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The Sumter banner. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1846-1855, February 15, 1854, Image 1

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DEVOTED TO SOUTHERN RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY, NEWS, LIT RA A A RIClMR hEDAN HAT
W. J. FRANCIS, PROPRIETOR. Cur TERS-e iN A .YA
VOL. VIIL. S UIMTERVILLIE, S. C... JUARY .5 185'.9
THE SUMTER BANNER,
IS PUBLISIIED
Every Wednesday iXorning
- BY W. J. FRANCIS.
TER IS,
TWO DOLLARS in advance, Two Dollars
and Fifty Cents at the expiration of six months
or. Three Dollars at the end of the year.
N. paper discontinued until all arrearages
are rAta, unless at the option of the Proprietor.
3W" Advertisements inserted at SEVENTY
FIV' Cents' per square, (l2 lines or less,) for
the first, and half that sum for each subsequent
insertion, (Official advertisements the same
each time).
SS The number of insertions to be marked
on all Advertisements or they will be published
satil ordered to be discontinued, and charged
' DOLLA R per square for a single
Insertion. Quarterly and Monthly Advertise
mants wilr be charged the same as a single in.
sartien, and semi-monthly the same as new ones
lifMejr B. F. Perry's Cr Nism
UPON
Mr. Taber's Address
It is with extreme reluctance that
we again recur to this Address. No
thing -hut a deep sense of duty to our
self could induce us to do so.
The attempt has been made, in va
rious sections of the State, to produce
the impression that we fitlsely reported
the purport and substance of Mr. Ta.
ber's speech, and, moreover, that we
did so maliciously, and for political
purposes! It is to meet an expose
these calunrious charges that we now
address the public.
So far from having any malice a
gainst Mr. Taber, we did entertain the
kindest feelings for him, and respect
ed and admired him as a young gen.
tleman of talents and promise. All our
intercourse had been respectful and
civil. We can say it was, on our
part, kind and cordial. Mr. Tahor
did us the honor to consult us as to the
propriety of his delivering his Address
at the College Conmencement. We
suggested to him what appeared to
us the proper course for him to pur
sue. He thanked us for our s'igges.
tious, and, we hlieve, adopted thelm.
The next day he advised with us again,
on the same subject.
We went to hear hint, not to cen
sure him, but to praise him. IHis
graduating speech had fiiled our mind
with delight, and we had spoken of it
in terms of unqualified adiiration.
But we cannot express the astonish.
ment and 'ruortifiottion which we felt
at the conclusion of Mr. Tabor's re.
cent Address. We were shocked to
hear such sentiments at the followinp
(which are ext-racted from his ackno'wl.
edged, printed Address) uttered hv
a highly gifted young man, whose
talents and gentlemanly bearing we
had praised and admired: "But this
reading and writing system is not only
not productive of public virtue, bu:
tends directly to a mental demoraliza.
lion, no less fatal to republica nism,
than licentiousness and vice!l" ".
need not enter into an elaborate argu.
meat to show that the bare knowledtg
of reading and writing constitute, is
no true sense, an educatin." "In New
England, wuhre we are told thi.s sys
tem has been eminently successful
where reading and writing are taugin
to all-crime, vice, and infidelity are
progressing in a fearfud ratio? " While
the South reviled, because she hesitates
to adopt and establish this meagre, in.
sufficient and unsatisdetoiry system
pubtit education, enjoys com parativt
.and unexampled immunity from all!'
" By/far the larger portion of those whc
attend the Common School. come fron
the lap of/poverty and toil!" * *e
The tastes, the occupations-the oppor.
a'unite-of/these, cannot be intellectual
With the first light of morning theb
go forth .to 'heir hwmest labor, and as
early eve sink exhausted to theii
.couches! What time is spared then\
fur bookaP" "By the operation oi
immutable laws, which neither the
violence of' revolution nor the efforts o
reform can eflfect, society everywherE
is split into the extreme divisions og
uealth and leisure, poverty and depend
ene"* * * " The life of thi
latter is of necessity menial, and in
communites where they do not fall un
-der.a superior race, they constitute thai
turbulent, corrupt-pauper host whicA
loom, in such fearful darkness over Eu
ropean society.- Is such a class fit fox
self-government?'P "When she (thi
State) does -educate, let her educate e]
ficiently," &c. &c.
