Newspaper Page Text
- av~w'.pondenoe of the Couriers .., -
VASHI TON, MARCII 4.
Tito Senate as Poon as it met, yesterday,
resuned, on motion ofMtr. Clay, the con.
sidertatien of the Rivel and Harbor Bill, by
i vote of .30 to 24, though it was evident to
all, that the bill would occupy exclusivoly,
the last day of the session. , Mr. Clay ie
tarked that there was a decided majority
for the hill, but that he would prefer to have
it laid aside, to the defeat of all the other
hills. ,1r. Hunter remarked that the ma
jorily of the Senate who were responsible
"" bor thuc' public business, sbould look to the
fact that they would, by persisting in the
consic Lion of this bill, render necessary
an extra session. Mr. Foote again called
the attention of the Senate to the fact that
fliro 'r6 treaties to be considered in Exe.
cirivo. tiession. .Several Senators in the
timority, said that they were prepared to go
on with amendments and discussion. "The
Friends of the bill have taken one day," said
a Senator, and its opponents will take an
,iep."Mr. Turney said, looking towards
Mr. Clay, the ninorty will be found to be
.made of na good stuif as the majority. So
he .onflict was renewed, and conducted
ith grot ingenuity on both sides.
Atleast twenty or thirty times wore votes
takn9 on amendments and on motions to lay
t;p Iill ni the table, and to postpone it. The
'' n estion that Mr. Clay had thrown nut,
t th o-psning of the sitting, in favor of drop
" ,tog this;biil, as an alternative to the total
ens of all other Appropriation Bills, was
' >. 4,jlvoped ,up by himself.
- - Cass and Mr. Bradhury, got up an
itoniilndent to the effect that no part of
'the 'money appropriated by this bill,
rehoul& be expended till it should be
3.ffund th:.t it would be met out of the
go1,'e of the year, after satisfying
- nthr appropriations. This seemed to be
ili crisis of the question. Some )emocrats
on the side of the bill, voted for this mend
ntetit, and it was lost by a lie role of 29 to
0.- But it was now understood of course,
that the success of the amendment would
el 'bttally defeat the hill.
*After six o'clock, Mr. Soule offered an
arnendment, and in illustration of it, cal:cd
for ,tlo reading of a very voluminous topo.
braphical report. Mr. Phelps, who had
often vii'ited the Senate chamber of late,
:sdid that the document could as well be
read alter the termination of the session, as
now Mr. Foote said it was an instructive
report, and would serve to while a ay the
titd. We were getting on calmly. This
was a sdientiflc report and very pleasing to
the Senate'and by-standers. Mr. Phelps
appealed to the Senate to go on with the
Ml Mason moved that the River and
Harbor Bill be laid on the table. lie made
this motion, in consequence of the remarks
uf 31re Clay. this morning. Mr. Clay must
nowebe convinced that the minority would
not syfl'er this bill to be passed; and he
Shelicd to give him an opportunity to vote
for lajing aside the bill. But here a
question of order arose, and Mr. Clay,
. ; i ~ me temper, called upon the reporters
to.n e.that one hour of the precious time
-ohtio'Snate had been wasted in reading
tliis ieport. Mr. Jefferson Davis, under
s omo excitement, animadverted upon Mr.
'..lay.'sattempt, at the head of a majority, to
t'ransple down and brow-beat the minority.
'This. was the great question that divided
parties in this country. If the friends of the
present administration would take the
tesponsibility of stopping the wheels of the
mpvernmopt or pf calling an extra session,
g. e W tho it. If the Senate
y dkoh ill, which was of dia
2 :3; l }t~slttt bA~ilY.and pro-eed to con
u~re ithi ur i timate-po'Wver,
wdi ld the'point of order he had
* niadeont he buspension of the reading of
.dtu roport. Mr. Butler contended that the
' - iiate lhad no right to suspend the reading
of the raport, although the Senator from
ijniuiana had deputed thne reading of thm'
report to aniother. Mr. Phelps apolo'rized
for interfdring, and said he wou'd :,Fdge
Jdtmselfinever te try to soarnthe-tiuf6 f the
ena~te again. Mr. Clay, in a few words,
said that the qusestion was whether the ma.
jority or the aminority, should govern this
body, nnd whiatever mnight tie the decision
of the country-, he was willing to abide the
issue. After all this episode, Mr. Soule
restimidand continued his remarks.
Thie llouse has passed the hill establish.
ing a B~oardl of Commissioners to adjust landl
titleiin Californial also am bill for converting
a Reigimnent of infantry into a Mounted
S Reginment. The Lieutenant General fill
failed. The joint resolution for sending a
naitional shipi to bring to this country
Kossuthn amnd his companions was paEsed.
T Lhe bill granting lands to thec States for thle
benefit of the indigent insane, was one) of
those that failed. The French Spoliation
Bill failed for wvant of a two thirds vote to
take it tip-the vote being yeas 101, ntays
- 75. -Mr. hunnter's bill explaining the
Tfaril'of 1815 and provid ing for a Board of
*- Appraisers at large, was passed.
At half past nine, after an appeal from
Mr. Pearce of Md. both to the majority and
. finocrity of the Senato to sus.pend the
conflict, and pertmit the business of the Sen
ato to be carried on to a conclusion, it wams
thought that the matter would ho settled;
but, on Mr. Pearce's mom ion to lamy the hilil
on the tah', the vote was yeas 23, nay's 33.
