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21xtrat from Mi'.,Rhetta 4 Spech in
My frionthty ' g h -w'ee t1 nII1tteen
years a Representative or the people, and
twelve yours a member of Congress. Dur
IV IttdI e tino have-wtatchlto with all the
hitelligendo I possess, the dperati,,ns of the
f; Government, of the United States. (I was
no dieuniigt i 1828 anid 1833.) I do.
sireiI to rofqrt the Government,- then ma
Ring in the. imposition of the taxes a do.
xtrture frogrithe Constitutionwhich would
inevitably lead, as I thought, and then de
clared. twa situiliar departure on the sub
jeairslaforv. I was sincerely desirous
of sayingthe'Union by enforcing the Con
st'tutien, ir the .strong measures South
Carolina proposed; as any of thiose- who re.
sisted them. In 1837, 1 went to Washing
ton as a member of Congress, and after
witnessing the operation of the Government
for Roverf'y arsr in 1844, anticipating the
repeal,o lh 21st file, by which-j.urisdie.
tion ovjt 1iubject of elavery- w-ould' he
assuinted b Congress. rcamo to the con
ohlsion that it was impossible to refoirmn
the Goverpuent,, and. kcep it within the
linitations of the Constitution Mv person
al relations, as well as a sense of duty, in.
duced rne1tsconmmunicate my conclusions
tor him'who'was ever esteemed in South
Carolina as' her wisest counsellor and
friend, and by the whole South her mighti
est arm of defence. He difllred with mae;
maid still thought that the (overnment
could bo rbstornd' to its integrity by a prop
er Executive ndmimritet rat ron. At last how.
ever, even he, ais, devoted. a friend t tW he
Unin as existed within its biroad linit,
ilefore he died,. despaiired, it appears to ime,
of reforming the. Governnient. When he
proposed new guaranties to the (onstitu
lion,. in t1,0 last speech- he' delivered in the
Senato of United States, it wa s a practic al
ehcraration, that the Gdternment coul4 not
be reformed, in thme usual course of its adu
.tittistration. The Chnstitution as adm'in
s~t~red, was not enough, to protect the
rights and liberties of the South. l)eji ir
ing ofatiy. reformation, which will Lrinr
the Goverunnent back to the limit at itns of
the Constitution:, despairing of ativ amiend
ments of the Constitut ion w hih will give
us new guaranties. I see but one course
left,' for. the peace and salvation of th;!
South,-:4 dissolution of the Uniion..
There are but two ways under l llavenr
by which a written Constitution, estallsh.
ing afree Government, can he preserved
good fhith ad J'orce. Thei firtier is it
plied..in all contracts;. for without it no con.
(.on- tracts would be made. Ii our fathers who
entered into the compact which :hi (,m,
stitution eikblishes,. had foreseen the pre,
ant state'of things in the South, tinnk you
tlhey would ever have made it ! Yet.. whicn
has good faith-restrained the North fro
any violations of the Constitution, which
their interest or prejudices have demand
ed! And now, that by the inevitable
course of things,. the whole power of the
Union in Congress is about to be tranfer
red to the free States, hopeless of cimanr,'.
what must be the destiny of the South im
the Union? By a skilful use of her miuor
iiy power,between tlh: parties at the North
-he may lo n few years ignobly keep otr
tleGatastrophe; but the fate of slave cou
contry,uz;dor the dotniniion of the free people
Sern;tates, is- hardly a matter
ofdoilatier.. :lr'rom' the origin
L 1Jff Qvi f nent whetler from sheer in
"' ::,x' neo ir~el aith,'ora'convictienthiat
' (emustbecmtiie t-ia fixed majority in
the Confederacy, (and therefore that to
make the Government of the United State
om nipotont, is to miake themnselve., omnip.
otent in its afihirs) consolidationi has been
their policy. "Tou prov~ide for the commonh
efenceand general welfare' is in their view
of the Constitution, the onily it ation it
imposes on1 Congress. And whatt "die
-general welfare" of the whole Unutn re
* inires, North amal Sout,. with respect to
slavery they have not hesitated to declIarte.
It is a nuisance to be abated--- curse to
be eradicated-a nat ionatl Sinl to be wiped
ouit and attonied for !Ifivinig usurped over
it. jurisdiction in Conerress the sub lject of
slavery tnever agig7 behoeve, will dlepart
from thap Councils of the. Um, on. I it da
in onie formo int Congress, thie North will
bring' it back in another; unt . the South
wealtened, dispirited, and degaded, will'
vield tOemnantcipation, or dissolo he (li'Inxn
Looking to- the past--look-ing to' h'e nmou
of things--I deem all relianace on- the- gr'd.
faith of the free States, to protect the e
stitutioni of slavery itt the Sou th,. von: and
futile. The South titust prom e,:t i eit..
Its force is powerless itn Congso andi in
the Union, because it is a murg(. -To
give tooiur pieople that pr~'r lfs t i t penc'e
wvhiich the Cionstitutioni amnd Um''. was eo..
tablished to secure- thme 8'nl, se ist
sever the co-. :.-ection. with' (e Northn
It' a dissolution om the ('r'onr is ti, toern
alteritative to submis5so toC a lov.'O .fl
without limiitation irs rte pmvers,~ i t may not
be improper to glance at its conse;uevbees,
n thme phiysient prop-rity of the~ Mie.. .
Suicht consideratmoms are noti tm to-the' g'rea
ends of liberty and ucary, bu~t rray wecii
bo looked to in view of adopftin- 1hi' al
Ts there their any thinig the U~nionr niow
affords, which the Soruthi could, not as u
* possess wihout it I in the taxes imipo.edI
and expended, we w'ilIl bt. lree. Onie-mhird
the rate of duty we n'.w paiy)r ontthe chief
articles ofouir inports, by the rartlt'orlth
Union,willhe amply sntlicienit for t he want
of Goverrnment, whifst all revenue fio
taxaiont willbe rpentt wvithitn ourselv'es.
