!ace bet ween
Lird Aberdeen and tie conaiatiee, who g.ave
me a full account of it shortly after it occur
red. Lord Aberdeenfell into t he project, ind
kave full encourageiient to tlhe Abalitionis4ts.
Vell, sir, it is well ksown that Lord Aber
deen was a very direk, aid, in my op:n.ai,
a very honest and nnrhy mn-m; and when
Mr. Pakenham was sent here to negotiate
with regard to Oregon, and inrilentally with
respect to Texas. lie was ordered to reid a
declaration to this Government, stating that
the Brit-sh Governmest was anxious to pit
an end to slavery all o er the world, roninen
cing at Texas. It is well knaown, furtlher,
that at that very tirne4ne vociation wnas going
on between France and Lnigland to aecom
plish that object, and our Government was
thrown by stratagem oat of the negociation;
and that object wp, trgyl.w..
iMbggk1i4 i i't she vouild a
All these are matteft of history; and where is
the man to blind--1 atm sure the Seiator
from Massachusetts is not so bld-an not to
see that if thn project of Great Britain had
been auccesafal, .~ whole frontier of the
States of Louisiana. Urkansas, and the adja
cent States would hatve been exposed La the
inroads of British emissaries. Sr, so far .as
was concerned, I hut it exclusively upo -that
ground. I never wouhi run into the folly of
re-annexation, which I always held to be ab
surd. Nor, sir. woual I put iL upon the
grounid-wvhich I might well have put it-of
commriercialI a nd mi ,nacturintg cons idera
Lions; because those were not miy mortive
ptrinipes, and I chose to assign what were.
So far as comiimerce and' lnaIctures wvere
concerna-l, I would not have mloved in the
ti ater it that early 1'eriod.
The Senator objects that imany Northerni
gentleimen voted for unnexationl. Whyla, air,
it was natural that tkey should he dlesarous of
fultihlinug thle obhlgataions of the Constitution;
and, besides, wham mam at that time, doubted
that thme Miassoturi Couaprntinse lane would hec
adoptedl, arnd thait tle Territory wualtd fall
entirely to the South! All that Norherr
men.1 asked for at that titme was the extensior
of that line. TIheir couarse, in my opinion,
was emnineintly corredt and pat riotic.
Now, MIr. I'resident, hlaving mnade thtese
corrections, I muiast g' back a little further,
atnd correct a statealmnt which I thiaak the
Senator haas lefi very defective, relative to thet
ordlinance oft 1787. ile states, very correet
lv, thlat at co: nitnaee under thet Oid Cont edl
erattian; that at was :fte'rwards co~nfiemd by
Congress; tit Congrerss w s sitting mn Neu
Yorak .at the t anet., w. lie th Caoniventtioni sat it
Phil Itla'lpha; anald tht thera' was conicert II
action. 1 h-ave not baakedl amat the oardanet
ve'ry reenit fy, boit imy ianeimory wiall serve ma
thus tar; thIt. Mr. Jetll'rsoni imltincd ha:
first pnrpslttain to exctthCd slavery in 17.64
Tlhere was a vot e ta ae, upaim it, andl I thlini<
on that vote every i ,aathern .Senator voIei
against it; but I atiit noit ca'rtailtiCo it. 0,i
alhmg I aim (er;.inii , thtit at wvas three year
bf'ore~ thle olatiat roul pass. It was
sitaurdily resis.tedh do v.in ti o 17'7; ait:0 whien
ads p~sd ast I h t goui re:iaon to, befhaave
at wvas uapon a pr i'eple ofi ttci.p~ ien; Ii -s
hat thea trdianace shld~ Contiain a roiso
saindlar toi tha onte puat all the Conaistatiat in
with respect toa ft;.gi slavyes; and ntext, tha
it shoutild bie ansertel ain the Conals .a o . ai
this was te comiapranlise' tupos wvh :h, thme fpra
htiation wa~s amriert el i a thie rthnace a!t 17i7
We thouughat we bitu an iaub-naioity mn thal
lint we miadie a great inostake. ( ) wheat maos
saible adivanitage~ hliit beent taa u.! V ohite,
f;aathI has lnet us ont every sale', :and ithe adl
v.intiae hasa be'a aaoga'ther i thae. r tauor a.