Atm'half pant ten, another motion to lay thit
bill otn the table was lost, yeas 23, tuiys :i5.
It wvas evident, as Mr. I'carce remarnked,
- hamt the two parties hadi becomec, muuially
pxasperatedi. and that there was no prospect
Thit either N~ould yield. l ie toil them t hat
4rthme counutry would hold both the mnajority
-and 1%iuority'equally responsible for the los's
of the.Alegropriation Blls, the consequtit
eimbarrassmtent or thea admninistration; a nd
tile expedlse and difficulty of calling an
extra sesasio, He said, too, that siuch a
* rre.mit womte ,.m lead to doubt, .as to the
etlicipney of our systemn of government.
4 3( r, Clay subthequenitly said that he was
iflyto rnik& thle issue tiponi thle qutttion
- letho * li mjrt r minority should
At 12-o'clocke, Mr. Davis, of M'lsisewippt.
* in imldo the 'question tpont t he const itutionaml
rhits of the senate to transact any fturthecr
40-. ij~dthe Constitut'on reqtiireid
1Mt4h1s4 on shoutld terminmate on the
third of Manch. Thiero was a datficulty on
the qn~~ ton Whelin the third day of Mlarch
enled.~ hi~dion a previous occasion, giv
nti hisgopitioft that thle day closed at 12
- da hgt. A message was received
fror t infrmig. the Senate that
thr'am d'~ completed their busitness
uod " jyto a'djourn.
N }Mississippi, muade it a 'pies.
310 ~Og whether ihn session'V lhad
el it. lW 9ered 4 reolu'htmo
.4 esion nf the 31st Cmmngress
* lm xp~d..~'discussion followed uipon
Meai'mbvilo,#n i~uotion of Mr. Bontonmlhe
alods foose: s yoto oL thanks, unamii
$*0j 9 the Spealker, M r. Hiowell Cobb.
dt a tyesage was ret'eived
# i ti fo e lrt causes
- n4 cithul ec r~~!t~f~usie each
ta~i SSdete e o assemble
sent to each senator. Mr. 1)ickinson aid
ho supposed the President would send
conunissions a'so to those who had not re
ceived thom.,, A motion to a ' urt sing ic
was was luitiiyeas8, it29, 6o eral'teni
tors refusingjto voto; M[r.'Dawson'.nov.
ed, at 1 o'clock, that the Riker amnlllar
bor bill be laid on the table, for the present,
to take up the Appropriation bills. A. ques.
tion was raised by Mr. Mason, as to who
were Senators ami who were not. Air. )a
vis, of Alassachiusetts, contended that the
political day ended on the 4th of March at
12 o'clock, meridiain. Finally, it tas, de.
clared that the political day ,does not tend
till 12 o'clock to-morrow. The ntotion to
lay the bill on the table was put and the
result was yeas 18, nays 20.
The conflict was resunmd. Mr. Sotil
oflired an anennrnt and declahredl his
purpose to use alh proper means to deteat
a Bill which was, he said, linu.del upon
the most unblushing corruption that was
ever practiced uniler a free government.
The debate was sustained for some hours
on amendments. The prospect was
when this was closed, that t ie dehato
would continue till 12 o'clock to-mnerrow,
and, of course, all the mtost inportaul Ap
propriationt 1lls lust.
WASINGTON, March 5.
The session teiumminated inl a manner
niore fortutnte and creditable fr the Se.
nate anid the country th in was inticipated,
eight hours before its close. The partiei to
the t iver and ihrbor conflict continued
their una 'ailing strife till half p1ast four
o'clock in the morning. each party be
ing exasperated, and unyielding. 1' lizr
to this time, Mi. Gwinn insle ai :n ie;i
in the Senate in favor of droijpi;- the
subject. lie said, what every on' ind
long known to be true, tia th'e b II coulI
not become a law-for, even if' it paSed
the Senate, it could not go to the 1're..ide;nt
for his signature, because, oi thts last day,
it requires unanions consn, imder tim
rules, to send a hill to the P'resident. It
was evident, as dlr. (win reiarked, that
the parties were cnt'it':nl.n n ieriy for
a point of ioior-ench bein (':0im11t ed tit
its course. Ilut even :tf.r tI:t appeal,
the Senate rt fuise.l to lay asidk :hi ll.
At hall past tour, :and a fter ever one I hit
begun to despair of the A ;;j~zupprop t :n I I'p
the cottLndiing S'nitors g:un;etdil ar:n -.
They laid the hill on the tatle---tint t: b
taken up at 8 o'clo Ick--: i who-n oi'' F
o'clock arrived, the.y h:tdl recovered Irttam
their infatnation anld Con:ditin':l to proe
cute the ptlti. bu:siness. The bill; fhrmi
the House were dispathi' L m a great lim;r
ry, and scarcely any exanrint:ti: anti n.)
discussion. Amnuig th.cse were the Civil
and Diplomatic, 1he A rmt , Navy and hI
O1licc, and Ilight hii 'use A ptaropriation
Bills. The Cheap Postage li 11 passed.
The Bill makin i I .a:il W rran s a
signable, psssed by a lirge mi.jority, but
was accoIpanied by tutu nmendment em
bracing additiontal clnsscs of voluncters
The bill was senit to the I louse for concur
rence in the a:nendm-nt, ami da;l nt;.) ret-h
the I louse in time to be acted up a. B.tt
both houses havng tninifeste.d by large
majorities, the:r wihes on the subject,
the dubtful construct ion of the Ilhiunty
Land A. by wh-ch the eer, tary of ith
interior rendered the warrant miuassitgna
ble, will be abandone..