We were mortified to hear snel
sentiments and teachings pronounced
In the very temuple of learnmng itself
*n~ho pgkenee of the learned Faculty
.of a State College, the rustees of thai
* insitituit~in, before thex Senators an'
4 ~ pesetadves of a democratio andc
roeubllcan people, and In the hearin
n ix an assembled nmltitudex or that peo
ple themnselveal Trhis, all this, too, as
JDr. Litsbo says, "'n the middle of th<
nieten% oeturmy!!'' We thought
then, a~nd we still think, that such sen
timent., littered at such a time, in such
a place, before such an audience meri
tad 'the rebuke of' a free and indepen
d..nt nre. Rut inal ..f ..tn... ..
such rebuke, the speech itself was
lauded and complimented by the press
of the State. I t is true, in some in
stances, there was an intimation that
the views expressed by the orator, on
the subject of popular education, were
not in accordance with the notikns of
the editor on that subject!
We knew- full well that, by the
criticism which we made of Mr. Ta
her's Address in the Southern Patriot,
we should incur his displeasure, and
the displeasure of his friends, and
bring down upon our head the penalty
of indignant vengeance. But such con
siderations have never yet caused us to
swerve from the line of duty, howev
er much we may regret their conse
quences. We believed, too, at the
time we penned that criticism, that
there were. many in South Carolina
who secretly entertained the sane
views with Mr. Taber in regard to the
inutility of Common. Schools, the in
practicability of the States educating
the rnasves of the people, and the
high necessity of her educating a class
thoroughly, on whom the others are
to be dependent for instruction and
teachings in politics, religion and mor
als, as was the case in the Athenian
aristocratic oligarchy. -These gen.
tiemen believe, too, that "a pure dem
ocracy is the worst form of tyranny."
As to the truthfulness of our version
of Mr. Taber's Address, we have the
testimony of Judge O'Neall and Dr.
Lieber. Professor Reynolds and Dr.
Thornwell assign good reasons for
their's not being so pointed and
clear. These four gentlemen only,
were written to by us before the pub
lication of Mr. Taber's Address, and
for the purpose of having their remem.
brance of it. Each one of them shall
-peak far linmsef.
It will be remembered that Mr. Ta.
her, in resenting our remia: ks on his
Address, made no issuie with us in re
gard to their truth. He published our
correspondence with the oink.,ive crit.
icism, but. said nothing as to the cor
reatniiess or incorr'ectn(ess the I ch: Lriti
cisrn. We do ntI. recoize t he Hb
lished Address, in all respectes, as the
speech we leaird in the Col lege Chap
el. Some exprosi:ns a;rte added, in
exp!lanation, ai Mir. Taber states ini
his card. Some arte left out 'ljch we
romeniber, and others are mo difiel
:and softened in their Ioi;mg tae;. F'or in
stince, in the. Address as spoken, the
orator stated, in allusion to the ingrmt
itude of ::ncient. republics, that tle
State of Suiitlh Carolina had covered
herself in black disgrace or ingratitude,
but that he would not sav what. it was!
We Pfid no such expres-ior or allusion
in the published Address.
Knowing that Mr. Taber had had
five years to prepare this Addhress, andI
seeing a huge mianiscriit bfoire him.
the pages Of wI cl I turned over ,.=
he pok,, we took it fir granted that
every word cUtered was wl'tr!uln down.
The(re wa:1'is snimething. t(,:, in: the: numl
ner ot d.-ivery, 'hici icc1twiE'l ti- to
suppoi. the Addn-rs was iioinfirizeid.
But. Mr. Taber says, in one oi hi
rards, le 'coui! ,. imring initi qu
tiolin the truth or justi e of ti r -rit
CisI." Uptoin s5 ani :,: e we igh:
have de.mad:. I he pc bl:at Own of his
Addlrress p recisely as it was0 de liverti.
A riqui.-itioni wh ', i - ii c Iu i . t'~:m
ply with for tho re: n at: d in bi
card of the 1ith uIt., that it.wpm- lasti
ly prepared ini the imiidst of ncneronis
pressing engagements-that a crude
mantuscript was his only guide on the
occasioin, anid that in some parts he
spoke entirely, without noteLs!!