()a the the ar side, I hla tbeen' tharaown open t
a Nthea:!~ran popi ui ito thacetitre exisaa
ofi thei Soualtheni. This wVast te ;e ihaa,
measuriae whaachh de-toyed~vo liae e iaipraua:se a
t Conastiatuattin, aid th-isi flwed thae .\i
lioirn comaipraomise, whicth as~ c.arrmJ ul ii n a
bay Noratherna viotas. altah .ugh iniw dIaisawe
anid anit re'ipectead by thema 'lTant was th
next step, andta betwetin these tw ~a iuses iih
e ipubbranan has he bCilrtoka'n.
I [tvmg madae tuae reamarks, le* tme sa
that I iamak great aL'taure io ni aamag t, tha
dle' hart tioias ot tlrII antrahih: Seia lar froal
himisel upoani thle faulti fimnt al athae conlt rail a
Congajre'ss a thea 'eilut ioiis of 'Teaxas annao,
atiaon, fair I hie aahibistin tat thae fouir new State
providhed faor by t lose nrsaltianaas tat bie fiaram
taut of the Te rritury of Tle x as. All h u.i wa
ianaly, stat es-ai ike. andl talcua iteda to d,
goodl, hecauase past. 1ie wentt furthaar; h'
condaeminedl, and aghatfually caondeminedl, anr
iin that lie has Slawn great firianess, th
course of the Nor'h roirata h eat t hea st ipulatioa
of the Conistittin foar tiae restoratoan of faig
tive slaves; b~ut pcrmtit meir ioaany, for r desa
to-he canid ulpotn al subjects, that if th
Seoiantr together with mlanay friends onti
raide of the chambiler, putt is confiadence in th
hill wihich has hiernretported here, further
r aa9we r - to eve
4hem to he disposed of as the ha4of Nature
shall determie' It is Wtat I always have
iisted upon.. leave that portion of the
country more natural to a ron-slaveholding
population to be filled by 'that description of
population; and leave tha portion into which
slavery would naturally go, to he filled by a
isaubtiding population-destroying artificial
11lines, though perhap they may be better
hlan none? Mr. Jefferson spoke likk a proph.
t of the effect of the Missouri Apromise
tme. I am willing to leave it for Nature to
- 0ettle; and to organize governments for the
"'erritories, giving all free scope to enter and
I repare themselves to participate in their
I .eivileges. We want, air, nothing but jus.
Ice. When the gentleman says that he is
ling tifleave it to Nature, I understand he
.Wviling to remove all impediments, wheth.
.real or imaginary. It is consumate folly
t issert that the Mexican law prohibiting
slery in California and Now Mexico is in
foce; and I have always regarded it so.
Vo nAn would feel more happy than my.
4A 1 to believe that this Union, formed by our
amaostors, should live forever. Looking back
to I long course of forty years' service here,
,.ve the consolation to believe that I have
ne'er done one act which would weaken it;
tha-: have dune full justice to all section.
xidh if I have ever been exposed to the im.
p utations of a contrary motive, it is because I
have been willing to defend my section from
unconstitutional encroachments. But I cao.
not agree with the Senator from Massachiff
set[s that this Union cannot be dissolved.
im I to understand him that no degree of op.
-ression, no outrige, no brokein faith can pro
f cc tIhe destruction of this Uninn! Why,
' '.if that be oines a fixed fact, it will iti.f
hemire the great instrintent ef producing
"PPeicsion, outrage, wii broken faith. . No,
Sir, 1 or Unen~t canl hie b roken. Great moral
causoI,6vill break it ii they go on, and it can
Gnly .bereserved by justice, good faith, and
a rgrid neerence to the Constitution.
Mr. Wlsater. Mr President, a single
word in relly to the honorable member :rorn
South Carem-t. My dl:tance froii the hon.
aorable ifflteer anl the criwdael state of the
ritn preven,.d me :roi hear oig the whole
of his resoarki, I have oily ise or two oib.
servttoians to or-Ae; -il, too be.gin, I firi. no.
ti'e of the Ilorti'ar .n.aaers, last remark.
lie aeks ine if I Id ihie breakiig up of the
Uiimo1, by anly Pat Ih 'iing as the voluntary
secuts'ol ,I S ,te. al is' )mpovsibility.t
know, sir, this Usion can bhraykei up; every
Guvernment cn be; and 1dmit that there
may be such a degree oi of oesmion as will
warrant resst-,nce anl a torciba,, severance.