The sp:'cial session of this Senate, calledt
for Executive business, commenced at l'
o'clock. Several of the now Senators elert
appeared. T'wetnty-one Senators coin.
monced their term yesterday-but many of
them wore re-elected.
. It is undeorstosil that Mr. Sehennck of
OhIo, goes to Brazil; Mr. Kerr, member
from Mdaryland, to Ilogota: an i Mr. 1)ir
of N. Y. to thet profltablei Consul~ate of Vo:l.
paraiso. The imemibers oh Coijneos gene.
rally geL the lion'5 bliare of tii Guot ernmient
IThe Appraiserni at hirge ,.nr t bi.- .\[c~
E'dgar of-N. Y Ch inrb-t Brilu'r, I -on
Mir. Itiddle, l'h hadlp!ho,, .\lr. firri, f 1.
This day the term~ fi tlhe i-:rt Iist' C-i.
jgress ex pire,. TIh:a-, J.,y ci:mpe ia. per~o
in Amnercain hiiatory tha~t wn!; he, lie* .i
I bere.l tot be cunrsed, byv every lo ver o. I.
tuiblicant institu1 tins wn ihi iior- uniii
hate thani tany whtchl the chiroiieter haive
recorided . on wiibI perhiaps w~Ill~ ee 1 rmi
a portion oh our iciuntryz .il.; Ti.
thirty-hirnt Coingress his pi.! .. e :e
Ithan anty othier sessiin ever' hell. buit :
donie imine ischi:ef:i i in any,- c* ' .,
the righ's oft Elne sect iont of thi a,
a territory as hi rge ais t hie ar- ofi th i
thirteen, iti'l tratnsferred it tioi ant her,
thierebmy dcstrying the e.ial y of our
sysieem, ai sowinog lie sioeds of a sex-i on; ii
hiostidit ' which it will lie im;i.o.<.i:e,;di~
in the ~Jinin. It has1 diine this u;ehir th -.
Ifalse pretentue of comirpromi' andii comiii-ib
ation; arid al readly, mi les.s thi i-ne
mionths after thec deedl was dlone, that p at1
of the Comipromiise, by which au pit~o ioii
the Sooth wecre duiped into i i'iabandotn -m
oft every uothec.r right has beenu mut ii'i. :ia
disregairideid. It haus appropri.ai~tedi mii mtii
miilionsm~ wthinl of th; puble holh tip
sectional piiuposes. Iliit herto, dEspt)t m~
has bteinregairiled byi us g'o I e .
ltcepublicants, a-. the coniientr-i-tion of ii:
poer' in onei ci-i, 'in a Ie w piwd ..
inhid ihunhI.. llut ihema' iiJ n ( y
have laitely disemiteit or- mde:tud a r
specties 01 t'espoit iiim ''. y bii.. foCi 'ii
Out thc.t ai siction;:it inijity la thi it a
jus.t as eai-.ly icin--ti: tet a liii d!-'-pi.
unuder the htrmis 'ii law, mi th.s onatiia-,
the 1~iitperor ofi tti3,-ia ior the~ .uilmie
P~orte at C2onstatitmlii;le , w. Fio mre not
restrainted bmy law- it amL- \\l -i.v ih;
prodnuetioni of~ a :in.e penago.-inht ,
w . ere Kinig or P'arlam:;ent iev-i .r . i
Ia pow~er inore unmli:mi d, ':: . tw or
terpreita'tionis anid acts f ith m~ ;er 'iv. in
the C onires whhib el' mes tio-iday. lI-r
Iafier, IbIns couiitry tidl bie ;g-verned' oir
bys thme fiorm~s ofI ai wrtitn c :ctit.Ti
(Conist itutioni wIhI he wthmat - .citcia! m n.
jority c'hooise to mia k( it. Andto it w, Ilibe.
comec just whai~t it so .s iih it mai~j riy t hat
it hlotid bie.
It was hopedri lby lie foinalersr of th .
GIovernitnent, that thmey h-'1 ob~viated thie
evils of thlen systemis, by~ clear~v'y deimng
the powet'rs ofi every dephiri.-iia if urs~ cm
a wrnittenu f.oustillitiion. 1i1it ther ltl
remaining of thlit, lbut its formu. .\ndin
ther prcsetnt cottht~ ndi i pmspirt- 'f t'
coutttr-y, linless a retiediy i- :-e.l.y d~e.
visdi, IL wil bei iui~inp'mbi to i ~'i , liir
ma~ny yoiurz- ,lhI us le't fti'o thc ier roiph.
nments of a mtajortyv, wh i-lb, bI:' ihe rob-.
ther1 makos moiglht, andi nti! righit the i v iri
eblo guide of its c'nduhut-Uc. TI' /e;;r.;,
'PTt. Co-r-ro'N Ct:oi'.--ThFe N'w A I rli'-s
[leo of thn Jt irist, ini its r'pr-t ofth linar
ker, mnalies tho followmgu' remiark-:
"Manty biohhlrs have, hi'wtover, withidrawin
their stocks altoigeti.er, feehnog conifi~lent
that at ii later period, prices with mai~ter~mab
ly recover from-their piresent pjt'iotj.
