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THE 81 U M1 w
JiRY TUE OR ING
BY W. J. FRANCIS.
Trw DOILAts in natvnnee, Two Dollarm
and--4Fifty Cnts n'at the i'xpirathiinfl tl i mlmths,
---Rr three Dular at the enl 'of the year.
-No pAjper discontiiued Unti all arrearneres
tre rimot. litala'a'' at tile option of the Proprietr.
L dW A , dertemnlt inpertet at
FIY Cent4'p~r maimre. (12 lines or. less',) for
the first, and lal t suma for each subseii.
-gr The nimilher of ii ertione w i
bn all Advertipments-or il" .
until o ered to be disconltl
accor nelY. Aj ets
ONE I)o.L a -a (in.gle, in
usertion. Quairte e illias new oni
Tents wilt be
sertion. an .T --ESSAGE.'
.'ens of the Senate .
.he. Jfee of Repreathtitios:
le brit spacoawich has elapsed
'o-the close of ybhi-lasti session hits
en marked by no extraordinary po
litical event. The quadrennial Clee
tionl of Chief Magistrate lias passed ofr
with less thant the usual excitmnn.'iit.
Howeve- individuals and parties ilmy
have beei disappointted in the result, it
is nevertheless a subject of national
cotigrattlation that the choice has
)Cen ellectcd by the inldejpelideit sif
fragesofa fret people, Undisturbed by
thos& influences which in other coun
fries have too ofitni ailected the purity
.f popular electio lsl,
Our grateiil thanks arc due to an
ll-mercifid Providence, not only
for staging the pestilence which in dif
fere'nt fo)rms has desolated some of
our cities, but for crowning tie labors
of the husbaidman with an abund
int harvest, and the nation generally
with the blessings of peace. and pros
Within a fi.r weks the publie
nind has been deeply tfected by
the death of Daniel Webster, filling at
his decease the office of Secretary of
State. His associates in the Execu
five government have sincerely syi
pathized with his family and the pub.
lie generally on this mournfil ocea
sion. Ilis commanding talents, his
great political and professional cm
inence, his well-tried patriotism, and
his long and faithful services, in the
most important public trusts, have
caused his death to be lamented
throughout the country, an.1 have
ar:Ved for him a lasting place in
.ITb th'e course of the last summer con
siderable anxiety was caused for a
short time by an official intimation
from the government of Great Britain
that orders had been given for the pro
tection of the fisheries upon the coasts
?f the British provinces in North Am.
erica against the alleged encroach
ments of the fishing vessels of the
United States and Ftance. The short
iess of the notice and the season of
the year seemed to make it a matter
of urgent importance. It was at
first apprehended that an increased
nmaval force had been ordered to
flue fishing grounds to c-arry into ef
feet the British interpretation of those
provisions in t he convention of 1818, in
ref'erence to the true inatent of which
two governments dilbr. It was soon
(discovered that such was not the de
sign of Great Br'itaini, andt saitisfac-tory
explantations of' the real object-s of the
mieasiure have bL'en given bo0th here
and ini ILndoai.
VTe unadjuasted difference, hoi wever,
Ihetween the two governmnts as to
the interpretation of the first atrticle of
the convention of 1818 is still a mat
ter of import ance. A imericatn fishinug
vessels within nine or te*n years have
b)een excluded fromt waters to which
they had free access tr twenity~tiv'e
years after the negoatiationi of the
treaty. In 1843 this exclusion was
relaxed so far as concerns the 1iay of
Fudbttejs and libheral inuten
pliance with what we think- the
trite construct ion of thme con vention, to
opern' all the othier h-.ys to oaur fishier
flin was abanidoned, in conseqjuence
of thei opposition (of the col onties. Not
withstanding this. thet U. Statecs have,
since the Bay of F"iundy was re-openced
to our fishiermieni in 1 8-15, paursuedl the
most liberal course toward the colo
luial fishing ititerests. By the rceven
tne law of 1840, the (lities oni colo
nial fish ettering ouiir porats were' very
greatly reduced, and lby lie ware
housing act it is allowed to be enter
ed in bond wvithoumt duty. In this
war coloniatl fish has acquliired the
maonopoly oaf thle expoart tradle in
ou r mi arket. anti is eniteing to some
extent inlto the hom ie coism lpJtion.