But, we now take the A ddress. as it
been corrected and written out by Mr.
Tabier, as the batsis of discussion, in
the language of' Dr. Lieber. 'We will
see how far the correctness of our re
port of the address is sustained by its
language as published in all the news
papers of' the State. Our purpose is
to anftdyze the speech and give extracts
from it. We would gladly publish
thme wvhole, but it would take too mutch
ofour space, and hias been already
seen by almost every one. As we
proeed we will analyze our owna criti
cism, and apply it to the extracts we
give from Mr. Tfaber's Address.
First in order, as we shall notice our
charges, is the following, in reference
to the Common Schools. W e say:
"lHe opposed the common school system,
and denounced them a.- mischiveou~s."
Did Mr. Taber do thi~s? We give
the following extracts from his A ddress
as published and revised by himself.
It they do not sustain the truth of our
assertion, we are incapable of under
standim.g the English language:
" Assuming that a republic depends
for permanency upon the morality of
the pieople, and that intellectual culti
vation is a means to that end, there
has heen established, in some of the
States of this Union, what is termed a
Common School system, the range of
which is reading and writIng, with a
few rudiments.
" Now, the first and futndamnental
error in this system appears to be, in
the imnlied assumntinn tha erean
and writing either in themselves con
stitute an education, or that the ma
jority of those thus taught avail them
salves of it, as a starting point for
future cultivation. I need not enter
into an elaborate argument to show
that the bare knowledge of reading and
writing conptitutes in no true sense a
education. It hertainly eannbt 6fitseyg
make a better man or a better citizem'
* * * * * .
"But gain,"Does this system, well
nigh barren as it, is of intellectual fruit,
cherish morals and instil virtue?
If it does not, the very objects for
which it is instituted, the promotion
of public virtue, as essential to repub
licanisn, are defeated. There is the
test, and the common school system
must stand or Ihil by it.
"Now, let its adnit, ,ir the sake of
argument, that this svstent does edit.
cate intellectually, it may well be
doubted whether it even then promotes
morals. Indeed, although at the first
glance there would seem to be direct
connection between intclleetnal en
lightenment and virture, that the light
whi.h kindles 1113 mind should also
penetrate the. heart; yet history is full
ofexamples of the highest illumination
of the one, linked with the deepest de
pravity of the other.
* * * * * *
" But. what is the state of morals
where this system prevails ' In Pru.
sia, whose boast is the enlightenment
of her people, crime and vice are great
ly on the increase. In france, where
the L'rnssiain system has been adopted
they exhibit no diminution. In the
United States there is still a sadder
tale. In New England, where we are
told this system has been eminently
successful, where reading and writing
are t atught to all, erime, vice and infi
dl iy e pa' -r:Ce.sintg in a felarfi
ratio. It is atimj-t.-d to explain this
h the i!! l -e u:f emiaigrtio n. Rat
the stti-d t h -w the inci.'., to be
indepen (:,nt ofit. .Vhile the South
rev iled, because she hesitates to adopt
and t: &alisha this ma gv: at::t. instuliielent
asal nait'-, tery systemnt alf puic:
deion, Cnjoy: cuift sar.ti ve anid un
exanlnl i onaon-ity from'(1 all.
"Put i,- rirn -uing; a: eriting
systcem is iwt onl r ot ;rc'luctiee ofJ
public 'irt's, but tilsL; directly to a
menCt ~l mra qlizton, no less, ttal to
)ru lic.ani st., thm I ti '.-me.s'cs's and
vice."
We stated, lso, in the second
phate, as w\'l' have ::a,,rnId our aloig' 1.
tion', tha "t In o(rdr t' .how the 9is
chfit ofJ C.ductln amongst the maP:sc.,
he apperde.l -, the oritern Ste t's."
a n-f, rene to this rua e-r. ' et: gIu ve
the ft1ollo ing: ext.r a's, wh:!.:h fully1
j :utify the a-sert .in rhat 1u Ta'
regza:ril the dcihii-:in u of rea'ing and
wa iting ai inli11h t 1vn, and- .ua ihat
the fi ,! f thil edt .ucat iona wal full
de pe~ the- .Nor*:o Sus
- Ou h I ,"- N,,1o i'I writn tle t
is a:.)t (n'y i r l ,I.I i r:\e " ubli'
do'i )rilization, r: , ietas t&.ai to republi
,,:inisint. thanI licet,:aio'usness and v"i:-l.