GTR us Inr, th tlng Crop rien have gined N~
n loci tuovuil to be sure, tat
the . " an'! veracity, buit whi'n
id ii tton oh fior ever take such trifle~s p'
into' isideiatiajI, '!lho umischaief 1has3 been e;
acoiij~tea Wl ho rceeliedl jus4t in ri
tunte to tind that: to have parted wvith the ot
,bilko t.htb crop.Ut our 't'rnuttlantie J3re. t
.trert:.tt reanuner&kting red t tu
THlE ~UMTI1i BANNERl. Ic
1.- '.G itICUiARtDSON'. j~~r y c
11':JNS1)Y, NitC~t12, ISM, " a'1e~sIA 1nr:&C . tir
.'ig.'aits Ifor tht( Ikinnt'r in Stutne&riio. r
1Ve will publish nexti week 'The air'.
her (of C:adiz',' traios!.ited fromn thy~ 1"rench clt
for the, It inter, b~y a gent !etn ofnu this 0
lDistrict, whose eltigantt conatributins we
hope will ofItn grace our catut:is.
Thle mnournflul ita~lliiuaai9ts reched ai
it ft the death on th I oriang of TIeesc- In
dt;v the I itia in1st., in: his (end yeoar, ( ' the C
lion. (1:onoF": 11hlDuna.:, ait the reeidthnceN
of Mlr. itiCitA lID SINO I.ETON in thiH'l)istrict.'3 't
'1'I1- statge retuirnedI froni theiiIt. Roadi on !u
)ty~~irtty mrnaing i'tli fixt! iuit3'!i!:.'ncu' thlat
ti~ %%t.r ihaul ri .tn iii lx' I ti vcr S :ti nlihui
(Jo Sarturdlay, in (.h~ ,:estunt, I,2Oh) hales x
of Cotton were sold :itL prii'cs r ranig :frontx i
r to 10 o. -'3 cis. The itntS2l ';etce brourlui r
by~ te 1'.acili-- had not reaclhed (liarlkston. i
it timne to. :xlU'ct S-atnrdi.y'v Vpri~~t.I ,
N. Vaora; . (,ui It t- itl ;t 'tcell fronm I.1I tot
I1- cent atfter tit- nir::"a1 of thia l'glti.
Oca~ttrrO..c't' w aa the' I'air at 13 tlat. Na- c
tore s wtt,'.l to tonilo prnp tiniy it ot
this e:itcrpre to~ of thie I ualiis. Tint (lay was
so blm y nt an~ I serc':ir t-t ee ;a U j: .r1i r ,I o
heart coul s.:a rre li-av " clouio)l itsel f against
and :a i thaose clennt ta ;Ios wtitcht'in e w ants
oaf feta:te Ia irt s'litonu at wili into exisxt
Clive, anil hb'Itinit the~ tablaes wast a monr
briltilrt array. osri o; the rnrt ic. of sonies:
anl b~ety t~t evtoc antidevlp iacrthle noIt
der, tshe ttli'L Lelero:,s tnxities (o1 th a."g
scanibtol Iii rung, whio sueme, indtet'd. to;"t
yieltd the~usi'-i ets dot igh' ed victinms of' the
Evenuing thbrew its sh'ades only too soota h
upon tt: innocent mniIi antI gentlet plea- t
soires of the daty; bitt nt: before it had boon ul
atopti demnonstrated that the ladies wer rin
pssession of the into Phiilosophier's Stone,
for every thing they touched that dlay was
That will Houor: std Safely roquro ?
_?r do, iot ptropondi tl(JJctiioni, for the
iposc oif answe~ring! iLc-.nrihcea, nd
ithiitjjg %wli ti, in oier view;tq tlQ o
' iiiJ~fuiois !0f- hoor~ itid t coiTditionu
:aety.. Thes mayb ii itave bee .1110d.
lallii'ulat h is, in u atm ai~ R'oll by, that
uirollniziii :Itiet"e strangeloy siop, whlio
Is lint luntg t=iniee framued hisi reply. But
itligh it i.,ie IIVI N1 ak ljil) :.hul III South
' oter t iQ lllm t i .'ii vta'iiit e i, liecl i'jlit.-i
!:Iah'lv~llq. nn h:' _ -),.h ofl io!'ruary, restily'
.1 thlat I liry wVt, iII]iile Iiy the I Coinptw
ia~c Mi(' uiiirt'ii of' lilt! latst ri.ijli of Coni
rue, provi!a..il lii' v dot t 11 s:iui-; but
itoilil the IN1ili1 (":at(' the. Couiiprirttii'ii or
'pteal te saut~e, ltl~i-lu ::ivory in the D)is
ict oit (.t! u tsili;, or ref :1i') to ziniL new~
;itcs, iliry %Voiit i iiijt szera ii,':'tre o)f
ti(' So:il 'wnvoi r;',ir1.
Utp lIn hit Ii it I iurofr.er, iin aggrci3.
tahit hail b141een i n,1}: Iv the' North Ili.