Tint i rev,diation. That is revoaitin! o:
that ilitimate right, of revolum -on laiave not
been speakan.. I know that iLat, a ne
ces;ity doe.' erist. I .orbear Iri goin15fur.
thier, beciianse I '14 iot wish to run into a i;s.
clussion of the tai-ure of this Governmeo
I'he lonrai,le inember and myself have
trooken lances sukffiiently often before on
Mr. Caluhouin. I have no desire to do it
now. Mr. Wedister. I psoauime the geta.
tleman has not, aiid I have queia as ittle:
The giientema refers to the occasioag Vin
whtwh theise great acquitsitionsap were tnade,to
torrtory (in ste Southern side. Why,uii.
don'btedly wise and skilful public ien, haVing
anuolbject to ac4-qninmjt aZ
iunder th ressure of ethe
tifiseaton of which the thn- cudb
it was done, and done skilfully. Let
one tin:g tatrther; and that is, that if *Iafry
ware udohashed, as it was supposed to have
been, throughout all Meaxico, before the rev.
olution and the cesatblishmnent of the Texan
Govcrnament, then, if it were desirable to
hiave possession af Texas by purchase, s a
maeains of preveinting it's becoaming a British
pousession, I su1ppoase that ol.ject could have
been securedl by imaking it a tree territory el
the United States as well as a klave territory.
'Sr, an moy gre tt desire not to prolong this
deb late', I have omitted w~int I intended to say
upo~n a pirticuhar question under the miotion:
of the llionol Seinator fromn Missouri, pro.
posimg an ameiidoment to the resaohua ion .,f the
iohanorable iaemnber fraom Ilhnios; and that is,
upon the propariety as d expediency of admit
tang Catitoroia, unde: all circumastances, jus
as she is. TIhe smore general subjects in.
volved in tiis questiont are now befoare tE
Senuate unider the resolus ions of the lonra.
ble :nemiber fromn Kentucky. I will say th-a
I feel ur~ider great obhlgaianns toa that.I linora
ble member liar mitrodEucing athe subaject, ;ana
for the very luced speech whwch he mnude, an'
which has been sot msuch renal throughout thle
whole coauntry. I aana also undelr great. obhi.
gatiims to the Iisinor tate member fromi Teon
nessee for the Ihght which lhe has sihed upor
I ths saubjiet; and, mi somec respects, it will h<
seena tha t Iild.fler very ba:tle ira.at the Ienalingj
sutject a suimitted lay either of those Ilionora
Noaw, sir, when'i thie direcat equoetiona of thi
:adm iiiii on of C- harma shall I he biefoe tha
Seinte, I paropose~-buit niot befuore every othlao
gentlemian whoa hais a wilh to asidlress the Se
nate shallI have grataied that desire-to saj
someothmug uponm the bautuidarios of Cahfornaia
an iupon)01 the expedthincy, uinder all the cir
cumastances, 01 :adimiing lier with that Cumn
Mr. C.tahiti. Onae woirdl. andai I have doine
andl thlit woardI a, :ai noatwv.t hstanu.tin- the ac
: <~.:o at th v ast'Terrilory oaf Te'xiaa repr
aIsenatedu by lie Snatoar iroas NIassnahusetts,
iii the itc thait .al t hatlnh addnt to oaur Teri
,i ary moctle it bay nit mans ii eplI lto what tWi
N .rthleria Statesa hiad excluded us fromis heriai
a i t actljimiisi. The Territory lying W ~
betwaean ithe Mi:s.'ssipapi and the Rb )
Nha tt m\auts it thiree. iouirths aof thae whaot a
li a.uisianta, andl athat which I eas taetweer thi
.:ssipiadte Ohio', adldedl tot that,eske:
,diant Tex is asal thI it pormtioni aof 1a is-amt
-I Tlur. A;Et.:' Tlr -u.,mr.s.--I' follow.