I'lae th- y i i nI:, le-r a t uiti oi
lik t iwhere no f.'a I prin'ip inl
Sanaioratals 'r tl;iita tauaghat., wh r
p I is 4-iIal-: i'A,~-~ ',1 \l.ill
t,-w d1ogma', at w etre evea-I 1.
r''\\w trl 'a:hing ei-a'e5 at, the very mit
M Wi '.\!aW :l tilt h 1111+1 i-i iawake- \ ;lh in
quiry and speculitiol--th.ni tiraa it out,
to pastuare in the ' un weeded garden,'
whlich a licentious P-ress haas lenitedl,
aund whaat is the result ? ana it, sur
prise us that sucha a mind, vain be-cause
of its mecagre learninag, aaot yet subldued
inito thtat, beautifual humility whicmh, sc
cording to lBacon, ta uae-knowledge fos
ters, shaouald at on1ce launch into wild
specifieatons ? Need we 'wonder that
thse ntrment tla entrusted to unskil
.ful hands, should lie used, not to prune,
but to destroy ? Or that a mind so pre
pared, should ait once jall a victim to
specious fallacies, and mad theories :
that it should1( greedily aibsorb the light
and seduactive, and reject- the thonghful
and sob 2-erec is oneL great clue to
the r-ad of t/he North. Here is
the foun , hat torrent of ismns,
which is swal ' ~ up literature, mor
als and politics, 'and has cast upon
society agdin the buried ojfal of exploded
falsehood. The youth who leaves the
comnmona school at the North feels the
pains ..t4 authorship withain him.
Originity is his sole thought, an dthe
more extremne and radical is he. the
stronger and better his claium. Eager
publishers calcu late the success of tiae
tnew work, by its conageniality to popu1.
larideas and passiont; and forth it goes
in blue and gilt to minds as anchaorless
and weak as his owni. Entter the
citiles of the North, emiabaa k on' lar
sleamerseride on her railroaads, go into
ti& cobuntry, and every where you will
~fd the appetite of her so called read
-Tgp pbl ic, dieted on literary garbage.
*Cheap infidelity, sociailismn and v'ice, are
served up in every form to suit, the
paillates of the million.
* * * * *
"If, then, this systemfails to elevate
the people intelketuil-fit,,._ oe. ..ot
diminish vice and crimef $f atided by a
licentious Presa itfosets'inefital vanity
wild speculatio-. an. mority--f
in a word, it fals eor, ot s4 object, the
welfare of the: t li pewnale is the sys.
tem reallq co ve t that end. '
Third e stated that r. T BR
the . . oldl y_ "tliit the Ia
.' ing classes had 'to righ;t& be: edu.
cated, that the poor man had tb work,
and it Was useless for him to learn to
read and write,tthat a little education
made the people vicious and idle." In
reference to this allegation, we make
the 14)llowingtxtracts from Mr TADER'S
published AddreA which we think
have not the same strength of express
ion, harshness and point that, the orig
mal or spolke'n words had. At least
they do niot read so grating to ourl cars
as they sounded when sp ken. The
idea is the (ame: That inhor and ecdu
cation carmot go together, anid hence
the necessity ofWslavery in a Republic,
to lurnish the laboring class, and per
mit the wealt.hy and leisure class to de
vote thenseives to that thorough cdiu
cation and training which existed
anongst the Athenians. 'We think
labor aond education, the reading of
books and tl)' aequisition of kn owl.
edge, not at all incomp:tihle. Some
of the greatest and most learnred men
have been most indefatigable and in
dustrious laborers and mechanics.
"And as to the second, a word will
suice. By far the larger portion of
those who attend the common school,
cote frum the lap of poverty and toil.
They belong to that class to be found in
every condition of society, but especially
in the more wealthy and civilized whose
livelyhood is scantily had by the hard
est drudgery. From this scene they go
to the common-school, and after receiv.
ing the modicum ofnocledge there
given, thcy return when'ca they caithe, to
t->il ad strzgglc. The tastes, the oc.
cupaton,-the portysnities of these,
crr'etbe intel cc it rs
hoe'ft labor, and at early eve sin.k
eLha.ust:d to their couches. WJ'hra
t:.m is spared to thrn for books?