I I lie ''u~t j, wh!ichi w~otilt reunite defenice
Ill iLI"'4'l-1 cli :t sinr. oif thuilur, it i-i to
uolprehianlr1,~ is ill the fton' r. WNhait :1
uittrrt:irv is ii Ies., ! 1ii oll upont the
out imi'ren l ri l tr for geo;! fait:h! TIhe
arun' st fric illy, thli' Noirt 1h 'm9 nt Ilh, Siam (ha,
.in 112 r , "i !; a~ 1 R une.'' s .;, f om uhiai
(;".eur a oir 1o rii '~t-.4("( or ueli'lewhr(e,
i r l!:. ' ;t:iii',' th po :1i iy
n.No t l : iu' aIli I ' it: IIiu e ni.lt ti ('i.
i ta Ill'; 1""u' in 1}1' ilteo html1
cI;ie p ii '. !:1I1o :( l 11,lid i 3 ii rihl
real. i i 1( :jH '4: (lu", i li re,}, (l;, , V li i'(
1\11 to ~ '' ' r ' u 111I *al arde I f 111ti' byciitoi
at andri i . a: !I!1' a iih, It r rhe
~rn ':i'i ii' he' t .wI)"10 l pllst I
ii adt r.:: Ii *i,:;rv ' (i '~ t nr and
diat ~ i lt :t. :I'. I i v' :' (l' nun noit h
ti r'di' irn . ',r ' r r.' It:l )''ir' '''*e ' r thn i nk:,C
II n '"a Irs,,i-"-,~t - , . : ".11: ar:eij, .
1'' ^ toi } i ,I :.':tl t !~A ift: i v'r" N tlioz
~. I'; t " (.! it ' l' :1; :tI ', at .c ,1 t r'.1 ii
ard, I ktoe C~t~ ('., IN ', rnl illr I'aflly
icr4l;*'tnc t'i' I., '::vihI a ir' y viv a lll th
'(lnl,thtC!' .il:iiiiI \~ wil'l 111 hve
" ic ('I a ' 1 ~ l , i 'r' :tIn I~ :''1It
to Owt~3 tin:t e 1. . 'm.t, it r01^i N'tthiinaa
r"t~ 1 0 :s1 :!;' t t a I1 i ti a.
to~r ; I .'1:1!r n. ''r
.. 'I:: r. -% (i .1M.,
^!ila !1' y 1 n V .C': 'i J I i M .
li o IItluw *' . 'u a lllelh
For the Banner..,
- Tens pletons.y1> '
Meassus. EIotrons.-IInving fpr a lonI
titue.IMon usr lOti thgprossion, Jg1igno.
rancq of the trtgo sit M of foeeipnbetten
the tyo sct bas of this U t6n wasptho
principal cau o of aIdisposidlon, apigng a
few itadividtiaisi to hsuhtit to Notlaern Ag.
grossion, I nan truly glad to see that Tent
pleton has awaked fron his Rip-Van-Win
kle slumber and is beginning to conpre
hend the truec an litieqr ofrtiings by.wclah
wo are surroutade .I t~ is a tnatter of; sin.
c(rse congratulation that he has been con
vinced by the late events in Boston " in the
-horl spac: of three weeks." that "the sec.
tion:al jptestion of slavery between the
North and South was not merely one of en.
thusiasm growing out of an. obulition of
feeling, but was one of antagonistic princi.
ple deep se:ted and irrgdicable." This is
a great and important truth and one which.
the people of this State have long contem.
plated with intense interest and one of
which I scarcely find .nny one Who is' igno
rant. I hopo that Templeton will continue
to grow in knowk dgo. in these initter's and
extend to him a cordial welcome to the
R anks of tesistuice.
For hlia Snmiter lianner.
Essay on the Cause of Fever.
Bv J. s. tcit, :M. D.
Some topographical writers have sup
p.>sed that there exists some salutary prin.
cipe, or property, in the pine and cypress
of our11 Savannahs atal ponds, as it is known
to be, for the most part, comparatively
he:dalbby on their borders. It is an error;
that salutary influance (if any ) is nothing
more thatn that the water may be protect.
ed frorn the witheri:ig etlect of solar heat.
by thet dense forests that surround them,
aan, ga ow in their am.dst; since, it is known
that p.maads, situ:ate in fields, where the
trees have been cut lown or belted, die, or
stagnlte sooner, and more comnpletely,
than those in the farest shade. A bucket
rf water, ftr ::iaanlje, will becomne unfit for
drinking, sooner in the sun-shine, th-n in
i'ie naked earth, stripped of its skin, or,
in ow her words, its vegetable covering,-the
wild forest-whose vitality, in consequence
is witleresd, or totally destroyed, by the
Sutn -r-solar-heat, serves to produce more
rarai I air, th-t perh-ps anything else.
Worn our forests not sutl:rcd to he burnt
oft, tl sh-ide of the treos would prevent
heat, that woauld arise from the action of
the sui otn the deadl lewevrsa and thimer; and
if we eouild ini ho a halt in ;agriculttre too,
it waonad noa ebe lo g h :ure the health of
our State would be restored, as in the
days of the first I Is gnenot settlers, and of
,a sin. The burning of the forests, it is
true, breaks pp the strong holds of rattle
snakes and musquitoes; but on the other
hand destrops the fruit fulhess of the soil;
andl beesides amaking it exceedingly hatrd to
cleair aap, foer planting, dlestrays the WVinter
piast rage of our cattle.
