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The Sumter banner. (Sumterville, S.C.) 1846-1855, June 07, 1854, Image 2

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TiE IUMIE IINNI.
J. S. RICHIARDSONJac.
JOl1N R. LOGAN, I urrons.
WEDNESDAY, JUNE 7, 1851.
T- Persons w ishinr to see us uon
business connected with the Paper or Law,
can find us at any honr during the day,
except frot four to live in the aliernoimn,
at our office, just back of Sor.oatoss' New
Store. All businers connected with the
paper miust be transacted n ith Wi r.t.ai
l.EWIs, JonN S. RnitiAn soN, jr., or It. C.
LocAN. Mr. R. C. LoGAN, the Foreman
of Banner Office, is our only authorised
Agent to receiv'e money and give receipts
for the same, and imat ahavas be found at
the lBanner Oflice. All letters addressed
to the /laincr must be pre-paid to insure
attention.
Oui' Corarespondence.
Our usual litters from Wasinigton and
other cities tin led to reach its this week in
time for this issue of the Banner. We
will endeavor to see tp it, that this does
not occur a;rain.
F. J. Moses, J. D. Iian...
dling and R. L. Heriot.
We state a. a matter of jtie'ic to the
ahbv named gentlenir thlt thitir :aswers
to the (piestion propotnled have been
profl'red to us for publication, but in con
sehuence of want of room they have had
to he postponed tor another issie.
TI'he Veither.
Well, whit of the weather ! why a great
dea! of it anrd of all sorts twi. WVas it not
an hot mV abolitionim on W1ednes:iv and
oh Thursday as cold as a chureb in De
cember, was not fires comfortable, have
we not had plenty of rain and is it not
warm again ? of corse---vll rot of it ?
The Hlard Romi1.
One of our militia ofiicers ofindecd at. a
recent editorial which api cared in this pa
per on the nilitid .y/cmv, yesterday stop
ped his subscription. The country will
indeed be in a deplorable condition. wvhen
the press caniot expose and abuse the
rottenness of a Sitate intitutieon and advo
cate a change for the better, without giving
personal oflerice. lut in this case, we
camiot imagine that any ve could possi
bly take personal oftice at, or arrogate to
himself, re marks directed at the whole
miptia system. What t hen, is this an at
tempt to bridle Ot frecdoi: of speech ? It
need not be attempted ; for every -tub
scriber thus lost, we.hihave assurances, from
the justice of our fellow citizens, of more
than an equivolent.
The Candidates.
We publish to day Major A. C. SrAIN's
and JAS. E. VITrsI:I'ooN'a antiswers to
the rpiestions pro:0onnded, in the Ia:it Rlan
ner. by "Freedom " and "ourselves."
WVe say " mrselres " as ithe Major has
so termed it. though in reality we but re
pcated (anid .so professedl to do) what oth.
,rrs haud propounted or called upon uts to
propounid for them. In iMajor SiAJ's an
Ewe*r, it will be cccin, that we are 'alled
:tpoin h as witnesses "' to say whether his
a sentiments and principles do .or do riot
fluctuate withI the piopula r breth-or what
is worse abide ipjndar opin:ion:' We
can conceiin of no reasoni why wee should
lie called up~oin for suich ani answer except
it he that the author construes cur remartks
editorial upon the silence of the caundidautes,
ov supposes that themwvould lie conrstruied
by others as insinuing that such was
fhe case with hrimself-and the rest uf the
canididates-fc't our remaar ki were address
ed to all. It wouli be didliciult, vee believe,
after a fatir, canidiud anrd imptlartiali review of
our remarks, to arrive at any such a con
elusion, yet to this suPpsi/ion we an
swer that we 'i:ende no insinuar1iom
against himself or othiers liut that our 00.
ject wvas merely to call atteintion to the jus
tice, the necessit y anti t!!e podiry of a n ear
aavowal of opinion rald sen rtmonts uiponi
till proper matters, on ihe Ipart of t i:e cart
didates. IIaving made thi.; explintat ion we
deem that we have done all that conuld he
expected or'retiuired cf use, -we are vwill -
'-hg. however, to give the Major the beni..
lit of our oii olt and we might say k;nou'I
edge upon this point andi therefore we an
siver himt frankly. WVe do riot baeliese
that you r " sentitmn ts arnd prinrciples
fluctuate with rte piopular bircath or what
is worne abidc popuhr opiniori " anid ne
have seldlomt kniown a miaiin re hold arid
independtent ini t he forimatioin arid advocacy'
of sentiment arid principle than yourself.
. As long hack as we have krnovin ycnr sen
Stifnients you have alvays maintained, as
r.4 as we are aware, the scntimeints you
dio 9 advocate,
WVe admit that there are " other rodes
of cormmrunicatinig ones cotntimecnts titin
through the columntirs of a niespaper,"~ hut
wc st ill t hink that! mcde t he maost pubdlic andl
efectire of all others. l'crsuns frequently
dlesire to' know tire senitimnents of a Candi
dlate arid yet refrain fromi bsking therm. anid
mnaiw htave nct the oppiortuniity'of asking
tihem, bitt once- publish thiem in the col
umons of a newspaper and they are pilac.
arded before the face of the wvorbl. Wec
congratulate thre Major upori having idopt.
ed this best mode.- .
The End of niNI things.
'fd mnost sanguiine of the Millerites pre
dict that' the end of all things inust happent
thi. year hod perhaps in the month of Juno.