I comc. no-. -lstly to tli considers.
tionl of Slavery, as essential to a re.
li)iic. A-11% Caho-.un in his subhliime
iituisitiolln uen gotverrunent, fu!!y
exipose tha:. muons:trous f a!laev - of
modern otiis, that. "all peoI le ar
S-lu ally entitled tor liberty." Akin t
t, this is the errr that republicanism
t': 'est elri'gate :an: d difiieult of all
'ys!< ms, is not oary ruited to all )eoples
but tht it can ct <ntee qualift ignor
anicei and incom J)etencc. j/.)r the detie:
'nds rt:sponsibilities of self Government
Moreiover, that the rc'Lblican idea re
qui re?s that all sihoul participa:e equal
ly in it.i ic:l rights.
" Toa it the crarv is to de:.
all the l.po 'ar irmaxhnits on the sihjnet
ie! t |tis er" is ^;e bect emfp/hatically it
:iw41, in the history; of Re'publics, i
is that titp COnu tr')t prosper wher,' p:oi
tri al eut:ulit do's czist. in short, werier
suci syst'n as African slaery i
unknmu'n.
"y thr o-peration of imnmutali
laws. whieb rrnr ther violen(0c1e ,,I
rt':",hitionr nour thes etlb:rts of reform em
ti;t , socuiety every whtere is split int:
th - extremte divisions of wenith :inc
Ih'i ure-p-I. verty and dependence.
The progress of civilization does no
obliterate these lines, but tends rathe
to intecnsity and perp~etuiate them.-.
TChe life~ of t his latter is of necessitj
imetnal, and in communities where
they do nut fall, under the care of:
superior race, they constitute thait tur
bulent, corrupt., pauper host whici
looms ini such fearful darkness ove
European society. Is such a class i
for self-govearnedt? Can they exer
cise safely the rights, or fulfil the dutie
of a republie ? 'Are they not thei
the ready tools of the anarchist an<
the demagogue ?, Yet it is this clais
which modern utopianism invests witl
full political rights. T?' debar then
of the privileges of the citizen, is ti
array against society, a jealous ami
violent mass, and to admit them is t,
subject government to their radical an<
corrupt influecnce.
* * * * * *
"lThe first ob~jct of public educatloi
should (aind by pubbhc I mecan State
be to inform the people of the natuar
of their government, the rights an
duties of the citizen. Prof. Lieber, i
his admirable essay upon Anghica
anad Galican liberty, enumerates thi
among tihe duties of all free system!
We 'believe that, as regards the large
portion of the citizens, govee'rnent wil
jauil when it attemnpts more; and it es
jects results noble and grand and bem
ficenit indeed,4ohen it does this much.
Fourthlhy and lostly, we assert tht
Mr. Taber "deprecated demagogisn
and urged conservatismn, whilst usin
the mostclap-trap' arguments in faivi
of the aristocratic few, who wereo to bi
eduented, and who were to govern thi
rest of mnkind in their ignorance an
poverty." It is now admitted by M
Traber that he made the Athenian Ri
public his model where. in hiu m.
language, "Citizenship and all its cog
nate rights were enjoyed by a very
small portion of the people." "The
great mass always remained in ex
ciusion, as much so as our slaves." In
support of the. above alegations, we
make the following extracts from the
Address, and leave to the candid read
er to say whether they do not con
tain arguments in favor of the aristo
cratic few, the twenty thousand of
their ow'n race, It, must be borne in
mind, too, that only a very small por
tion of those twenty thousand were
educated, and tiey, too, were under
the control of the higher class, the edu
cated few :
"The two greatest. dangers which
beset all human governments tre the
extremes of radicalisms on the one
hand, and stagnant inactivity on the
other. Both are equally hostile to
liberty- aud civilization, just as the un.
lettered violence of the nadmian, and
the stupor ofthe oriun-eater, alike
cannot consist with; individual well
being. The tendency to either varies
greatly with the character of the ..eu
pie, and the political system-, under
which they live. With ansolute and
despotic governments, the tendency
is most intense to the latter; but with
the free and liberal, the proclivity is
equally strong towards the opposite
extreme of radicalism. In this, as in
all things else, the path of sound wis
dom lies in the happy medium which
we call conservatism.