- inag ae thea ates whn thle respecti~t State
' 'ns onered1 ' he~ Aiericaa a. min:
i Del..dw.a.-e, I)oeetame 7, 178S7; lS'nnsylva
Sil n, Dzeembeiatr 2, 178t7; Ne w .'er.--y, lI
,caiseaar 19 17i7; Gearea.m, Janau ary 2, 17'
- Connieet.aeuLt. Januairy 9, 178-4; Maaebucaa
5i i , Febarhiiy (, 1 7!8; MI a ry: pdta, A pr il 25
I 1--; Soulth Carolia, .itv *2; 1788; Nei
II iji pire, Jaune 21, 178,4;'V r ,iana,ianne 21
t 788; N.ew Yark, July 21i, 17*. North t'ara
ini a Naov''em er 2, I17-,9; lihautto I~ldand, Mai
y.49 1794. V--rm- ni, M:arach I, 1791; Kettuck:
I Jun I I 17'&); oTnnese,~ Jun ae I, 1791
S)a al \, Novembera~ .29, I1?-9t.; I iim 5iana, Aparil
-a I-tI; Iwh'liaii. I)- -eambear 11 ith1; Mass:
at spp., aDecle:n'awr 1(0, 1$817; 1.ituis, 1)ecembla
'hMain -, March I5, 182t, Maiouri, August 11
I 1 a at Arkains a-, Juine I5, 18i3t; Michaaga
-a Junia es l', 137; F~aila, MarebI 7, I184
a 291, '11; Iowa, l19I)-P'almea'o .Staandar
C A no/ her Nul for the Adoliionis s.-WVe a
iniformedna that a slave, the property o( F4w
'- e Deaen, Etap., of Colub ia, returned volunta
e aly, yesterday, in the achr. Ellen Gold.b
o rough from llaltimoreo. alter being abse
Is fromt thie service of hits mastes-for nine month
0 'Thi. slave, who has passth ed al(e at timt
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, IW
RICHARS WI. DYSON, EdAitor.
9V MI busines connected with the "-BAN.
xma will ftecive the .ten.lom of the Editr at his
oilee, in the rear of th Court HouN.
Wr RETURN DAY for Sumter District,
CALraaE3TOX.--Prices fror. 10 1.2 So 32 ets-,
SPMIRTKRYIL.-Prices from 1010 11.
We hold it to be the duty of men to search
diligently after the truth, art" when it is found,
to embrace it. In that pach there are many
hindrances. Early predilections, superinduced
by too frequently a partial and one-sided pre
sentment of things-a narrowing of the view,
which should be taken of'all questions-a coun
sequent imperfect understanding of the
tions we boar to society, and to the ag
of societies- l those are strog baralersina
the way, and not easily overcome. A long
continuance of such a course fixes prejudices
in the tmind so strongly, tit we persuade our
solves, that they are honest convictions, result
ing from correct reason. We therefore hold
to them with unwavering tenacity; and any
views, ooning in conflict with them, we refuse
to notice altogether, or else discard as heresy.
Then it becomes perilous to speak, but in con
formity. le, who doetn," fial In, however
contrary to reason and to seing, is in dan
ger of mastynlom, 6inerva are
made *thout a arofer i itny one sec
tion. We believe that they are , ~l-ale to
every section; and that in them wilt'y found
ono~f the canses of our present dificulties.
There long existed very great ignorance of the
condition of either section of tis Republic, on
dhe part of die oter. The proportion of either,
who hagve had any thing like an intimate ac
qjunintance with the condition of the other, must
be admnitted to be extremely small. Nor has
there bren evinced much curiosity is know
better. Ot the contrary, the reviorsejs. ' #
there has been rather an aversi to i. Few
havo taken the pain, to posses* themselves of
thoi accuante kniowledge fthe elements, which
make upthe society, and Nithout whileh. rt6
Judgremeont can kg forgnnt
elke a - gnoance and prejuidice,
tapag'hi on sopo~ isolatd .phase, tnoften
d nxcepd4 to arale,oerzneously pronoun.
ces .d9 m~p ii judg.
in the r own and cam. t
ther -every there is
p0 -cly . -ad no na must t
gaissy t.vJi ht itoble attachment1
for the narrar spot, whicLei the true basis of
patriotism, :stead of be .oming enlarged so as
to embacommuntiespt States and Nations,
dwindles iS) a w-ast unejrorthy and inveterate
species of -lfishaness. 'ihe-..nird is fixed
uaccondinga the ope'thns prevaIling on tima Le-.