The voice of insult andi accu:sa trso, ian'ti
gating insurrection within our border,
will be hmushedl. By ouir phsical power.
we can ptrotect ourselves agi";itt f~oin
nat ions: whtilst by our produtct ionus we c:ani
commtand their peace or sup~port. Th'le
kteys of their wealth and cemni~ierce are int
our hiantht,. whoch we will freely oilbr to
ttem, lby a systemn of' free trade, mackinig
our prosperity their imt Crests--our securit v
their care. 'lThe lingerintg or dlecayin~r
cities of the Sotuth. which befoore our rev '
lution, carriedi un all their foreign com-11
merce, bouyant with prrosierity anid wealh h,
tut whicht now are onily proinctial towns,
raluggish smabburbs of Boston and N. York,
willrise ump to their natural destinmv, aiid
agAin oinfold ini their embraces, (lie richest
ctmrerce of the world. Thai~t dlla~li ion,
more sad thian desert habhitations or gras
grown stree, or crumblimng wadls.--thlat
alesolation which enters ini ' e domtesti
circle, and robis thte hear,, , thec happ y
immnwos who surrountds it--thait worst of all
desolation--emigration, wvill cease from
wvithmii our nidet. Our childroni may live
wvith uis, and rise with a risintg country;
mtstoad of that gloom whtich rests in the
Iliwo~m of every parenlt amongst us, whmo
)101 arpuid' and sees all the avenumes by
which his cliihdrou may obain an honest
and htonorable~ livelihooe , chtoaked imp with
'inipet:on new hopo nnd life will fill hts ant
I icipationis. Wealth, honios, and r~wr and
one of thu most gloriotis dlest inies whIteb
evoi crowneds og great and happy peeple
awatit 'the S hi, if~ she htot co~ntroll her
owii foe; buit controlled by :mother people,
what pent shaltl paint th' imiut'ousn antd
bloody catastropl.o wht h must mark hei
1 have thus, follow-citizens, fulfilled m3
word. I have spoken with open breast t<
you this night, of your present condition
and future political prospects. For tht
sentiments 1 have uttered and the cotnse
I have given, it may be there are soma wl
will be reatly to oxclaim.-''raitor I A
'Traitor to What antd' to whom ! To Souti
Carolina! It is to save her in her rights,
institutions, and aovereign 53, that I woul(
rounsel disunion. 'T'raitor to the Constitu.
tion? Thu Constitution has no existence
under the constructions of ctntsolidation
and the base purposes of abolition, to whirl
it is made to subserve. Traitor to the Ulf.
ion ! 'hete is no union without the Co,.
stitution! That is its hld and condition
Destroy the one, and all faith to the othes
is absolved. Faith towr rds both, as th.
tiovernment is adsiinistered,-are incontpat.
ihle things. To nmaintain the tLnioni, is tr
arcgiesco im the destraetion of the Consti.
tution; and to unaintain the t'stitutiot,
wo nust iissolve the Uniust; to allbrd thic
only chance of its restoration. lnt let il
be, that I am a traitor. 'Ihe word has n
terrors for mc. I ant horn of Traitors
Traitors in ainglaud, in the R-,ol ution, it
the mnisdle of the seventeenit centurv,
'raitors againt in the Ievolution, of 1721'
when unler the lea:h of an ancestor routl
Carolina was rte'teeed fromn-the c:apri- .o":i
nile of the Lords proprictore, a:nd 't'raitor:
again in the R evolutions of 177(1. I Ilav(
been born of Traitors in the greit cause of
liberty, light ini against Ivr.insy an:l op.
pression. Stehi treason w ill ever lie sninc
whilst true-to mny inange. lilt it I h' ar a
right, I ani not tlie ony' Trador these per.
ilots tioncs have prttiiel. I at surrounl.
ed by a host of Ti'raitors ready to strik, fit
eguality anti indlept'ienc~e ~against thnst
flagitions inceia iries; lthose real Tr.titor.
whio itiwoul csoivert lue: Unirn into a Lotn:
of infaious kgreditio:n, or a cordon of lire
to ronstne tle Soith. Itu'S srnin frtom
Nasliville, through the interior ofoner State,
I learned that the peoele in (sne( of usr ilp.
pner I )stricts fe:ring that thye Nashiilc
N'a-lhville ('o~nventtionu would lIet a faithr''
were alre:aly a.itati:r thre' policv of Sot,- I
Ciarlina It ing her' I'rhts into her owr
hands, :i actinig alonein in tliir vin.hiiation
There was the true spirit ofold S nulh Car.
ulina, :nti I think I hs'ari it proclaidicl it
yousr cheer., that -iiit le.'.t % will neves
suinist ito d-ihrhono.rabl' stiff: intni irn iaint
Sit( will iia h .ir -i't's' t~ltpi (it Ii'
otnrth, or suppot. anyt of t 'ii,, in aL!! ,s:i'.
diets hir retdress tlie" isnay p teruse, andst
is content ever St) lolltow r.:aher than to lead,
lint if tly shouldh kneel delws itf a (inv.
erntrent vithout linsitatiS s e n its po ietwers
under the control i ithel et.tsiortin ittls
ant]ltntalavery pro~pagrantlibn of the( Noahll
shte will nut subnit.. I M'si-pi ahtr
dims ins--brave anl true in co'snsel a,= in
the ieU, the' fir:st to muns. the hule. wlilieb
has cailed the Siuth toetihle.r for th, vin
icat ion of her right s; a iil A.ib i sna where
Smnany of our sons have plhntel their
hoans, nild, as we have ftnttiv hned, Isive
hibed in set ing sip in a richer h:ne, a
Veoisnter and frt!.he'r liberit--" pur'r adi
boiflier latrel of i':trn ; arnt (;eergv-, the
l'rsioiire tate of the Stithi, proud of her
'realness inc) s;trrt h, but prinler stil1 of
that free spirit antI lesrs! :;:: ohrare wvhieb
never yt in quadoel in S1i maintetnarce
of her rigihts. A ni \irginia, the hill tle
ship of the South, to whom we will nill
viel I, if she yields not' herself, to leadh ts
an to victory anti redlemption- great in spir.
it arnid wdisdon, and 'uniConquerahle- as she
is great-and Kentusky intd 'Tel'tieetee
not unl astdon u, ts s sonc r thir.