" But in a Republic, conservatism
is t.he safeguard of the people. They
constitute the government, and they
have nothing to fear from it, but. what
they should fear from themselves.
Conservatism, therefore, protects them
against themselves. It is a great pub
lic co'science, which rebukes the snel
-rilegious thought, and unnerves the
reckless arm.
" lIridl if gsIrarg~;TI
wherever the clement of slavery does
not exist, and it has been attempted
to confer ,political equality utpoet all
we find a secton of suiety,
where history has placed them, in dan
ge. ens frllowship with the demagogue
ani usurpCr.
~c ** * .4
Su:h is the position of the North
consequcut upon the condition into
wlich the absence of all in erior race
has broutght them. The people cur.
rutpt the politicians, and are in turn
corrupted by them, until society he
comes radical, and government verges
towards anarchy.
" TTurn then to the South. S ,o what
a grand part ter menial class performs
in social nid po'litical developmnciit.
Trte, their voices are not heard in
Sdrunken shouts in our public meetings
nid tbe galleries of our Legislatture,
aceering on the demagogue. They
cannot exercise the so-called freeman's
birthright, and vote down law, proper
ty nttid God, and vote up anarchy, rub
bery and the devil. They cannotread
nor writ , and thus become no wiser, @,
no u'>rse.
"The masses of the North have ig.
nored history, and laughed to scorn
the dread warnings it utters. No ex.
travagance, however wild, dounts them
-but rehr. onward they dash, tram pling
- under foot all that is venerable, and
rioting in the stronig drink of novel tiem
and isms. Temperance reform, abo
liuion, spirit r-apping. commingled.
- "For a charm of powerful trouble,
Likt, a holi-broth,, boit and bubble."
" See how their social-fabric sways
and trembles, how religion is poison.
- ed with enibusiasm and pantheism
s how their political system totters oIt
the brink of pure democracy-that
I worst form pf tyratny; how wYotnan,
Sdespising the holy ofiees of wife and
mother, markets her modesty in pub
I lie brawls, how legislation is reckless
Sand corrttpt,'and itshalls polluted wvitt
I rowdyism almost Jacobin. lIn such a
chaos that curse .of democrics, th<
I demagogue is at home-his.nkture and
ends unchanged. Professing to egual.
* izo, ho levels downwards ; to breal
1 old chains, he forges new odies; to proc
) mote harmony, -he engenders discord
a to ad vance, he re.ards;, to love the pee
I ple, be. would . dupe and use themi.
ii Th ldud-mithed ad vocato of libert y
ii he works, zealously for anar'ohiy; an<t
s when, at Last, the people madly de
.stroy - their ancient landmarks, anid
r confiding, yield to his -guidance, It
I erects on the grave of their rights an<
peace, a bloody, a remorseless tyran
1- nrt~.
' ** * * *
t " But when State education ge
, further, when In keeping with the spir
it of' the age, it seeks a broader basia
'r let her rear institutions like this. Lec
e her consecrate light upon the hill topu
a whlencee its rays will ierce the darn
d valleys and illumine the path o'f th
.elimner, rather than scatter feeble car
~- dIes, whose uncertini light diecoys th
n i unwary into pits and quagmires, Le
to inlependent republican citizen, s
he IR omu n Catholie, who is never per.
mittel to rcad his Bibl, or know any
thing of the religion bf Christ, except
what ho gets from his :priest. We
have as little confidence in politidal
priest as we have in religious priests.-.
Every man should think for himself,
in politics as well as in religion. The
same may be saidof every science and
every pursuit of knowledge in; the
whole world. \V ithout- .anman is able
to read his newsjapers and his Bible,
he ;must be more or less a dependent on
the wealthy and educated classes.
Mr. TanaE contends that the work
ing man has no time fbr books-that
he goes out early in the morning to his
labor, and returns at riiglt, exhausted.
What time-would such a mai have to
hear speeches and lectures? . But Mr.