row spoteinq anty deviation fromt it, in act or
opiniona, iearmsparingly condemned. This is un
fortunate,r the very naext step is to qucstion
the motiv of those who differ from us, and
whtenev dnotivyes are impugned, confhhee is
lost. Agagonistic feelings spring up-war of
oapinion declared, which wvaxes warmer and
more ier, util it is brought to pass, thtat the
commrneationa of one side, involves the condem
nation othte othter. This feeling, not of attach
tment be of hostility, extends itself. Then theo
parties ecomte still more rancorous, until justice
cannottbiudo with either, and truth is siloenced
and pp. to an open shame. Resentmnts grow
up, ne ttualtiplied. and diffused-are transmit
ted ihmt generation to generation, and can with
diliuhty ever be, healed. To reverence the
opi fons and wisae conduct of otur progenitors,
is ' ery natural and proper sentitment. To
e.~ ane with care those opinions and the
grjunds of that cotnduct; andi if properly based
aadapted to the circumstances surrounding
Sto emabrace ad act uapon them, is a duty
it to adopt error because it has been handed
wn, betrays weakness and mnarrow-nminnded
eec. Antiquity can lend no sanctity to error,
but truthc grows brighter in the cycle of ages.
The times wve live in invite to these refloc
lions, but they are more immediately.suggeated
by thte speeches ofthtrete great nimtn,:C..av,
C'AI.noux and WVEnsTER. We name thtem in
the order they spoke. The limaits of an caito
rial will admit of nao more than a notice and
therefore we shall not atttemipt to go intto themn
at large. WVhaat was the cottdition of the cotun
try before ande at thte time of the delivery of
thtese speeches?7 We mighat give it in otne
word-an almost perfect alienation of feeling
between the North and South. So fiur as hna
ttan eye could see, thtey were flying apart as
Scertainly ad as rapidly as it is possible tocon
ceive of. The land marks of old parties were
melting away-..-ld tics, religious, political and
;social lade sensibly given way tand ant entirely
n tew line was drawn. The Northa and the South
were the parties. Int each section thae excite
me wnt was great andl pervading, extendinag alike
- to aell the religious decnomninauions of each and
Yme-king utpa part of their religious sentinvat.
The people w're excited-thao entiro pres5
~teemed with violenat rand reproaeafchfu reflec
-titans-even the Congress ofthet Nationa weo
ron fare and humniliating were sonme of' the
scenes etnacted. Insulting petitioans were of
afered-tde fee4gs of sepuesentative's were
I;onttrged--.-crimina.ipus at ueeritae~tioa
.were ftreely-intdniged in--and so storeany wai
thce tinme that an interchange of blows wva:
lookedL for. F~very thing betokenoed a violentot
break. We stood nig a upon the brink of Rcvr
r- haution. H-ore we patse,-and .ask what wa
to unr done ? Ilow long coald things remail
8. in thais condition ? Stateasraen !. PUiosopliet
I Historian !. Look at these, thngs,.and1 talhu
ahow long will the Anmoritw namra tt?
Thwerel he -yn,,
upon whom the eyes of the wO&*
Bd, and who in many a c otbd
laeS togethet oer great poltN.p. i
Lions-all equally devoted to the %N ior
and the Union.. There er4
sminont Senators there Tj
was to propofe? From q
proposition to come?
from tie North. But ther was
ating state of things. W vas
No proposition --from a'Sothl n Statener
would have mat Wih #ny favor: In me the
had none to make. N,6
ventured to come forwad
break ground. At this juncureir q
submitted his Resolutions, and follo .
up with a Mspeech, in which heen leae.'d I,
maintnin his soverli propositions.. In t -
think he failed. Il two only, of the eight he,
nubmitted, can we agree with him,--.&on
reference to the recovery of ggitivc, -f@
and the other in reference tL hPowvr.ddfo. -
gress to prohibit or esruct the trde lp Ates
between the slavelolding States. On+)joth o
.bese propositions his views, accord *fiilrely
with the views of the South. o his argument
on the power of Congres to legislate uujoy
the su ect ofaslavery in the 'tories, In which
he ho the atfimative, de4ucing the power
from two sources, 1st from "the clause which
confers on Congress the power to regulate the
terr torica awl other property of therU. s. and
2nd "the treaty-niaking power-.Lthe acquiring
poVer"--to his argument an this power, *q1
oply is at hand. .Now let it bo ne9inT0 W4
Jmt there is no exprms grant ot ti a poTV
is lie contendi for-it is a more imn per.