These ftets were niaang tho se which
increased the sensiii ity oft our fish
ing' interest, at the moivemecnt ini ques
These cireunstances and- the ini
eidents above alluded to hatve led me
to think the moment favorable for a
r-econsidleriation of the entire subject of'
tije fisherics on the~ coasts of' the Brit
ish provinces,- wlth" a vibw to place
thetm upon a more libejaI footing of
reciprocal privilege. k' willingness to
meet, us in some arratgiemkit of this
kind is understood to exist,' on the
part of' Great Britain; w'ith'nv desire oni
hFer part to include in one comp'rehen
sive settlement as well this subject as
the commercicial intercoursf be-tween
* ~ the United States and the Br'itish
prov'inces. I have thought that wh-lat
ever arr'angvements may bel ie ont
these two subjects, it is expedient that
they should be embraced in separate
conventions. The illness and death of
the late Secretary of State prevented
the commencement of the contemnpla
ted unagotiation. Pains have been
taken to coalleet the informiation re
qutirod. ihr' the detai'ls ofC such .an ar
rantgement. The subject is attenided
with considerable' difficulty. It' it
is found practicable to come to' an
kreement m stualig acceptable to the r
wo parties conventions may be con- ,
luded in the course of the -present
vinter. The control of Congress ov- 4
r the provisions of such an a
angelent, an'eetig the revenne
>f course be reserved.
'The afiirs of Cuba to
inent, topic inl my
sage. Ti'cy rer irrita.
dition, and Im author
tion on Is 1, cling has
iti egular comrnaer
tween the United
es Island, and led to
some act which we have a right to
.comp ' Butt the Captain General
of a is clothed with nao power to
At rat with foreign governments, nor is
he in any degree under the control of
the Spanish Minister at N ashinagton.
Any communication which he may
hold with an agent of a toreign pow.
er is informal and matter of courtesy.
Anxious to put il end to the exist
ing ineonventienees, (which seemed
to rest on a misconception,) I directed
the iewly appointed Minister to Mex
ico to visit I Lavania, onl his wav to
Vera Crtuz. lie was respectfully
received by the (Captaina Genteral, who
conferred with hiim freely on the
reeat foccurrences; litt n1o perttianeit.
a rranget nenlt was el~eted.
It the mean time, the refutsal of
the Captain General to allow pas.
sengers nd the til to be landed inl
certain caes, for a reason which does
not fiurnlish in the opinion of' this Gov
ernmetnt even a good presumptive
ground for stich a prohibitiota, as
been maude the subject of a serious re
ritonistrance at Aladrid; atad I have
no reason to doubt. that due respect
will be Paid by tlte government of
Iler Catholic Majesty to the represen
tations which our Minister has been
instructed to make on tite subhajeet.
It is but jtstice to the C apinia Getn
eral to add, that his conduct. toward
the steamers employed to catrr'y
tl.e mainiis of the United States to
I Invanta has, with the exception.s above
alludd to bee mared withl kind
ness aid liberality, an1d inadicates tto
geteral purpose of interfeing with
the commercial eorresponldence atia
intercourse between the island and
Early in the pIresetit year iflicial
Iotes were received frmii the Alinis
ters of Fraice and Englaid, invitintg
the Government of the UniaitL(l States
to bce Ine a Iparty with Great Britain
and France to a tripitrtite C(oiveitioii,
in virtie of which tle tlree pow
ers should severally and collectivev
diselai m, now and fr thie fotihture. all inl
tention to obtait pessession (. tile
Island of Cuba. antd should binld ticm
selves to discoIutanCttce a1ll at templlts
to that effect o tle part (if any pow
er or individual whatever.-This in.
vitation has b)cetn respectfully declined,
for reasons wlich it woul( occupy too
tuitch space int this conintaication to
state in, detail, but whicht led tme
to think that the proposed iteastire
would be of doubtf I cInsti tilta i
ity, inmpolitie, and unavailittg. I haave,
howvever, in common witht sever'al Eot
mty predecessors. directed thle Al inis
ters of' Iratnce anid Etnglaand to lbe
assutred that, thec Untited States enter
taitt tno designts againist Ctba; bunt that,
oni the contra ry, I shlaad re'gard its
incoirpiorationl itto the Unaion't at lie
prcsettt time as. fraught with seai
Were thtis islamideotmparat ively de'
titutte of itnhabitanits, or occuipied lby
a kindred arac, I shouhld regLard4 it if.
voluntar iily e eeded byv Spaini, as a most
dlesirable acquisition. Biut, unider ex
istitng circu itstatnces, I should look
tuponi itsi itncorpoirtio it our011 Uilon
as a veryv hiazardous meiasute. it
would bintg into the C'onfede'racy a
populationt of' a difletrent, tnationtal
stock, speakintg ar ditlierent lanrugua,
and not likelv to harmiotnize with the'
oither tmemnbers. It, would4 proab ualy
effect iat a prejudicial mi:mntter the ain
dI itriatl inltere'sts of thle South-,Ii anid it
taight revive those cotnflicts ot'opinion
beiatwe thi Ile Iditl''eeits~ection's o f
the crmtalry. whlich' lately shoolld thie
l'anit to its cantr'e. zimd which have
beea so happily cotmproamisedh.