D~tehing, it is trite. aes h-us been observed,
of sh al low poaish, haas ;a geo eas yelct, buat it
is hnponssibl tee dith Ithemt- thiorughly, so
m a te prevent lieavyV rains from remnainina
at cer-atin Seasoe, ini thonaa. het empe.
r'ars :anda I'opes., ma vain atternpted to drain
atle l'antine ariahs, teo twic they trace
the eta -gin of their gre-ttest terroraa-fever;~
atle .iaune a-; the inhfabitantaas of thmis coabntry,
efo to thettir hays andl pontds. the oriina of
fever :iaaneng thtem:; bti ia is not thte water
aloe tinat genlerates rarit ti air; thme mnarsh
es be-in, lower thaan the genteral surface ol
thea e.e rth, thle ind c aionnoit so readily wva t
away, c~r counateraict the process of rarifac
Eianaad baeing an island, whient comnpar.
edl wi~ -sn- auther parts aof the G;lojeh la'
sut Prred btaI I.ttle n~ ith fever. 11er clim itt
is~ co~l; andu liaam the eani aill arounda it,
thte r~iacionii oft air is preventead..
-Theon- write-rs whlosuppose(C~ that a haaumia
ait aase r e a-en-ds to thle production of feve:
aua:' athera dlieses, ar a-c;ston:ishaed at t he
lhta ahfahieasa act Fland~ ae, literally shrouded
ain hr figs. it Ie er awali agule dlid pirevai
tha're ta dlays oef o'.d, wias it naot after Cesar
acuat dewn hera t imopent-rable forests of lofia
i 'a, in: ord-er tie brak ny o e cu irkiang place,
atfte danatentead lngliala, whlomn he hac
suabihted, anda founde a.o aauach uditicutlty ir
gea Vrlni n' ini amodernaI tamesa tooa, thle dirain.
mig of the maraheas foir agzricul tuiral puarposes
ha ut a chk ona~ c wi t little fever tlicy
ay ha e hiaol there: :nnil tis, perhap), ha.
een,::,e to the eopina th at agrciulture ha
snha sauary iaaluencaae, generally, ia
lea'r;:~a cuff fever They say that inade
paemb'nat af the t-.str-emea haaaanidity of thec at
mot-pie-re. :'gtieniatuare~ is the chief cause c
*.'.e 'al he-thfiess ofii Enaglaend. Fo'g, is ni
Cleldence of mautre, as i staupposeda: o
t lbe conat rary, it gi'.eas ;aaabmdat ev idenace
a ;auaty of citnistiare: hyv way of ill ustra
Ir a- ra. Ii lde a mise ra.scop~ic viewi aof fog; ai
.t wi:l lu a praaei aed, thiat at is noathing mor
a haaa nadropc of n aer, u hich a rae conadenso
hiv rouhl air, trama a voaluaaaa oef inavsalle v:
jar;: athere hladliheen amehul moaistaare, they-a
dra-a wou ..ald haiva- baeen lrarger, antd thim
*ji e giriaty wiouald basei braoughet ther
t. tie 'raound. as faill thle rain tromt a alon
buth.:: b'm a pcau-ity of moa isiaure, whoa
cadenilaad byv thei cold iar, they) acre smna
and fl:at etn the pma onsi oft the Z~'epihyr:
'iTus, it as argne. I, thaet linge~Ila, andic saue
oithl-e'ut aios, wvhtse baogs give cult tbaut the
arte htutl, are dry, intlead, ats their fng~
a.vi' nampf!t' tsthaatiny. ina ouar owna State
("a fr tlah mot part, is sceta ontly, dariti
t eperuids cit eraoughat, in thme hoa tusao
ina thi moaurnaitg, wh ien thle air is cood, at
wheni tere is every re'ason, to sua~ppor
thaat the:re is but aittle atnointure in it.
*Whtena ia is aconamidttered tha-t -1000 peopale el
"tuit fy it tih- htieattts andie 60J.00. in it
n tC of ietv freomt t-e-er anttne wvel miay tl
su!;. ee oi e-.%-ny hearom,- "tne of thedep
Fog is seen over marshy grounds, at
night, and in the morning, beeansa such
places, from a loss of the vital princile, .
not only is heated quickly br thme hoj tn,
but in the same degree; turns cold hen
exposed to cold, like all other dead matar.
It is not vapor, that is seen in such places:
vapour is invisible: it is only when vapor
is condensed into drops, by cold, that it Is
visible; and thus it constitutes fog. Over
the Ocean, fog is seen, because its cool air
condenses-the vapour, as it .aries from tIe
bosom of the water. And there is somnchs
of it on the Ocean, which is perfectly J
healthy, it may be questioned whether moi
ture could be borne on the air, in quan
ities sufficient to impede respiration, and
thereby produce disease. Nature has form
ed the two elements, in her great wisdom,
too distinct, to be mingled again, and to be
come the cause of disease, in animals, liv
ing, either in the one, or the other ele
Malaria was supposed to be generated in
marshy low grounds containing shallow
water, and vegetable matter, at a tempera.
ture, never under 00 degs. of Fahrenheit's
Thermometer, since people. living near
such marshes, are subject to fever; and it is
supposed that malaria is wafted for miles,
on aqueous vapours, even to the summits
of mountains: now, obstructed by some
skirt of forest, when fever does not make
its appearance; now, (when fever has been
anmongat us, and has cooled offa little,) los
ing its virulency, by passing over a lake or
river: now, (when fever is not so malig
nant in its attacks) beat down to the earth,
and destr yed, in some wise, by copious
showers of rain and wind- now: (when
some of us happens to he attacked with
fever, about that perio:d when our an'mal
spirits are exhrasted,;or weakened down
from the fatigues of the day,) stealing forth',
in the hour of twilight, or at dark, like a
prowling wolf: :rut would it not be more ra
tional to conclude, that the water of the said
marshes, being shailow, (deep water is
never suspected of generating malaria,) is
deprived of its vital principal by the heat
of the Sun, and in consequence, increases
heat, which is the cause of rarified air ! It
certainly is: and, is rarified air, which is
tantamount to a want of air, not suffi
cient to disorder all the functions and mem
bers of the hunman body, and thence bring
about all the characteristic symptoms of
fever and other diseases!