*TABEtR says the laborer -can have no
-taste for literature, and of coarse would
have as little for public speeches..Tis
wealthy and -persons of leisure are thso.
who are to be educated, and pursue lit
erature. We deny that wealth and
leisure give any taste fur literature,-or
have ever furnished in the United
States one-tenth part of her statesmen
and scholars. Oi the contrary, the
great men of America, the scholars of
United States, the learned of the Re
public, were never nurtured in the lap
of wealth and leisure. Such men have
always been hard woikers-laboring
men-mena who made their living by
the sweat of their brow. No mechanic
or field laborer works harder, every
day of his life, or works longer, than
the lawyer and physician in full prao
tice. A:.d what is there in issuing
writs, or making pills, in counselling
with clients, or visiting sick rooms,
more congenial to a taste fbr literature,
than ploughing the earth or building
a house f if the lawyer and the doctor
can find time to ' devoto totookrn nd
literature, so may the mechanic and
tradesman, and the fanmer and day la
-brer~Learnin lhas been, as Dr. li
nza says, 'entirely changed by the art
of primting and common schools, where
reading and writing are taught to the
poor "ragged.ohildren' of the country."
Long may it continue, should be the
wish of every, one.
There is an aristocratic feeling laud
pretention in South Carolina, and a
contempt and distrust of the people.
which exist in no other State of this
Union ! There is less of republicanism
in our State Constitntini and Govern
rnent, and less confidence reposed in
the people under them, than in any; oth
er State in the Repnblic ! Nowhere
else are the people denidd their consti
tutional right of voting fir Electors of
President and Vice President. In no
othe'r State are they deirived of the
rightrof voting for their Qitief Magia
trate ! Nowhere else in this broad
Republic is the citizen of a swamp ens
titled to one hundred and twenty'times
the influence of -another whh lives on.
the hills or mountains. Nowhtere dle
but in South Carolina is property in
vested with an influence in one portibo
of the State which the samte spuciessuf
property has not, in a difl'rent see,
tion of the~ counatry ! lia no Stati but
South Carolina are six hundred dollars
appropriated to the education of six
teen poor scholars in a parish, and on
ly the same amount aporopriated to
educate two or three hundred in snme
of thne dista iets! ..it the Senate ouf thia
State a miajority of' the Seniat~ors are
elected by a very small minority of the
people of the State. A\5 to aigy change
o.r alteration of our Constitution j is
impjos'aible,' unless the Senat ors repre
sentimg perhaps one teiith of the pdoyle
see proper to sanaction it~r I
These are odious aristocra tic features
in our Government; which deserve to
be broken down.- They topd~ to encour,
age the belief that the people are not
fit, for selfgoverm - eit, and if' they
wvere not taught, to reajland, wii to, they
would not be very long.
We havi been tould that Mr. . ma's -t'
Address is not without advocates and
apologists in Greeniville, ah wel a1s
ojte portiotis of ihi' State. This does
ntsur prisetus at ail, for we verily be
lieve thamt itf Mr,r TA asataproposed,
mi his qmtnquenial Address; that. pll
the free white haborers of the 4te
men, wiomen and Zhiildren, shouf4be
blacked and sold, andc we had opposed
it as being un wise, unjust, an d aftr~ous,
there wouhld have bee,,nid somue, no
doubt, in Greeiivilln, :as welli as- else,
whterein South'lCarolina, who'-cotid
not have setn -an yth ing objectionabla ~
im the suiggestion, "and who would birvo
denounced us for opposing it.
We give the publie the following
letters, which wvehave reeived on the
subject of this controyeirsy. ILe,-as
ottr purpose to have grhtt to in
d ieers, hot the pi inuo oY'i
-TABtEa'SAddress-cut ihor ir es.
onecIt vouches' for us su cietht..
Cotisu,Jt'nuary$
Der ir,; Xour kier
lor: on thme way, arnd 'sine~ it a
r (colltsunn nif FOn.... I~AG%
the pupils of this and similar institu
tions step forth into life deeply imbued
with the spirit of our institutions and
worthy principle. Men whose pre..
enee and example shall radiate patri
otism and honor, and who, in the doubt
and fury of political crises, will con
imind the gaze and guide the steps of
the erring. When she does edncaite,
let. her educate efficiently. Let her
build upon the basis of the home and
the fatnily, ain intellectual superstrue.
ture, grand and cormprehenrsive, blend
ing individual excellence with the
State, and the State a part of the main.