Thew rejecai tio by thte Alexicant Con
gress of' the Cvoventioln w lhIeb hadl
bete concluided bet weentat~ liepub-n
lie and the Utaitedl States, ihr' the pro(
teetiotn of' a trttaeit way across the1
lsthlamusi of' Tehtte iw pe attl oif thle ini
ter'ests of those e'itizenis ot' lie I utited
States wh'lo basI becomte propr10ieti rs of'
the tights which MIexico hal ('Ottferr'ed
oni onie of her owni citizenas ini re'&ard to
that transit, has thriownt a seriatas 4ob -
stacle itt the wiay of the4 aiti tt imet oft
a very desiriable niational obi ject.
amt still willing to hope that. the dif
ferenct(es o th Ile subject whieb exist, or'
which mtay lhereaf'ter arise, b ~ecte
the governimenits, will hb' amiicalhy ad
jutsted.--lThis sub lject; ho wevei'. has
al ready cengaged1 the at ltntionit of the
Senate of the li ni ted St ate's, anid re
quir'es nto furtther' cotnitieit ini this comii
'Thec settlieent of the queacst io n re
specting thIe port1 of Satn. Jani de N ica
raguta, and1( of' thet cotroivets y heat weent
the republics of ( 'osta 1Hien and N ica
raguia in regard to their bountitdaries,
war. cnsidlered intdispetnsabile to thle
corrlnt)?n~ement oif thle ship en'nai~l
betwee~n-thic two olceanis, which was
the subjet of the Convent iotn betweeni
the 19th Aprtil; 1i5. Acor'dinigly
a piropocsitiont for the sme purmpose til
dressed to the two- gov(''ernmets ini
that guarifter, aitid to theM A asqui to lIn
dians, was agreed to in April last by
lie Secretary of' State anid theA Mintis
ter of lhen Britaie Majestvy. Besid'e
the wisht to aid in reconicil ing thle dif
ferences of' the trvo repubhlics, I ent
gaged in the tcegotitatnfo a desire
to pliace the great work of' a ship[ cnatal
between the two ocetans under' one
'mrisdicriti rani toi enztahsai dtia.
ortant port o Juan do Nica
agua ,u government of a
Ivi-' er'. The proposition in
wa assenited to by Costa
and the Mosquito Indians. It
t proved equally acceptable to
agua, but it is to be hoped that
fur'ther negotiations on the sub
ject which are in train will he carried
on1 inl that Spirit of Conciliation and
compriso which ought always to
prevail on such occasions, and that
they will lead to a satisfaetory result.
I have the satisihetion to inform you
that the executive government of Ve.
nezuela has acknowledged soine claims
of the citizens of the United States.
which have for many years past beeni
urged by our ebarge d'aflhires at Ca
rateas. It is hoped that the same sense
of justice will actuate the Congress of
the Republic in providling the zucans
of their payment.
The recent revolution in Buenos
Ayres and the ermfederated States hav
ing opened the prospect ofaii inproved
state ofr things in that qiuarter, the Go
vernment of Great Britain and France
determined to negotiate with the chief
of' the new (onflederney for the firee ae
cess of their eoiineree to the extensive
countrines waterud by the tributaries of'
t he Laa Plita. and they gave a friendly
notice Elf this poirnoe to the United
States. that we might if' we thought
piropr pursue tihe same course. In
croipliance with this invitation, our
minister of' Rio .1 aneiro and our charge
d'aflhires at, Bueios A vres have been
fully authorized to conclude treaties
with the newly organlized Confredera
tion, or tihe Staties comprising it. The
delays which have taken place in the
ftniiation of the new government have
as yet prevenated the exceution of' t hose
instructions; but there is every reason
to hope that these vast countries will
be eventually opened to our commieree.
A treaty If commere has beei con
eluded between the United States and
the Oriental Republic of U ruiguay,
which will be laid before the Senate.
Should this Convention go into opera
tiol. it, will open to the coilnimerciaIl en
terprise of our citizens a cintry of
ngrreat extent .1d uni spassed in natur
il resources, but from which ihreign
nations hatve hitherto been almowst whol
The crirespiidence of tie Secret ary
of' State with itle I'ernvian elarge dl'af
faires relative to the Lobos Islands was
coanmnicated to C ongress towards t he
('los! of' the last session. Since that
tiiiie, on forther investigatiin of the
subject, tile doubitihts which had beeni en
tertainied of tle title of' Peru to those
islands have been removed; and I have
devined it jist that the teiti 1inrary
w roinig which had been uni ntenitiotinal ly
ote her soverigny.
I have th lie atisthetion to iiifi'rm Von
that, tle eourse pursuti sed b1y Peru has
been creditable to the liberality if' her
governiment. BetZre it was known by
her that her title woild be acknowledg
ed at Washington, her Minister t'l
1' 1reiri Atlhirs has antiorized ouir
cha rge d'a ll'ir's to Laina to annmi uoin'e
to le Amcrican vessels which had
goine to the Lob~os ihru guano, that lie
Il'eruiviani go vern irent was willing to
f'ri-eit thlemn ont its owii accotuit. This
intent ion hiais b een carried itto effecct
by the Peruivian Minister her'e, by an
arrangemteint w hiieb is bel ievetd to be
adv1 anta:igeioits to thle p art ies in iinte(rest.