statesmnen hav v enitureil to pr~o -!aint, shall
joist withI Abrolitioniists nut Contsohitlitionr..
ists So sublject nra to th Ir iondrir on oft the
free States, shall osant hi Cauruthn snt!rrir
before-uts sSt'ruggld s ucesusfuill foi.r th..u
instlosetlnce anol Srfident :.Natst Sir
reattrerihts: anl if' is' inst' ii', we' ena~
sssimt one bsrave',.ong~, ilast, ele'a'rate in.
le. fotr otur- rights awil honoitr, ore tihe hleh
1til1 of syr:umiv i ,rt het-r th hier isiiel t
'otr eri eshort'ie T S amor ..:cit~ h- a .
motsttu-sa1 le tnn he e 4t o te'ieai t
l a !iri' Stie, ha'e for ti'. I *. ,e nu" I,
thuit rninlying reptainuhg -e rM
l ed very' hpeh:wh,' h' 'ier.--l al I
l)s.erve' theb' bher ies,. and imai''2cotvn ar
Del or per ised: nobely in thn eire';. ii
Sria ni h-chI simil-. is ate .'a hli di r :, m
b 'nt Sn. e d esa't *tir pi'o- ts w ! elen.- bh
authmeni Unsioii--It Nu-:essity.
Thei: Sa't hernr /wass ofS a jilie die p
hsheiSl th (hAovinsg e'4tracit trin aln;
iesi netxt to Sho v'ery hghesSt .~ter in tn
( hterinnient an in h Io 5iiS n of the iger-.
rSin- oS its otilirnent': a ;s : wr ats::, a y :.
antd-a )intriot. lTi extract tr'etd: rut :
wourdl if e'tn'rient. \\' coniit' t .,,bn
attenitionu oft every Soutthernt' r'';i'le:--(.,
''Oi late years I it'e iao to prt i
p ltdies, busti Is is .s cr.sis iihi'ch :nugta
tioest sal a vic'e fruto the egrav t,. w ar'
I1-t ~s hottL'ht le s ttr r'e'i I:,. h . er nia pr it''
il'dNit-Iltic'tails, \vlhlt :tr t "h ue ii b
wrbi, rtte ts neiritS niii'rbl i t nt h't !.tri I
--T'here is psirb:ihly liet on thei
Irritic~ ca'ithdatte5 for ihe I'rtesuloen-v, ti
has anyr oflier v'ie.vs ini S he s":th en os
thIe sla 'vry~~ quesin 5 tirn thot of mor
peirsionral adlv~uata. F'or mvi p rtI wit:
voettt ftor the detvil a:- l'r'' d]f'' n wIr 3.
stired] thait lhe watnb ll he'eii--r ii -t abot..,
iht'ari :hirs. a t er i rque: it 'l it' I ,!e
diespair of te s t tip hel at.lt' 't ' -' b
placdttt Sinitk apsi'tntf '''hun2r, h
:rivatageis. that ith cat h rn'rnI 'er bi'' r
dstri l e t cotrous e, noit h', mni hot
byt Sishis aer, wt h th's otiell lti ii
ceS that for~ age oci on. It-: niteeera~
ale Chttppyt i ia poer. \\'n' hnuh.. ptml
ltered byi ta l . r a nes'.l , t he.shg
witlsteindrit fiyt' ::.~hitr de rod ite :
all, t hei tr stat e . S h ar o lih. t S hes~
mi yt re ak ethark'h lit't>n wa . t ntit ittet-.l
her I tis e s tro og to Iihiohn''i"l l t'a
ethser forI ae t c lme. lit h overst.
loitewoill beittby a':rneot- t ho an
tits catin. In a t' cutry whee, tre sthet p :op
aethelt realt ti wiov h llreige; u ah thpin
car'uin at \s rt i ot thss aheri lie
nott ui'":ridfo :ll'-l e.h l nel li'.l l i
ask, they wouki' I)1o y psxctly what they
wanted. in n,' bi i ttle is this a tinfote for
them to inidu1g6 their party feelings, or sa.
critlee their vital intereste to minor party
distiactioMns? 'There should he but one
party aiong them--the party of sr/f-de
fens.c--self-preserriuim. Let hem all toe
the mark 't some one great point, and there
fight it out, uthoulder to ishoulder. If it inust
coine to the contest of sections, the victory
will be with that which is InOet lited anil
hlnninolgmnous.-'lhe coiparative wea:i
ness of the South will be mnale up for by
the current of a groat roimnoi interest,
which' is waiting in the North, anid cannot
he supplied by fanaticism. We have no
grent conisolilating interest, parainnit to
all others, and can never be brought. to act
ll concert. It is in the power o f the South
to ruli when it pleases-all that is neces
ary is toNI."
"The feature of the Santa le constitu
tion relative to sl:averv is worthy of especial
consideration. The iiopress ion has ,o ie
abroadl that it abolishes slavery totally and
abstouitely. lint this is a inistake. Tim
cons itution only prohibits slavery when the
person hell as a slave is over tiwenty-one
year. ohi, if a male, and over eighteeni yearn,
il a fernale. 'tiler those ages re..pecti'e
ly,- slaver is directly antI unet livcnly re
cognizni and pernmitted. But this is not
all. It seetis that the convention, while it
show(?(1 no partienlar atachment for Afri
can slavery as it ext.s!y in the Soithern,
States of the conitnIerat, nitanifesteti great.
reg;arl for that worse species of white
slavery which exists in ,Mexico under the
ina me of t'-:ox;ic. 'I'he first sectiin of the
first article of the constituti'on, inler the
caption of "inrit.CAi.t'*oN or tui r," pro.