On this principle or theory, in a preced
ing page, it has been proposed to the read
er, to account for, on the plainest princi.
pies of science, the various perplexing phe.
nonnna, which have so long renai.ed
shrouded in mystery, or have never been
clearly explained, at least, by those who
advocate the exiatenco of the specific poi
The following, then, are extracts from
the she b.- erninent writers, respecting
some of andhcharac
agene 3'it, malaria, and,
perhaps, wilj serve to illus'rate 'the tan.
guage of Armstrong, namely; "How hard
meon strive, hut in vain, to make the laws
of Nature accord with their falso thories."
"Ground,, completely covered wit h wa-i
ter, send forth hut little of this deleterijus
eiltuviuma, however favorable the tempera-.
tute~. amnd other circumstances may .have
If this wvater were deep enough no as to
prevent its life beinag destroyed by the sun,
it is true, then, in that csse, that it would
render the locality satlubrious. It is cer
tainly more rational to conclude, that the
pure wvater, (and cool, if not killed by the
sunt,) will restore, or condense rarified air,
soonier, anid on a much more accountable
principle, titan to destroy some poison in
the air. It is explained, in a preceding page,
how the life of shallow water is destroyed,
mand cotnsequentmly, generates heat; also, how
deepi wvater resiists the action of the Sun,
and keeps cool: the Ocean is an example:
a'lthmough it is very hot at certain seasons,
on) thme deck of a ship, yet, time water itself,
is cool. It is hmot on deck, because the
glassy surface of thme Ocean, reflects the
It is not explained, how grounds com
piletely inundated, render such places
healthy, but, say that time cause of fever in
rarified air; and, in as much as Iiaing tea.
ter resists heat, it is, then, explained.
The Lithuanian marshies in Russia, do
not render time surrounding district insalu
brious. It would aeem, imndeed, frcnm a long
series of observations, that Koino nmiasmata
are meidomi evolved to a degree sufliciotntly
copious and active, to create extensive dis
ease, so long as the temperature of the
air does not rise above 80 dogs. of Fahren
ft is only necessary to observe in thin
plcby way of comnment, that it would
reqluire, about 8t diegs. omf Fahrcnheits
Thmormomeoter, ini accordance with a law,
wtd kinown m science, to produce rariflea
tiomn, in a degree stificleent, to render thme
-atmo)sphemre unfit for healthful respiration.
Fever is nt known in the arctic, nor in
theo anutartic circle, simply, becauso the
Th'lermoimeter ntever rises to 801 dog.. there.
"A mixture of fresh and salt water ir.
mmarsheos, appears to enhance the copious
Iness and viruloncy of malaria, in a very
We ar not given, however, time modus
operanda, of the enhancement of the copi
(miminess and viruloncy of malaria; so let it
lhe attempted, in this place, to be explained.
W/ould it not suiflice to say, that sialt water is
mrhihyorganized, and endowed with
f reate degree of vitalhty, prhapr, than
drehwater, and that mixing them together,
is time cause of thme death of either. It is
needless to repeat, that which, in another
pilace, has been treated of, respecting dead
mat for of any species.
CO'Illallar mentionis examples of the
great prevalence of miasmal disesses in
.very elevated situations, whilst the sut
tounding. marshy, how grounds were but
tt in c terious rt~.
Herb it upnob noticed that rai
ed alr, ac iIngIn W law of Natural Phji-"
soph w :esce ; so also will.a balloon,
ccord nc Ithe o law.
Fro theJnflu of the winds and the "
rregular su e s of the earth, certain
ocalitioe(I'k ^nbmuot be doubted) may her
isited more frequently, than othere, with
light rarified air; for instance; let there -bos
kindled a large fire, in a close room; and itV
~vill be perceived that the rarified air, pio.
iluced by the fire, will ascend or escape, at
thg top of the door of said chamber, whilst
frdsh air, fill up the vacuum in the chan.
)ur, from tie .bottom of the. door. hereofe
orining two distinct currents; the onertish
ng in; the other making its exit; and if a
screep,be placer in:the way, at thq1 tpp of
he docr, it will pass over it, and '(hen de
icend to the top of the door, whereever the'
arifico is, for its exit. And thus it is --
lained, it is hoped how: fever. som6 ti e
revails in elevated situations. But I e
>bservations- of- different writers--on -the
mubject of malaria, are exceedingly dnr
repent ; one will- tell you-that its viru
one is enhanced on the mountain sum
n regard to the theories founded in ?pre
rits, another vice versa. And thus it is eveur
mumption. . Until something be known off
malaria it will continue to be a fie-d,-rifew
with absurd speculation ;. and like the devil
in th.e old book ; some give him horus.
some a tail ; some a cloven foot ; but no
one has seen him te to tete. A long serics
af observations, by different writers, for
ages, on the phenomena of malaria, howev
er, with few exceptions, correspond with
those of rarified air; at least where we
siubstitute the place of malaria with it, the.
phenomena of malaria are explained on ra..