Ouri settlei.itents (on t he shores of' the
Pavifle hav~e ailready given a great ex
tetnsion, aniid s(omte resliects a new di
i'e'tiuii. toa otttut omm'ee in that o'ceani.
A direct and rapiily incr'easingm inter
coturse has spr'nig ump wvith Eaistei'n
Asia. TIhie waiter's of' the Niortheri'n Pa
cillie, even into thle A reiei sca, hav'e of'
hatte year's been f'requteinteid lby i ur
whlalem eit. Th'le aplic at ion of' st earnii
mnakes it desiiralie to obataiin f'heh anid
oithleri iieiessary isupli es a t convulen t
pints on I he route bet ween Asia oni1
our inlI'ac'ilie shores. Ournt unifor'ttnat e
countryv ment wh'o f roiin t imie to time fU
sil-r shtipwr'ck on thle coasts of the
cai'terni seats arie eniiitlIed to proite(ctiont.
lBesidecs thlese' specific objects, the gent
eraml prospiity of ur States on the'
I'amcif'ic rirei ts that an aittemt should
lie iinadie to open the oilplosite tetriins
of' Asia to a i mutunally bieneficial in tei'
c''oarsie. It is obiviious tha t this atternpt
could lie imaide by nii powver tii so greatj
adlvanitaige as hay the I 'nit ed States.I
whoi se coniisti tut iionai sy stem excludites
every~ ide'a of' dist atut colmni al depien
I have accordiingly 1beent led to oridei'
an approprniatte nav~ail fthree to .Ja ani,
underi the ciomiinianl if' a diser'cet anid
inttelligeit cflic'er of' lie highest ratrk
kniwn to otir sernvice. lie is instrutet
ed to endalavor' to iobtain fromn thea giuv
C'ierinet of thlat. (outrltv soime relaxa
tioni uit thle inihoispitable 'and aniti-social
sy stemi whIich'l it b.sa ptursiued fire ablot'
Swo centu0rie.'. .lle hats b een directedi
p aiit icilarlyi) to i'emonsti'ate ini the
strin' igist lan gumage alga ainst the ci'iel
treat mnt ti whIich ouri shi pw~re'ked
main eins live often bieeni subiject ed, and
tio insist that t hey shall lie treatedl withI
liiinanaity. Ile is intstruetetd however
alt the saime tite to g'ive thiait goaven
iaie'nt the aimpIest aissuirance that the
iib jects oif thle Uniit ed States aire such
andh such'l onlyv as I haave indicaxted, anid
thait, ihie expeditioni is f'riendhly anoi~
peiaceflul. Not wit ht.'taninig thie jeilousy
wit h whIichi thle goverl nients of' Fasterin
Asia regardni all overttures friomt foreignt
er's, I am niiot. wi tihout hiepes of a beine
fial~ resulIt of' theit expeditioan. Shouln d
it be crowi~neds withI sticcess, the ad vain
tge~s will not be coiifined to thme Ui
ted States, btut, as in thle ease of'Chiinat,
will lie equally enjiyed lby aill the oth-n
er' mtarnitiime powers. I have' muchi'I
sat isfhaetion in stating theat ini atll the
st ep s parep~arator'y to this exphedlit ion
lie G~over mtenit oif' thle UnmitIed States
has baeen moater'ially3 aidedl lby the good
ofllicers of' thle Kinag of' thle Nether'ilands,
lie (on1'ly'European power't hatvinag any
e'coiinioureiad relattin with Jitai
In passing fron the survey of' our
foreign relations, I invite the attention
of Congre-s to the condition of that de
partment of* the Government to which
this branch of tle public business is
entrusted. Our intercourse with for.
eign powers has of late years greatly
increased, both I COI)SC(luence of our
owln growth an the introduction of
Iany new States into the fIanily of na
tions. In this way the Department of
State has become overburdened. It
has, by the recent establishment of the
Department of'*he Interior, been re
lieved of some portion of the domestic
business. If'the residue of the business
of* that kind, such as the distribution of
Congressional d6cuments, the keeping,
publishing and distribution of the laws
of the ,Uited Suites, the execution of
the copyright law, the subject of re
prieves and pardons, and some other
subjects relating to inferior administ ra
tioli, should be transferred romi the
Department of State, it would in
questioiably be f'oi the benefit of pub
lie service. I would also suggest that
the building appropriated to the State
Department is not fire pli that there
is reason to think there are defects in
its construction, mid that the achives
of' the Governniient inl ebarge of' the
Department, witi the Ireciouns collee
tions of the nalluseript p:pers of'
Washinigton, Jeffeison, llamilton,
Madison, and Monroo, are exposed to
destruction by fire. A similar riemnark
may be made of the buildings appro
priated to the War and Navy Depart
It has been the uniform policy of
this governent from its f'oundation
to the present. divy, to abstaill from all
interference in the donestic allihirs of'
other nations. The consequence has
been tlIt while the nations of Europe
have been engaged in desolating wars,
our countr- has pursued its peacefitll
course to unex:tIpled prosperity and
happiniess. The Wars ill wihil we
have beei compelled to engage, in de
fI'ice of th rights and ho 'nor of the
c:)nlltry, have 'been f'ortunatelv of short
diration. During the terrific contest
of nat ion againt nation, which sue
eceded tihe French revolutioi, we
were enabled by the wisdom and firm
ness of President Washington to
maintain our neutralitv. While oth
er nations were drawn into this wide
sweeping whirlpool, we sat riuiet and
un mved upon our u a-n shores.