vies that "no iialt? persont shall be held hy
law to serve any person as a servant, shive,
or .1 pprentice, af ttr lie arrives at the age (If
twent .-one y(":Ir-", n1or fettale in like tm l
tier, :alter the arr.ve at the agr of ei_.-hlti.0n
ye a rs, un/--'ss A / e , / in/ /y g/g,r wri c',f
Ssn'a .1: r i .,vriv (:r..sI.,,i..:.orar. h ilonal
lh ,v'. hfr the Pnlnishrineit of crim."' Th"
c an-e pulce, servants a:ul ap'pren'icrrs on
the~ S uneIi footin! ; aves, alit 1'o11( :11
tli ii aill to nt1 olunt ary servit tnte, uinder the
h witch h e lce' nentiot <il; and 1th1,11
it ifly alint t'ilrely reC n isri,.* the .e'em
W n' nat::e-- he worst la'r'm ' slrverv---.
th h t .\'m or ie l f nn om:;y I'I'cog ':
t i ll th iiit t'!: P'l;la~ 111lI ritale,111,l ;vai lt iji
ill: i int t :un it u p(i ,t jsI a
:1Acex '1t\ironat t. T ii-m r in ' t ''
that ry te t o(--rat lie,: may h, fulI ta"nifr
st t:rI,' y t hi "'l.to'inr cxt'ra t frorn a httr
f.nuR ita Fe, dad .1m1! ''l )3>, whwh
11 fll)lt iio liote ti. :(;111r 1:
I ol in the Oh'. irc ultme ja1n:d' i talIni :
to1 11h: commin, , ,:1~o progg111!! ,i-hv it. The
' : b ) l'::[ i th n it t We yeais
erl 2' h heran ti 1a ., .n e- .tl
Iche i' tron.ih the strt, o f- 1 the 1' th.
h inda, pnrmek lt out tin s, I few and ben out
Ilngues f others Salegd to otes
tnthi'Ir its p'I before rii - I t .
!ho'(a/? w l ; 1 1 ni. re' :' th.- r rt '. i t -- i--l .
el rtt 'n Whiaj ir luht:c-- i.tci t itt-h - iaom li;
"1; .snit! m the ui i ir s ii tthe Ioptip t i ti'
contiirary:. *1'111The :a'; it works:.
hrej i.= 11 I'lin'wE a1 b .iNE: Im,
w , i t' v ., nas hir'i by
rich m :I : p P.Inter. t ht t nernntin. : 'r
Ile shiep pot it' his- charg.. he retued
th proper. niiir; but, in the mi.ure of
flocks on th inomoutain.s, a few lld been exg
change:l for others allegedl to be of less
ailtr.- I1e was- takm lifre . I':'.ah.e.
whio-ase'sse1ti lmn.re-.: of ten dollaNrs gone
ut . foriuh hl he heto. em.eln wh
Im la'hiu l ser-ser'c hi n e M .h
I'''n y ars, nrol' finc'' hit <1e ru n 'to iit -
el ii ''." I l i ti' , /-n
-.i l lit a\4e tI 'p t ",:Els f
ini itunt wer io( l:n:
I ~~t . ~ . ....ii '.... ' . .
\ 11:1.I. .II
tie 2 t .i Iti t, I p I
I I. I i it til pn i 'e 'ri- r S
rni . ne ih rI'' tV
ii ihin' a .
ipifru- i, thi l th iinx;'-'"tiili
h-nr~ii~' o r n . ri p, ii t -i Ti'aitoftm
t~i.-- i im n nb b .. m -
on in the Sosnate.
Front the r ;ort of thin proceedings of
ti o U. S. Sona. , of Monday the 22d inat.,
we take the fol wing cxtract:
The Coinpro ite Bill was taken up and
Mr. (AY addres sed the Senate at length,
occupying neadty thren hsours in delivering
his remarks. I * *i
l'e described the nature and probable
result of the 'ear between 'Texas and the
U nion, atnd all aled, in eonneximn with the
subject, to a sjiect lately delivered in
(1iirleston, by a delegate to the Nashville
Convenitn. In that speeh the speake
was reported its saying thitt if no other
State, iler certain circumstaices, would
move in disttiiinil, South. Carolina would do
so;d anl that if n nc wvouli, he, the speaker
would initurl the banner himself. Ile de
pircait;eed such intttimen;ts coming froi any
uarter, and wais sorry Iliit the idea of dit
ionion was hecanin,'r such a faisil iar sub
ject. * *
Mr. ihirnwelt replied to that portion of
Mr. C's remarla comment.icng upjon1 a speech
lately del iverel in Charlstmn. If the indi
vidual alluded 'o-who was known ins the
Senate, and i n t.e I Ioose-believes the WVil
lot proviso to be an aggression upon the
constititinnal r lhts of the Soth, which
shouhi be ressted; and if he believed that
the admissit n ('a hifornia would ho a vir
tual enact msent 'iv Congress of that piroviso,
because the poh ibition of slavery by Cali
forna wldl be dittd and defeated unless it
ree(i 'e4 v itality fitom C iim-s-.-t hen lie
Wa tsnot alene It saying, as several States
had sa bl, 1th It it s?1,tli ber resistedl.
I i tin that te ters disuttioniist was
becouin one whieb wouhl rot be-the h-igh.
(.t opsprobthriusim. The ternm "rebel hiud been
aippsIiei in ti' times of the revolution, when
liberty wN a; baltized in the blood of Varren
at ltinir Ilil. and ilhustrated by the
bra' very of .la1 per :t ''t. Alon brio.
l1' h de'iiIen led Sw'thi (C.srolitna and
her devot'in to constittional I hertv; and
alin-led to tht h piriLt of her sons, which
w hii never siubmit to de;gradation or wan
to:t agre min. Ile coniuientel 11pol)0 the
eh i mn i rosed a few days since upon
,la-.it luset;itv y r. \ebster.
.1. ( 'iviy dil n? iitend to disp:irage Mr.
lIb+t. Iie new him and had snicis re.
'se for Ih in. lBut. if he hail made test- of
th-' d''i! rations inigtniel to hiri, at the
:eie'ber il I tartIo)4in, he Was a traitor
an ia o ,";lid .i r. Cly, he wvill ieet wath
t its ;i a tr.itor! ( asnd appi!aus .
r ircyhe l that the senitmilts of dis
!dsniln were cnti'ied to 4snthl (.';trolina.