* * * * *
If gentlemen, wo appeal to history
for the vindication of' this theory, it
will be found ample and universal.
The Greeks, as they are the models in
literature :and art, so in.the philosophy
of governrient they coinmand the deep
est study. And there is noeature of
rhcr policy more striking than this un
der cunsideration. Citizenship-and its
cog nate rights were enjoyed by a very
small port ion of the people, as in this
State it is enjoyed by less than one
half itspopulation. It was, among the
Athenians; confined by the constitution
of Solon to the four primitive Ionic
tribes, an I though subsequeutly en
larged by (leisthenes and Perieles,
so as to admit the whole body of na
tive treemen, yet the great mass al
ways remained, in exclusion, as much
so as our slaves. The equality of Greek
liberty was the equality of her free
citizens. As before stated, there were
in Athens but, but 20,000 voting citi
zens, to 370,000 slaves. Yet with
this startling disparity of physical
toree, there existed, to the end of the
Republic, a harmony almost uninter
rupted. In peace, the slave was the
contented husbandman and domestic,
and in the storms of battle he shared
the perils and fortunes 4f...his master.
" The- aubsequent ruin which swept
over her iistitutiora, came from *tio
het -ownr"""1sie'Tuitntii'arifia:
prieces of- ain unrepresentative demo,
cracy, and beneath the bowels of iron
hearied barbarians, the liberties and
polity of Athens sunk to the grave.
"Slavery and the distinction which
attached to citizenship, gave to the Gi eek
mind leisure and taste for that publc
education which ex'panded into such
y rand outline and beauty. They
invested his nature with that he
noe spirit which defied and con
quered Lite Persian host. They, in a
word, contributed to make him that
poectie and free souled thing which has
won the love of afItertimes.
When we conic down to the Ro
man Republic, we again find slavery
elevating the character of the citi.en,
and protecting-government from the
t.ie taint of Rtadicalisin. So, too, in
the Republics 6f. modern Itally, a full
participation in the rights of citizanship
was denied to the menial class. But
the relation of rnaster and slave not
being recognized, social order and lib
erty were overthrown by the antagon
ism of sections. The last effbrt for
ropublican government in Germany
was signalized by the abclition of pre,
dial bondage, and it died in its very
birth. But the most striking instance
in modern times of the essentiality of
slavery to republics, are France and
the Northern States of this Union."
Whether such sentiments as we have
Sgiven in tire extracts made from Mr.
Taiber's speech are insulting to public
opimion, indicatimg a wannt of trut
knowledge on tire subiject of populai
education, and leading to tyranny over
the workinig classes--whethrer thev art
against hruman liberty, in opposition
to repueblicanristm, to civilization atnd
the spirit of thre age-we leave every
man to determiin for himrself.
But Mr. TAnaR says he is in favor
of popular education. What does h<
mean by popular education? Not, thai
miserable system of reading and writ
itig obtained at thre Coimmoni Schools
and whichn has produced tire rowvdynes
of thre North'? By rio meians. Uni
notion of popular education is that o
Athens, where thre masses were instrue
ted orally, ars our Negroes are taurght
He would have popular education t<
conisist, in the language of Presiden
TruoUN wLL, of "popular aiddresses, for
ensic arguments, purblic lectures, con
tact wvith able anrd gifted nmen, theratric
ad representations; paintings and taonu
umnents." All this mnay be very good
butt it is certainly a great misnomer t<
- call it popular education. Therei
>now no popular' education withrou
a reading anid writipg. The art oft print
irng has entirely chanrged tihe whole the
- ory of education. since the daya of thn
A thentians, A man miight go and hea
CalhIourn arnd -McDullio makn speeche
a to thre entire neglect of Iris shops or i
- ibilds, 'rnd he would atill lhe air uniedt.
,cated manr, Wi fe could nreithe-r read~ 110
t write. This sort of educajtion m
make him, thre blind follower of a
n houn and McDufie, una the ,Athrrnan
3 were of.their crrators; hut. it wourid ne
nmake hun aseholar or an independen'
a thrinker, aswounld.be done by reaidini
:t booksa. lii wonld becom. .as.ni fe

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