'While the flower of' their nmnerous
armies was wasted by disease or per.
iied by hundreds of' thousanids upon
the battle-field, the Youth of this favor
ed land were pernitted to enjoy the
blessinlgs of peace beneath the itern
a1 ro< f Wh'le theStates of Europe
iicurred enormous debts, under tle
burden of which their subjects still
groain, and which must absor b no small
p. art of tle produlct of' tle hollest intdus
try of those comitries fir generations
to come, the Lited States have once
been enabled to exhibit tile prolnd
sp~enle-rvfnation fiee from j1 public
debt: and if' peinitted to purisue (r
prosperslois wAiy lihr' a fLw years I lolger'
ill peace, we may.iv do tile salie agail.
Iblit it is now said by some t hat tis
pol icy~ muist bwellchangedl. Europe is
no longerrei separtate'd f'rotn us byv a voy
age of iilonlths, but stea ncii avigration
has brought her within a few days' sail
of our shto res. Wec see Inure of' her
inoveinents Iitd take a deeper Initerest
to hi'r c"enlt roversiies.
A I ltug no one proiposes that we
sho uhll joinl the fraternity ui of oentates
who havec for ages Iavishted thle blood
and t reasure' of thiri sub jctls ill min-it
I ailinig *the bialanie of~ power' vet it is
said tt we ouight to intterfer'e betweeii
'otenciding sovereigns aind their sub.i
'fects i'hr theprpstf vrhrwn
th onrebies '''f't Erop andmi estab-'
ttin'. it is alleged that we hiave
hieret iqre( puirsued a d ifi'eren t cou rse
Irini at senlse f ur 'ii wveakness, but that
c'hal-.'e of' p'olicy, and t hat it is coinse
quety ivour duity to Illingle inl these
conlit ests and~ 'iid thiose whomi are str'ug-t
(ius atppeal to thle gieerouls sy ilpaithliles
iof treemilen. IEnjoingii' as we d (o the
blhessinigs of' a free g ioernmenl't, iher'e
IiIno in~i whio has an1 A micani heai't
that woulId not r'ejoice to see thiese
blessings~ extended to all other nations.
We calnnoit witniess thet sI tuggle be.
tweenl Ithe oippre'ssed and is ippressor'
allyvwhere wtit hout thle deepest symllpa
thy the1 the f irmr. and~ the most anix
iOuis dlesir ihrlii his tium111ph. Never
lteless, is it prudenit, or. is it wise to iin
vol vv i'irse'lves iii these f'oreigni warsf
Is it indeced t rue that we hav'e hieret o
ti re refriiiedl friti ding so) iierely
frioim tihe detgr'aing~ 1110iv VO 1 it(oil
sci' nis wea'IkneCs'
Yor' the honor' of' the pattrioits whoc
hiaive gonle b'ufore u1s, 1 cannliot admlit it.
Mein of the Illevoilult ion who dreiw t he
sword algain st. the oppriiessionuls of' thle
eni 't hir Iive's, t hir lotunes11, anld t heir
sacr'ed hlonliri to Imailnini thiri free
lby so iiuiothiy a motive. TIhey' kiiew
no1 weaik ness or f'ear w here righlt or' dut
ty poiinlted tile way, and it is a libel
upon01 the' iir fhiiion f'or usx, while we
eiijoy thle bllessings f ir which thley so
noly fbugIht aiid blled, to) insinate it.
The ltuth is thatt thle coursei which
they' pur~sued walis (,ictate.d by ai stern
sense of t internaiitionail just ice, biy It
statesmanicl ike pru'tdence anld a far-see
ing w isdo m, looik ing no(t iiierely to
the. present necessit ies, but, to the per
Inailt saftlty and1( intecrest of' lie
00oun1try. TIhey kiiew that th~e world
is goveined less biy syi~mathly than by
rea~soni and1( foree; thai~t it watS not pol)ssi
Ible iihr this nation to biecome a 'piropta
ganidist' of free pinlciples wit houtt Iar
r'ayinag against it, the comllbinetd powe~'rs
of ELiuop; an~d flint the i'esult was
rnore likely to lie tile over'thriow (if re
puib lic'an lIberty here thanl its establish
History hias beck: wri ten iii vain
fur those who can doubt this. France
had no sooner established a republican
form of government-than she manifest
ed a desire to fCrce its blessings on all
the world. Her own historian informs
us that, hearing of some petty acts of
tyranny in a neighboring principality,
'The National Convention declared
that she would aflord succor and fra
ternity to all nations who wished to
recover their liberty; and site gave it
im charge to the executive power to
give orders to the generals of the
French armies to aid all citizens who
might have been or should be oppress
ed in the cause of liherty.'