Ilhere w r e t int sI lor tates Is hall t
:is !bt p Ol n ii S ou l ('iroliua,. nti Ie
w '':!' :n-wer tor I''w : l that tr s'tsandt
:aial tiis Adf ti sosnsuoh t olhr noble sons
wt'nhi rii to arms m,: tit, -;;l)ort of thw stat
fl'ts+. ti' h (':ionIaiin;;t the rebel,.
MIr. Il tnerl! s;irl there were two ends
toa ro- .\ rek~cl i i?!1ht d:e ionoinibly in.
diesfence Il i' riglit lie did not, dohlt the
:h:!:try of ..thlr SStat bt Su ' C-iro
li '.L!on',! defend j'sstice at the' h:azari4 of
r re! tion 1t ine '-atit' stene a' t'orr't::.
p an !ent of the (hais'ton .ler'ury writes
f:. s fe-w.
W w n ikra:os (Tr y; .Anly 2:3, 19.30.
The Senate was (litle the thieatre of a
s'ne i'sterdavand .lr. Cay was im;'iues
tionably the Roscius. it leantl' wIlmt Was
callel the closing speech on tihe Compro.
nits dea te, but somne personis regarded it
as rather its funeral-'lFulugimsn " ist the
course of his rei Arlis,-.be indtilged its a on
-. +-' ' % - t" rolina,- n t in the best
'diii -''fit . (enfmiderinss th lit he~ is the.-ver-y
l' i--: i .\lntmus lit l"'iee., amil also ans
isi'l on.r. Ilhtts, in lhr wtr--,e Iast.
Voori N'tntr, .\r. lhrniwe'l, repulled
ha'hi' r~ arks u Ih teon(iiiiO spirit and
I :.'iy m i :s t fi:w remsiarl:s ebiaractecriz.'l at
-iiie, by tait .;,er , y J j-/t ;s j;gg- ,. sss
* !' - -.er , n:!e' ;i., t hey :are for thei
it ,- *ir:, a; bi i7 'lriastirv (it~sih-ft'er -
- r - ' h ii - r eit' were in r..n'usr s. 'so.
u : -- w ,,3:1 ;;. ' . , : a v. re ins
the'e by ir at ns or' 1., rieil,
n- iii e . ' 5 -led ' ith the
h1 ..? A m t .lrszr. i i~r weit
S. ni n i-.ii .-ri S istat , t lh
S h~' - * .i he u' Ud 1ii st'rr t'r Io i,: he?
Ii14 I-'I t ' ay , r i , aun t -
- a e :m ~nscrpul stjritys, andi
b i hi:. 'roid- mn*vi sttrtl fr'tcseti
a a J..r he b 'hir ex in u
- K -on (',rnim .a ' seo-e- radmi'
4n i. I 1n iir a. t d h I i h
b : t -.0 1:1tun itri wh-h ii i i
t h run .\ r.('l-y nsti I h,- ' c -i
Air o br, u- n~st ra -no wa r rtween
b ii n io'ie rather
ut t isti.
.' rii\, ' t o athe
We know not what may be lhb trl _
of the people of other Southern Sateis bitt
we feel assured, that, if Mr. Rhett is a trait
or, all the ctizens of thie State,.witl, but fe
oxceptions, are traitors al1.
OF THIE CHARLES3TON COURIER.
It was ascertained, last week, that the
Compromise scheme must certainly fall in
the Senate, without some essential amend
ments. The friends of the bill, therefore,
conferred with each other, and with those of
the opponents of the bill who were most
placable, and they hit upon an amendment
which will, as ther think, enable them to
carry the bill. This is a proposition to strike
out the offer of a boundary line and com
pensation to Texas, and insert a provision
for appointing three Commissioners on the
part of the United States-to agree with Coin.
missioners to be appointed by Texas, upon
a boundary line and the conditions and con
siderations of its adoption, the same to be
obligatory on the parties, after receiving the
assent of Congress and the Legislature of
Texas. It was found that, if Congress
should -it until doomsday, they would never
agree upon a boundary line, nor upon the
consideration to be paid for it. To refer
the subject to a Commission it i'n accord
ance with the practice of the Government.
In 1802, the controversy between the Uni'
tcI States and Georgia was settled by Com
missioners; and subsequently, the disputed
bomtlundary between Missouri amI the Terri
tory of Iowa was thus settled. The amend
ment has not passed, but it has been agreed
on in canci,.unnd was otilred by Mfr. Il~rad
burry, of Maine, heretofore an opponent of
the bill. The friends of the bill now claim
the votes of the Senators [roan Alabama,
Deliware and Maine, and also the votes of
Mr. Morton, of Florida, and Mr. Sebastian,
of Arkan:as. There is much doubt, how
ever, in my opinion, whether they will get
A bill of thi sort is the mialy one that can
ho' passed at this seswiin in relation to the
distnrhbin, question; and it is thought highly
expedient to pass it as a means of quieting
agitation and restoring Congress to the ex.
ercise of its proper functions.
It is well. umderstood that the- newachnin
istration is in favor of compromising the
Tex-n question and opposed to the athnis
sion of "ow Mexico as a- 3tate; ln fine,
the policy that governs the adtministration is
11r. WobMter's and Mr. Clay's policy;. as
ot"untimes declared and laid. downy iy- then
It would be absurd to'bring in New 3fexi..
n as a State.. witl-tu view- to' enable her-to
settle the liruudiry-diipute-througth it.
orti courts: for, it the-claint of' Texas shieulil
be estahliilaed,. she' would: alisorb- thme
itourtls of the State and nearl"tall tlie popu.
latin. Desidia, tairswhit Sthtatiatre; for the
mit par-t, mul'opposed to taking in- any
more iunerlltad partners To crowd the-Se
nate' with States,- which will never send
moure than-one representative to the- Hlouse;
i uijust to. the larger States..
Only three-of' the di.partmnents are actu:.
ally tilled, to-wit: Statis,- Pbst' Otlice;. and
Trreasunry. Mr. W~elister,, M1r.. It--il,. and
Mr: Corwin Have entered on their dutties.
Mr. Ciahant hus accepted the Navy Depart
mient.. but has not arrived here.. It is sup
posCd'that Mr. Crittenden has- accepted the
ipot of Attorney General. Mr. Blates will
probably decline the Var Department. Mr.