In regard to fever prevailing in any par
ticular locality accurate observation noes to
show that, whenever the atmosphre is
above 80 deg. and remains uninterrupted
by rain or win i for the period of a few
weeks, we are liable to fever almost-any.
where, independent of any particular 1o
cality containing vegetable mnatter, or mois-.
ture so long as there is solar heat enough
to rarify the atmosp here.
Another one of the favorite --habitats" of
tl poison in questi.n, which they do not ac
count for on rational principles, is that it is
much more dangerous at night. than in the
To sleep at night (they say) in tho
open air in such places, is alnostto ensuro
an attack of fever. "Take one instance,.
(says Watson) as a sample of many.
--It is recorded by Dr. Lind in 1766. The
Phenix Ship of war was returning from the -
coast of Guinea. The officers and Ships'
comp:any were perfectly healthy till they -
reached the island of St. Thomas. litre,.
nearly all went on shore. Sixteen of the,
number remained for several nights on the
isiand. Every one of those contracted the.
disorder, and thirtcen of thI number died.
The rest of the crew, consisting of 2O men,.
went in parties of twenty or thirty, on shorn
in the day time, and ramt,ked about- the
island, bunting. hooting. and so on, but re
turnedl to the ship arhiigat, and not one of
those, who so returned, suffered the slight'..
They even go so far as to .tell us, not
only of its predilection fur nocturnal visits, .
but of the very hours of the night, at which.a
it comes. II.,w such observations can 'bp
mnade in strictness-and in truth, e -
well be at loss to know. With as mach
prpriety, the reader might he told chat
Beelzebub will pay him a visitjusmt after
munuset, or a' short time before day:-brele,
or rather about time hour, jijit ere the-grey
cock crows ;.ior .'t is said thmat Gaoines,
Ghosts & all other species of infernal & invi
sible spirits are debarred fromo walking forth
abroad after the cock crow.4; at least the
poe't telis us that Hamlets ghost, madO his
exit at that time.
P'rufessor Dickson obtserves that dli
seldom, perhaps never auacks the - htania~'~
systema during sleep.
Sleep is sedative in its effects ; itis setie
time after wakting, ore time accusmnedxig
our of the rsystem, is restoredl; awl if; thes
body is muore liable to fever during thme first
hours of night, and just b~efore day, it is
owing to langnur ard :-xhaustion, at those
hours; indeted it is observed by authors
generally on the subject,. tha~t thusse are the'
periods 5in whic-h fever is mnost apt tQ at-.
tack us. But what are thu evidences 6f
malaria having ever mande its attacks by
night, more tnan by dlay ?1 is feror teltC
not the onliy evidence ? IBcausej sixteen'
seamen quitted their ship, and wvent ashore
on an islanid tslept all nighmt there, in the
open air, and were seized with fever, must
the conclusion be, that malaria made its
sallies upon thoum only by nighat?
It may be questioned,-since ,t is. not
stated--whether they were attacked t.
night, or otherwise ; and the only evidence,
of any attack, is the fever imself. -
That period of titme, of exposure to the
agent supposed to be the cause of fever,, be
it malaria or rarified air, is long or short
one, t wo, or more days, according" to the
degree of the rariticatmon of the one, on-the
virulence of the other. Now, then, ay,a it
requires fortygeight. hours residence on the
island of St. T homas, above umentioned, in
contract fever ; the dlays beine twelve houva
long, a couple of nights wom:,d necessairly
be included, ini the forty eight; but, because
:h.'se two nights were included, must iijbe
that night is more htazardosus than dnay -? h
shmort It requircs only a certain length of limo,
to contract lever & during this penod of time.
---time being equially divided into night unaa~
day-.-night, necessarily -conmes in, unless,.
like Joshua of old, some one of thosewho be
lieve that malaria stalks about committing
noctural depredations, conhal comnmand the
sun to stand still. Those of the ship'a
comnpany "who went in parties of twenty
or thirty hunting, shooting and so on"~ and
returnaed to the ships at nighat, did not stil'
tihe slightest indisposition."
Now twvelve hoturs, it secems, was not long
enough fo~r them, to contract fever; and by
returming to the ship, fromt anidst the rar%.
tied air utn the island, thacir systemus had the
entire night, to he resuscitated, or restoredl
from that debility which had been brout
on thmem, dnuring the day on the island ; and
they wenct buck to the islandl next day5 end
the' next, andI so on. Thus they may hava
Idone for at month or more, and still have chiu
tracted no fever. Those on the other day wi'h
contracted disease and death, were never
withdrawn from atmidst the caus: ini oirep
that they may have gained that strength, duk.
ring the night, whichthey lost in the 's. If
thmey had rambled over the islard at -,
and etunedto the ship at day, their ch .nce
of escape from fever, would )jpyQ
equally as good, it not. better, sinico theremp
not so mtuch rarifled air at nt ht us h'
day time. In short thme nilglm is ipterkled
in the great wisdom af God, to reai 'tht
mal a pirk in the earthm, nad in, all d
It, wt' Ich the sun has tjured during th i
hism presence... ' tS
IN4 A L.ETTER. addreged i o iA'
AMayor of Dublin, ILord Cloouvr hana
charged the E~ngi.- Goverminent wi4,haE
it cauised the deatbij by ta -vati4n~, wm'bini
the ikt four yeahu of 2(@OOt'~' oful,~ hr'shl