.lere was the false step which led
to her subsequent misfortunes. She
soon found herself involved in war
with all the rest of Europe. In less
than ten years her government was
changed from a republic to an empire;
and finally after shedding rivers of
blood, fbreign powers restored her ex
iled dynasty, and exhausted Europe
sought peace and repose in the unques
tioned aseenlaney of monarchical prin
eiples. Let us learn wisdom from her
exitmple. Let its remember that revo.
litions do not always establlisli free
dom. Our own free institutions were
not the offspring of our Rlevolution.
They existed befbre. They were
planted in the free charters of self-gov
ernment ider which the English dol
onies grew up, and our Revolution on
ly freed us froimi the domtinion ofoa ir
eigni power, whose government was at
variance with those institutions. Bit
EuropiCan nations have had no such
training fih r self'government, and every
effort to establish it by bloody
revolutions has ieen. and must, with
out that preparation, continue to be a
fiiilire. Liberty, unregulated by law,
degetterates into anareby, which Sool
becoies the most. horrid of all despot
isms. Our policy is wisely to govern
urtiselves, ant1d thercby to set such an
example of national jtst ice. prosperity,
and trie glory, as shall teah to all n'
tions the blessings of selffgoverment.
and the niupralleled enterprise and
siccess of a free people.
We live it an age of progres. and
ours is emphaitically a couitry of pro
gress. Withiin the last lialfcentury,
the tinuber of Statcs in this Union has
nearly doubled, the population is ali
most tladrupled, ait( our boundaries
have been extended from the Missip
pi to the Pacilie. Our territory is
cieltered over with r ailroads, itd
fut rroed with canals. The inventive
taletill ofour contiry is excited to tile
highest pitch. and "tile inumerouts ap
pl ications ir patentls fir valuable im
provenments distinguish this age and
this people from all others.
Tie gentius of one A mnerican has en
abled ourt cotnmiterce to iore gailst
wind and tiide, amid that of anlther has
annihibit ed distuntee itt the tratnstiissioi
of iitelligettee. The wirile conlitry is
fCll oIf'etnterprise. Out- conmton sclim'Is
are diliasing intelligence annog the
pieople, aiid our hidtistry is fist accu
nulating the coimif'rts anid luxuries of
This is in part owi ng to out' peculhiatr
posi tloll, to outr fecrtile soil, anid
comnparat ively sparse popiulationi; bit
muchel of it. is also owingr to the
popu'tlar inistittions untder which
we live, to the f'reedotm which evety
lmit fe.els to engage in anyt~ usef'ill
iusiti. acco rdinig to his taste ori in
elintat iona, and to thle etiire conuidence
thiat. his per'sonl antd Iprop er'ty will lie
1pro tcted lby thle laws. Bunt w hate ier
miy b~v e thle cause5 of this unitpitralleol
ed grow thI ini popuilatoitn, itfell igence,
aini wveal tha, one thIinig is cheat-, thiat
lie Goavernmaiet nt must heap pace with
the progress ot the peopthle.
It mutst. pairticipate itt thIeir spirit oif
eterp rise, and wiuleI it exacts obe
d iece toi the lawvs, an d rest rains aill itn
athiz iied inva':sioins of' lie tights of
ne(iglhboarinig St at es, it sinoutld fa str anid
piroftelt~ htile inidiustryv, and lenid its
powevtrluIl strtenigthi to t4te itinprove.
metit of such mnilts oif inter'commniiica.
t its are necet'sary to iJiroitmte out'
internatl contneree, antd strenigthlen thle
tics which binid yis together ats a peo
It kistot st range, however muchel it
may~t be regretted. that such ant exub
erantce of' eiterpr'ise should cause some
individuals to misltkc change ihr
progress, aind the inva'isioni of the
tights of others, tfor ntiohnal prow
ess and gloiry. The tformier are cont
statil y agi tat ing for somte chiange in
lhe organtic law, or urtging new and1(
utridt heI iories of'li huan rights.- The
lat ter ate ever readyv to engage in
atny wild erutsade againtst a nteiglhor
ng peoleI, regard less of' the just ice of
the eni terp rise, and withlouit look ing at
the intal coni.'cquences to ourselves anid
to thle cause ofI poplalr government.
Such expe'dit ions, hoever, are of
tell stimuhitlited hby nliereei'nr indiv.id
uinus, whoi exp)ect to shartie thle profit or'
plunder' of' the cetrprise without ex
posintg themselves to dantger, and
are'i led oni by sonie irreplnsible for.
ci'gner, who abuises tihe hoespitiali ty oi
our own Go'vermniet.t by seducing fthe
yo'ug anid ignoerant to joint m his
schemei i of per'sontal amiitioni or' re
venge, undt~er the fiulse anud delusive pre
tence of' exteinitg the ar'ea of freedom.