Pearce ias posili'vely refused the Ilo9e De.
part:nnt. It is not true, as stated, tzta-Mr.
Pearce waVhIneligible to' that olice;. b-cs~ise
lhe hats enteronl upon a now teruii of aix
ye:.rs. sincC die- bill creatintg the ehlice was
Pr%'ide'nt Fillmnnre~ iris-saids off'ered die Pn
terior to M~r. lltes, but it is doubtful wvheth.
or hr w~li accept tay post. A Secretary of
WVar is to be~ taken from the South.Mr
Conprad, of Isnisiana, has been talked of.
It was determnined, it is said,. to oit'or the At
tonier Generaokdhip to MPr. l'etigru,.of 8. C.,
in case Mir. Crittendensu declined ii..
Th'e. oflicers of the Navv, A r-ti-and M'fai
riuie Corps, including Genierais Scott,.Wool,
.Jesuip, and' Gibson, antf t~mEstodIoms MErris
:aind Wa:rrin~gtona wtetd on the P'resident, in
full uniifoirm,-on Trisday.: ITe President
at1.liis himeilf' diigently to' his ditties, and
dos o appear to be at al1 elated' by his ele.
aio.Ie makes ar firvorable impression
oni simangers by htis fine, honest faen; aml
trodtannors. h-ie has not iilledi his Cabi.
not yet, and cannot do it until Ite knows
miore din~titely the views of those to whom
he has madem off'ers. Ife wishiles, it is said,
to take one Cabinet otlicer from a Souathern
or Southiwestern cottoni growing State..
Tlhe I iaise has at bengtfr taken tip the ap
pro print ion bills. They are qutietlgawa iting
i.- act ion of the Senate up~on T'erritorial
hiust ions. It' the Seniate hasL made slow pro.
,' rtti the ailiust tnent of the (lltest iontS ot
the diay. the I louse has made none at all.
biI Thsy wouhinot event pass the California
hi'l. fu at monthis of' discussion, trave it
up for miisellaneous business. At tile rate
a which Congmiress is goinig on, th, sossio~n
is likely to be mntermuinable. There is still
soeme t'dk id' pnssing the A ppropriation b'ills,
mail djurng until the first Moniday oh' Oc
['Te fdendsad of the' cotmpromuis, hill in the
Sc'niat'' attemprjti'l, last Ceenin-.v, to set it out,
hmt tht'-y hadl not the' strength. Mr. Clay
st ronglyk appeialedl to the body' to take the finil
'( ii''tioni on te ill. I110 stated that lie was
woirn onit. ai:ra phys~ica:lly uanable longer to at
'iind lie Senmte. lI I woinhI be obliged to
'away haiimse'lt re accannxtt of htis htealth.
Thli aipeeal was ini vo. net it was found
imiposs-ibule to get the qulestionm even on the
ennenis i ame~ndmurnt , refeurring~ the Texatn
pui. tion toi a batni of cnomssiners. Mr.
It' "it,,; was tierc'e ini l hostility to thte
ito 'ailhiint. A finer V.'ait ing seven monathas.
th:'e onunitittee of thtirteeni have, lhe sa'id, struck
icnt thti vital part otf tlteir hill-delstroving its
oly V(1 riimnt---thle tmionie bT1. T1hey'ha ie
cai'dljl m to tr.tde onl, andi. like ot her batik rupts,
havite so't up thle commilPsson business. Mr.
Ilatoun atnd others will undou~,ibtedly' keep the
lill biaik unttil the v.icant seats of'Ohtio anid
.ll cus etts are' tit led. Tlhaey wtill bothi Ihe
il- hv Seniator4 opposed to the~ bill. Mr.
l'wii late Scretary otf thin Interior, has
lie'ni a ppointed Seniato'r byv thin( Governor of
t:iio, liut c'lanot take hi .ient till is creden-.
ials com nca. lI[e imay hiave go t themo last
imihtc. 8o the hill is noti out of danger.
Negroes in Ohio.
Thei~ followting extract relative to the ne
gro race tm taken fronm a petlit to the coni
ventiton in Ohio. The petition is signed
by numiieronis citizents oIf that state atd prays
that steps miay' be takemn for the r-peedly
rem'iovah of' all coliored persons f'rom thte
"If the accounats of travellers can, be be
hered, they were foundh by the wrhite tman
whten he arrestedl themn in their career of
barbarity, and transported theom to the
plantations in America. It is trite thait
they wvere retaineid as slaves, baut it is not,
as is every iday assertedl, that they were
taken fromi [Freeomt in Atrica andr were
hpat in bonds. On thte contrary they wtere
inmely tranorteil frma -, brut-,l:zed c....
dition A~ltavr ion
al and c iisd r . :3n neAmork"
'Jae spegia lb were taken
from thel t ,. supp
'with the:hinl it hubudry: 40
.wilch thes wore tauht to'ea tiiheir + ad,
and from henceforthi they ceod iJive
upon the flesh of their'fellowlnen. Hfave
thy then been injured'bv the'wkite auen
We think not. But on the contrary, think
It mentionable that their. transFortation to
the plantations in America, ha.s beers the
greatest blessing that ever reached'the Af
rican race. Here they are. taught to be
useful, are-well fed.apdt taken chro or..
And many are now rettftning to th land
of their fathers, with their mnds -stored
with the arts and sciences ~ of a civilized
world, which in the providence of a Divine
Being, bids fair to redeem and regenerate
the dark, benighted negroes of our hopeless
United States Census for 1850.
As the Census taker is about to visit the
Citizens ofourDlstrict, we publish for their
convenience the questions which the head
of each family should be prepared to an.
swer. ''hese questions wese published in
the Newberry entinel by Mr. 1?brr. the
Assistant Marshal for that District.
lst. Question, The.number and names
of each and every white persou ina family
on the first of June, profemsion and- occu.
pation of each.
2d. Value of Real Estate owned.
:'l. The plAce of birth, of cacir member
of tim fanily
4th. How many married within the year
ending first Juno 1850.
5th. How many attended school.
6th. !How many oer twenty years of
age cannot read and write.