'l utheMrn ew wiltrnish e
it time of thdadoption of the Constitxa
ill .the States were sovereign and equ y
inve by consoquence an equal right to the ae
1ttred saist ether property of the Uunitd $jjd
and any law of Congress, abridging that right:
strikes at a fundamantal principle and is un
coistitutional. Thm Constitu In rebogni*ed
4lavery as property-O pas a -,-mh
ame or more of the States fr 'r by the
Lheir property Into teCAoin n benefit or all,
conimon har,'idgmentofthatr' htand
K$*ould be unconstittzional. 'To imp.
L power on the part of Congress wuud
lestroy a fundanental prfticiple of the
tion, the eqality of right. It wOiUlI
unwarrantable aetch. n'rdruciot
er is enjined by the Constitution. ti
lecessary to ff'ectuate it, ir not cxpres-,
ed,, u eoinletglied. But ixyondiWhost
asadi itidl to "ntod formtuid
d toEOnIend fqr tahidiesq..
a the power to,quiIae orrto
bepotrp ake ' l
,tins or theterrit&'w kind Y
ny speesofp o Ys
at purpose? On this paint our limtn
wrn~~ a uno sy rnuavte. e
oo froma Mr. CrLst's proposhtiore -rs
['exas. He pros orun the TerxasI
ho Rio Grande to New Mexico, about ~
1. latitude and then East to the -~ 4v
:eding 47 1-2d. below 36d. 30ma. to tilJ~
ed States for, it may be, a fzair eeqivalent,..
Uo -imply dissent.
We have said that .kiW.Ai tas lfr %
ward at a certain juncture, the seea7proc.
sitions we have thus briefly .noticed. We * ,
stated wherein we thought him wronag? 'We
have this to say further. H-is speech ufet with
no quarter at the South-hi opinions geaner4
ally were at war with ours and heavy dentun
eintions were levelled against him. He hasa
been called by mny hard names. He is cer
tainly obnoxious to the charge of puahing, and
most inopportunely, hsis speculative opinions
too far. It is not our province, and thereforo
we do not feel at liberty to judge of the motives
of me~n. We are bound to believe that his
general purpose was good; and uusler the cir
cumestances then existing, we feel assured that
it did service. It condemned the course of the
North on several subjects in terma so decided,
as to awaken them. It was extensively circu
lated and read, and brought them to reflect. kt
prepared the way for Mr. W nST'rs Speech,
wvith whi, in so:na of the main features, It
agrees; except that the gesnml tone of the lat
ter is higher and more statesmanlike. There
was cvidently a change wrought by it at the
North. But whatever be the~ fnal result of
things, wh~ethier our difTirences shall ever be
adjusted or not-at somie coiming time history
wil: review this period, anid it will give him a
place-in the general summing up. it will
censure nany of the acts; but if we mistake.
not, it will commend the man. And now the'
great Carolinian advanced with his heavy bat
tle axe, anid wyith that dlirectnesi of purpose,
whiecb belongs to him, he ( ut right throug h to.
the bottom of his subject. Hie prcsented the.
grievtancen of the South ini such plain and'
truthful characters, and with so much power
as to leave the other side no alternative but to
mete question. We can only join in the ges.
oral judgmnent, that it was every way worthy of,
iso great a moan. His suggestin as tpan amnend-~
ment of the Conistituction wo tliunk very gond,
and very deiable, *t it can bo carried out.
WVe have nos doubt that it hats been woll con-.
sidoed by hinmg andI conamig from sonh,,
source d}eerves tc.be well considered byth.1
w hol- coumry. Ijis services ini those aan~
aund evemu ful timses, as on every other oecasioW
wheni desmanded will alvays be -appreciateds
and always remnemblered.
fle rein we t tdnk the three agree, , dil1itn
as lley do on, many impourtaot andI 'vitat.ques~~
sions. They h:ad the sanig end in vice.-the~
are equally patriotic and eqalary dtesirous off
preserniing thre integrity of the Unien
believed hero that Afr. WVensras.wottdh 14
ly venture to defy the prejudices of tI
. But in this they have been agreenly 4
pointed. He came forward,,thug who oto
try his cause, andl for that canne lie ael to.i
lI be heard. lie spoke, nta~
* from Miaseachusetts,. bqCt ia ~ iS~
-1 !tatesmi--ts lioaoai WAn r1c