These reprehtensible aggressions but.
retaird thle trz'ue prgrs of ohur nation
and( tarnish its iir flme T1hiey should,
thierefore, receivye the inidignanit froiwnis
of' every goodl citizen who sinicer'ely
loves his coutriy and taikes a pr'ide in
its prosperi ty and1( honior.
Ouir Conistituttioni, thiongh not per
fect, is doubt)1less the best, that ever was
forimed. Th'lerefbre let every proposi
tien to chtange it be well weighled, and
if' f'bund benteliciail. cauttiouisly adopted.
Every patriot, will r'ejoice to see its au
thor'it~y so exer'tedl as to adv~anice the
prosperity andio honor of the n'ition,
whilst lie will watch with jealousy any
attempt to mtiutilate this charter ofotur
liberties, or pervert its powers to acets
of asmressionl or injui'ti.'e.
Thus shall conservatii and pr
gress blend their harmonious action in
preservhig the form and spirit ofthe
Constitution, and at the same time car
ry forward the great improvements of
tile country with'a rapidity and ener
gy which fre6nen only ein display.
In closing this, my last annual com
munication, permit me, fellow-citizens,
to congratulate you on the. prosperous
condition of our beloved country.
Abroad its relations with all our fi
eign powers are friendly; its rights are
respected, and its high place in the
fimily of nations cheerfully recogniz
ed. At home we enjoy an amount of
happiness, public and private, which
has probably never fallen to the lot of
any other people. Besides affording
to our own citizens a degree of pros
perity, of which on so large a scale I
know of no other instance, our coun
try is annually affording a refige and
a home to multitudes, altogether with
ont example, from the Old World.
We owe these blessings, under
Hleaven, th the happy Constitution
and Government which were bequeath.
ed to is by our lithers, and which it is
our siacred duty to transmit iii all their
integrity to our children. We must
all cnisider it a great distinction and
privilege to have b)een chosen by
the people to bear a par t in the admin
istrati. n of such a Government. Called
by an unIexpected dispensation to
its highest trust, at a season of embar
rassment and alarm. I entered upon
its arduous (uties with extreme dif
fidence. I claim only to have dis
charged them to the best of an hum
ble ability, with a single eve to the
public good; and it is with devout grat
itude, in retiring from oflice, that
I leave the country in a state of
peace and prosperity.
Washington, Decembcr 6, 1852.
TilE MITEi BINNEI.
Sumterville, So. Ca.
JOHN T. GREEN, EDITr.
TUESDAY, DECEMBER 14, 1852.
Ejp TIhe proceedings of' the A_
cultural Association will be published
in our next.
CHAR.EsToN, Dcc. 131b, 1852.
COT.'UN.-The market on Satnr
day remained unchanged. Near 1000
bales sold at from 8 a 9 5-8-the bulk
of the sIles ranging from 8 3-4 a 9 1-2
ol. Thssa M aker.
By a receit clectionlour, friend
M.JoI T. NI. BAxKU, has beeni jpro
moted to the Colonelcy of the 5th
I siment of South Carolina Cavalry.
A Lett'er-oflcur; nd more'-liurolgIr
gentlemen could not have been chosen
to fill the post, of honor.
Elcciaoaa on tlov'eraaor.
OIn Thursday last an election was
held for Governor of South Carolina,
whieb wi ith great unainimIity resulted
in the cho'ice of the Hos. Jouix L.
The ceremon y of' inaugurat ion took
plaec on Alonday.
J. II. lunv was elected Lieutenant
Gov. on the first ballot.
Eiectiona s'or Law .Baadge.
On Wednesday last the hlos. T.
WV. G1.ovER Clerk of' the house, Was
elected Law Judge rice los. ., J.
II. C. Yot-so.3
Wilnaiagtes and asaclaester
R. R. Comauy.
F~romi a recent rep~ort of the aflhirs
of' this Company which wvas laid lie
fore the Lecgislature by its able Presi
dent we are supplied with much valua
ble information as to thme progress of'
At the western cnd (of the road the
Comipnnv ~iave inl oplerationi forty sev
en miles of' track, ruinning from the
Camden Brainch to within eighteen
miiles of' the Great Pee Dee. On this
eighteen miles the grading is finished,
the timbuer delivered and the bridge
constructed and in readiness for the
tr'ack, which would have been long
since complected but for the wvant of
the iron, wvhich has been in Charleston,
awvaiting transportation for some
mnonthsz. The South C'arolina Rlail
Road Company had contracted for the
delivery of the iron but have not dleliv
ered any) to the road since the Congaree
bridge was swvept away by the August
he tr-estle work up)on the Great
Pee Dee Swvamp has been contracted
for and will b~e commenced in a fewv
days, mind the bridge across the Pee
dee, which will be constructed upon
cast iron piles will sCon be begun.