7th. flow many slaves; the respective
ages and color of each.
8th. Ilnw many of your slves have
escaped from the Htate; and how many
have not been recovered within the year
ending fast June 18.50.
0th. How many of your slaues lave
been set free in the same year.
10th. flow ninny of your slaves are blind,
deaf, dumb, or insane-foolish.
1'1th. Name the persons in your family
black or white, whio havedied' in! the year
ending 1st June 1%W,- their une; scx,.col.
or. free,. slave;. mairrind' or witwed. pliace
of birth,, the' monti' inawtiicli' the'or sh6-adied;.
sued;. tie' diseses or cane of death;, num
ber of dav4 sielh.
1'hi I'fow manyatyres of linproved' land'.
and how mauy' utimpimved liave-vou;
1:'tht What is the cash. value of your
tract of land;
14Th. What is the-value of your planta
tion instrutnests,. including cotton gins;.
thrashers,. corn shellers, straw- cutters,.
fans,. geats,- wagons,. carts,, axes,. hoes-.
P!5i Il'wn imny- liniras.;- asses- rnd'
mules h-avt' you:
l'0th.- 1ow many n'ilcl cow.y working
oxen; and'other cattle have you.
17th. Iow many sheep, hogs, &c.
18th. How much is all your live stock
1901 How imanywiudiels of wheat,, cern,.
rye, oats, did you make in the year ending
first June 1850.
20. flow mnarly bushels of rice or lbs.
of tobacco did you mtpke thesame year.
21. ow m n lea of gine cotton
did you ake, . oachin the year
shear in the smeyear.
23. Ifowv many bushels of peas, beans,
irish potatoets sweet potatoes,. barley,. and
buck wheat, .hil you inke in- the- same'
year; state ech-l separately.
21. How miuch was- the- psrodrt of-your'
orchard worth inr 1849t.
25. hfow mnaiy graoof wvine-did you:
do ' \%twsyu aktgard'en wrth I
foteane'year7 elidingr first Jnne 18.50.
27. Ifow niany- lbs.. of butter andi cheee
didh von make in thme sonme vear.
2'3. hlow many tons of tiay drid' vrra
29. Ilow stmany bisbiels of clover and
other grass seeds dhid you make.
30O. Ilow many lbs. of hiops did oirurai.,e.
:ir. liow ninny tons of dew 'or water
rttted Aemap did you mnake.
:l'. hlow~ many lbs. of trax d'id vou nrke.
:13.- tfow mainiy bishel.+of fiax seed dlid
:i . I low lnany' lbs. of silk cocoons did
35. hlaiw much. sugaz' and mnilasmses did
30. Ifow uch~t is the va-ne- of all your
homeu smile mianiufacture..
Ji. Witt is thre value -ofta'llhi- ani.
mails you slaughtered in ?84.T
39. What business na a muecirmic, man
uractusrer, pmdl~uctor, do yout follow.
:). Wha:it capital have you investedl ini
the business you pursue.
I40. What qluantity, kind, and value of
Iraw noterials (10 you use..
4Ti. What kind of power,.steam or water,.
hor.<e. or thatnd machinary, structure, or re
sources, do you employ. feled
you employ in yourbuie.
43:. W~hat is the average wages you pay
for hianals! state eac-h separately..
441.. Whnt are the annual prodtucts of
youir business, ini qhuantity, kinds, and value.
Teachers of Academies and Sc hools,
will please answer 44th 45th 4th 47th and
41. hlow miany pupils have you.
45. What sum is annually reabized fromn
the endowment of your school.
416. hlow miuch is raised by taxation to
47. hlow much is received from the pub.
48-. I low inach fromi other sources.
Alt wvill answeor the followving questions:
491. What lhhrary have you; distinguish
the kind, Law, Medical, Thecological, or
50. llow many volumoes in eachi.
Thle Ministers of diflerent denominations
will please answver the 5ist question.
51 llow many ('hurcrhes of' your de
rin~iation) arc ; here in the I~strict; how.
many p:ersons will earle acconinudate;
wvhat is the v'alue of the Chlurch, property
beltonging to your denomoinat ion.
'l'ac Coninissioners of the poor, keep
ers of the P'oor Ilouse, will please a.isaer
52. What nammher of paupers are sup.
pot-tedt in the listrict of Newberry;. how
ma.ny foreign; how~t muc-h then coat of sup
por'. annualt -.
The C .r f the ('ourt will answer.~53rd
quesCt~O. Sheril 5 th.
53. hlow miny~ criminals were convict.
ed within the ye'ar ending .lone 1st, 1859;
54-. Hiow many convicts iu .ail first
.June, 18504; how many native-hus~ mnany
Tho citizens of the District, wrill please
prepare themnselves to answer the dlihI~rent
qutestions, as it requirs adeliberation to an.
swver anmeof irhn nacstion.4 anl the o,-t
1 . ,
. s ligdhece litoia
tho hades of the passenger'
ive fire occured at Bat Prane acp
14.th ut., over 30- buildin ver ., Y
troyed and the lose is qatimated o
004 The fire is thus descrjb~d b 'i4 d =' 5
corrospondenco of tle New YorkSun
SAY FaetworI 18thrufe nR
Msae ]W...WTois Apio.thT ;&j 4
*destructwye fire" fortis rye
conrsmotioh, of interstI, tind
.our semningly devoted City,. - '
last, 14th inst, about 8 o'cfiuu .r
omnmg, a fire brokehnut, ' bk
lence, rapidity of d<estruction ta
asmtunt of property destroyed,,J'
either of the two previOutfires it t
we have been vitedi '
the upper part of the Sacnento"
Sacramento street, the day
and one of ous strong north.westrd
just beginning to whistle , forth.
strength; in addition, the high sprin
were on the approach, and just prevndauro
which, the flats in front of the city,'
the sidea of the Central Wharf, are al"
left bare at low water, even beyond1
end of that wharf. It was at this ' .
low water, with the flats left entirel =.'.
for hlnif a mile distance from the to the
the fire- comneoced. The fir'e'ngiepr.
were immediately stationed in a.line
the wharf, the hose unrolled and copl,.