On the eastern enld of the road, the
wvork has advanced with equal or great
er rapidity. From the Wilmington
terminus thirty' eight miles are alread~y
completed antd in full operation mnak
ing tihe aggregate eighty-five miles of
'The Company have been losers to a
serious extent by the remissness wviih
which iron for the t rack hat bet-n do.
IiverC(J, 14 thM~tt
Road Comupn . I$diedt~I
ed by freight orolsa ir e
eient in the means of traiO"rtd #
I'e learni that cottoni hiis h.: r
to accumulate at various , s4ion id
many ofthe planters of this Disrie )
hauling their cotton, in %fag'ot
miles to market rather than rsk
the slow movements ofthe outh rp
lina Rail Road Company.'
Legisla Ive Itenid.
g=r- The bill providing h04 t. JI
municipal elections of Charleston shall
take place biennially instead of an'i'aI
ly has passed the legislaturei"
gg- The Bill to divide Pendleton
into two election Districts has passed
L-7- The report for redistricting
the state (which adds Lancaster toif
Congrssional District) was agreed to.
g--f All further action upon tia
several Bills giving the election of
Electors for President and vice Prcsif
dent to the people has )cen postponed
until the next meeting of the Legisla.
lBeware of Oyster.
Five deaths occurred last week ill
Columbus, Ga., from Cholera Morbus
caused by eating bad Oysters. Sever.
al cases of severe illness from the
same cause have come under our own
observation during the present season.
When Oysters are fresh and in season
they mainy be eaten with perfect impu
lity; lut when brought to market'too
early in the season or in an unsound
state it is dangerous to indulge in
The Editor of the Southern Stan
dard. writing from Columbia, pass theo
following Merited coinpliment to the
efiieit Chairman of the Committee
"Col. Ashmore, of the Committe on
Claims, is the thorough business man
of the flouse, and makes most rap
id work. H1aving a clear and remark
ably quick mind, and being well ac.
quainted with the laws which provide
for the payment of services rendered
to the State, lie very soon decides the
fate of numerous appliuants, who, with-'
out rhyme or reason, come here cx
pectinag a drop or two from the pub.:
REVOLUTION IN iYMEXICOi
BA TTLE OF SONORA.
CITY OF VICTORIA CA PrURE-D;
Tassaplco Expect lung aa Attacks
Futer Successes of the Insurgents.
Nnw ORREANs, Dec. 4.-The sechond
er Mary Ellen, from Tamupico,. 26tir
ultimo, has arrived at this port. She
brings informationi that excitement ex.'
istedl in consequence of a formidable
revolution which had brokeni out in
the State of'Tamaulipas. The cit v of
Victoria, the capital of the State,'had
been c'aptuared by the revolutionists,.
wowere hourly expected to attack
New ' Orleans, D)ec. 5.--9 P. M.
TOe D~el/ti haas dates from the City of
Mexico to the 10th ult.. which - an
nounce that all the Tehauntepec pro.
Ipositions are to be published, and their'
decision left to Congress.
Accounts from Sonora report' that
C.ouana D)e Boulhou had rebelled, and
thait a battle had been fought with the
governmient troops under General
Blanco, in which the latter were def'eat4
The state oaf Aguas Calientes, had
pronounced ini favor of the plan of
G andlalagara, and cent ributed large
qIuntities of arims to the revolution
The anthoutrjies of' Orizabai were
treating with the in~rgentsaat. Vera
At Mazatlan twvo vessels of wvar,
which were sent from Acapulo to
blockade the port, hiad joined the in.
Conventions, of Editors, Publishers &C,
The Convention met on WVednes,
day, December 1st., 1852, at the Fire..
The Convention was called to or.
der, lby requesting P. M. Wallace, of
the Carolina Spartan, to take the
Chair, and appointing RI. M. Stokes, of
the Laurensville Iherald, Secretary.
The fllowing gentlemen represen
ted the Journals opposite their names:
P. M. WVallace, Carolina Spartan.
R. A. McKnight, Unionville Jourri
E II. Britton, Fairfield Herald.
J1. [1. No, wood, Darlington Flag,
TP. J. W\arren, Camden Journal.
A. A. Gilbert, Sumter Watchman.
.1. R. Gossett, Mountaineer.
T. J1. Ecec, Yorkville Remedy.
J1. II. Giles, Newvberry Senatiniel.
R. S. Bailey, Lancaster Ledger.
W. RI. Taber, jr., Charleston Mer
S. A. Godmnan, Faimily Friend.
C. HI. Allen, A bbeville Banner.
B. C. Pressly', Sontheirn Standard.
J. A. Bonner, Due WVest Teleser p6. 1-.
W. B. Johnston, South Canrolianiati.
A. T1. Cavis, do.
RI. W. Gibbes, Pahnetto State Ban..
W. TI. Carlisle, FTx Ed. Tieleijrabi,