but before they could'be worked, the recedes
ir tide hnd-left tie hose which -led ha
the water enrieely- dry;. no nore leagte .,
could be had, and the engines were, n
lb the meantime- the-scene in thie siretsG
bnlfrl description. Many w-eredeented RP -
breakfast; coflee was poured down, hat and'. _
cracoer siaed..and.all iusediately .bohed,
from the tal'e to tfle street,. almost at "
bound. 'T'here the greatest conflisi1n
wiled--at- noft're in' New Yor k,-er hI mire
part- of the-globe,. has yourr cir ed]neen ti
'itnessied- so extortluinary at
People- like- beer swarucdIl in, every d;
trtian;. some,. stblittng. t' save tleft
own property,. wvcre rattling' it intb' tle
stnetu- rhn. every dhort o ' laink
pmprty a- few doom; ofi . ' ste
to it few were attetndinig to tu . all'
instat of~ their own tb Tool fer',- amid
thif insy' crowd honems and crtfli mulee,,'
Iwagons, porters, were rnoving in.every di
rection, nuts the whole .cne,-accompaniedi.,
by the-noise of cmtcklinsr timbera ,.arig'
Ilamseos, the whiitliiig offtie vind. tie' out
cries of ttiloeople;.-an dthe-neigfii o! " the
afri'i;ed' aniinais,.mny Ue etter-aiagihedl -
"Psa' le.s than' thirty inuteeffromfit$ corn
mencement, she tire, driven before a stroig
wind, had croased 3 Mngritgmoryistreet, at.
the head of CentrarWharf,.atytthat block,*
many buildings of which were-but Just
erected, war, ir dIhtne. The. fire thei
crossed Sacramento street,.at ill polhu'tis
sweeping clean through to California stre
witli-some few exceptions,'' ad to Keain v'W
street on the west. On th o'thwarttiu
wind va' aide- of the fire ed 01
nd' burnmid dowin e *
wiase ex aWha' '
dlouds of Afisi ignhiidb~t"
from' the' fi Em t~e"'ppoditis ertm- -
Provingg fromiinw1po~tiion~tte- ietnbr hiile'
blocit, of walunie- sttorese, inelading- lnet
quan'ites f hnberstored' in'tfie-'eas~and
1e ar cwmr hiouses in close proximity..
hikery exertion wacenteredfor the time
othis and the imnmediately adjoining build
'I'icethe thames caught in the rear and
weree~siishaed, and after two hours 'of
unlremitting efhipt, the fire was checked tW
the northward..the-commrnrbuJikling standing
blackened- and scorched,, but safe. lisd
this cornir buifding canthst fire, in ever
pro:bl ity the '\'antie, i arehouses woiak
hwtae shasrt-d the samse fate, and conarmiuni
cated to trhe store ship General Harrisona.
just henledl up, and from thencece'eseing~'
C~entral Wharf to the Apollo Warehouses,
and to) thers Tihomnas Bennett stores, woukd
hnve- e:gended anmong the shipping of the
lirarboer. F'ortimately the fire was checkid-'
andth se otingeinces avoided. In the
mneantitne the head or trio Central WVharff
Iaisd of the two priat wi
of Sacramente afggffge
thesse eleised alfeem'mnnl \t tf
shore to'a large body of people,. gathert
upon the whsarves to' secure their goeda,
wh'len the lire tirst broke- out.
('onstant evplt'iones of'gun powder, of tie
reral humfsdred thous.'ad packa ,- fiGre crack.
ers, or guns,. psistuLA &c., v'aried tis okclve
Rwnt. oft ~thonr. Smnall sqnads ofort
".wore "dragging their 'show lengtha
along m'th mud, in the fiats duri the
forennon..engtged ini saving goods. One or
two coastmt g vessets, lying at the shore, were
destroyed. L-irge qluantsies of'god aouh
safety in the "A pollo,"andl wsarehousess 'tj
cant. for convaencoq or shipping.as soon as
the ride shsonlj conm ins. At 1 o'clock the
fire was chsckedl and a dbsolate area of fbur
squaare~s in the butsiness heart of the city
ilowed its ext(ent.
G E:. T.un's I~lyeanrY..We regret
to see it stasted in a hetter to the New-York
lepres, that (Gen. Tuyvlor's family are not
likely toi be as comfortabhlo in a pecuniary
point of' view, s was- generally su pp .a
l ie Ic1 ntio will. We subjuin the folown
extract f'rom the latter referred to:
1 When he left for Mexico, it is stated, that
im tharee senled' letters, lie left difrecti'ons fo~r
the mn:imaemnmt oIhis property, in cus o
hsi decath there, in which wasn supposed to be
n will, nand those three letters were not open
ed till attler his bsurial here, bitt no will .was,
amnongst. them, andI the directions applied to,
am property which i's niow almost wholly
changed im it form.
"Indecl Isis f'amsily' now's haveo no homies
ands thiere'fore, Mrs. Taylor, it Is supposes
w i nost re'turn toi lamnisiatna, lki plantation
on the Alisms~ippi heas been sold since hir
cae~n hiere' to enamble' haim to purchase a sugar
dannoisn belmow, so that hoa ha lost.
I'rasviouslyv, however, lie hadl puarchaasedau
Iother, ,sindwayv plaittation, but that han ttuneds
out to lho a very unproslamble piece of proper-.
ty, mnakinug no crops, in consequience o~ be'
mng fhmoded repeated. Theni the hoanestead
is g4"'' ta iase one paymeisnt on nar
planm~s ann ua ieh sonscatbing like seventy
orn eighty thsmoias dhollar4a nmst a'ow be diunf
I--noI thee iddile plantationas is sueder waters
e'obbl o o. tho- 1'resuidunatial lr
was relied uponx to niet the tfurther ptynimont
on th1e sngayr pilanttation, but that wni .i
unne-C' Yunll ses frii their jgnedd~l aCe
that General Taydn dhed i rtvry fasta'
nato imafor thie'inte'ere lil h i ilV I
hita,Tnrevioussly haowever to Ce. .91im' mas.
'ona';shersble "sm of mmen vy, ek