Be that, as it. may the following advice
f-rim a cotemparary should be observed by
-& beleiv'ers and unhieloivers. "hit tire men
time we advise the comnmunity riot to *be
ralarmed, butt Buggest, that eacht moan Po
live,.That whatever' happens, he mray meet
it with courage. The end of the world
comes to thousands ever ' day."
1The Suanter' ailanat So..
ciety.
This society held a meeting pursuant
to the call of the Presidcut on Monday last
in the Court Hlouse. The mnecting a large
and respectable one was orgarized by call
ing the President to the cbair and a ppointing
1. S. litcnatttrsoN jr., secretary of the
meeting. The minutes of an extra meet
ing held February S21tlh 185 1 wete read
and approved. The chair announced the
meeting ready for the transacti,n of biusi
ness, whereupon Messrs. (cetnr..tN, R.Ten
Ar.nsoN aiil I .itFT severally addressed
the meeting upon the progress the society
had made in carrying out the objects of its
organization and the necesity of renew ed
and increased exertion and dilligence ott
the part of members. The chair announced
that out of 17 indictments lodged by the
society "true bills" had been found in 16
instances and the other was lost only in
conseprence of the absence of a , anateria
wit ncss, who would be forth coming at the
next term when the indictmmt'"it would be
renewed. ie reported three or four new
eases as ready for indictnent. Major
Srais called for the ntuber of the inem
hers belonging to time Society and the call
of their nanes---whereupont the Secretary
read aloud their iinues and rcportcd 85
in rI1. )r. J. 1. 'i rrs nroved to alter Ile
the Cons!itution of the Society so as to
constituite a guard of six to do duty for 1 t
hours in lien of the original guInrd of 10
which did duly for one week at a time.
''he mtrotion was secotnded and adopted. It
was moved seconded and adopted that the
proceecdings of this meeting he published
and the Socidy then adjourned,
L. P. L.O RI NG( Pres't.
. S. R'.:etnros jr.. See'y of M.
Columnbia and Hamburg
R~ailroad.
We Icarn from the Urolin an that
Mr. d. G'. (ur ts, the engineer in
charge of t:is woiric. as com dteed a
survey of a route from Col hia to
harnburg, mid is new engged in mak
ing a survey of another route fIrorn
Ila ihu rg. The dihTerence of distance
in the two roads Iroposel, is stated
to b,% oliy five mcilt.s.
Wiilstaisageton N. C.
The completion of the bridge across
the Pee Dee Hiver, on the line oif the
Wilnington and lanchcster Railroad
cotnot be loug postponed, when there
will he in -n tznbr'ken coneetion with
Wil muington, our rearest market and
the one most easy of access. The
ability of Winington to supply our
dlemands and her on'u et to oier in
ducenents as a tarket for the sales of
ou r pr;dects are qiestions :re.diyn
attracting attention in t his scetin ot
the State. Wilimiingtont is no doubt
in a state oif tranusi tioni and iminprove
ment, wanting bit, the entterprising'
hand of internal improvemnents fr'tely
able to ci e wi th atny Southbern
Seaport and take her stanid amongst
comm iiertial c(i tics.
TIhe i niportanttce of suich ac course of
action is by nio means unapprcia:ted
in North Car!!:a: "O( hi lRip "' is
not ontly a waLe, but rijybcv ahbeadl. As
pr~o, f of' this and a proper regar. or their
own interests, we.( ntotic~e tlie ..eount ts
anid aictioni of certaint con':entionts re
eeitly held in W ilmington for deep
etnitng the Bar and foringjt new
lines oif railway conncectinig her wvithm
lhe rich fields of the St ate. A coni ven-.
tion has also bieit cailled in Charlo'tte,
hiavi; for' is ilbject~ the con's.trtion
of a road to be ea!!led the A\thmntie,
Tfenntessee aund Ohio railread, v:hiceh is
to extend fr -in W'ihiniiigton throungh
Charlotteti to Jo inesb oro in Teitnessee
andi~ ':unneet u itht the "' I)antville "' and
" Western lInteion "t I oadi4 . Suefi
an undtertaikinmg, wvill d oublelss attract
the attention its imiportance iinerit~s
and if fe'asibhe, will he catrrie'd (out,
certai nly to thec ad vant Iage oif No rthI
C!aroina, bt nut to the seicuts idetri
mett of the inlteres;ts of C'har les tn, as
somie of ouir cotemlporaries seemn t~o
apprehend. A city (climting thie trade
that, Chiarleston does, atnd is strivitng for,
should he eqjtual to anly Ccmpetitionu,
if nlot, then she ust recede; of this
hwerwe have no fear :!nd hail with
equal pleasure the evidences of the
progressive- march of im provenmenit in
W'tilmningt on or Chiarlest.on.
'bfhe Fugi4~ve Birris.
PTe Uniited State~s commU~issiner at
Ilostotn has crrmanded the fugitive Slave
-Burns to his matster-a telegraphtie
despatch to the .Chtarleston JFerrury
says:
T1he feeling~ tliroughout the city upon
th~e ann~otuneeincut of tis decisiont, was
intense. MAtaiy ff the stores we
closed and bumilding's were dIraped in
mroturning. 'The United States flag was
hung at variotus points clothed in black.
Every avenute leading- to the Couirt
square wits densely thronged with the
.highly excitoil p)opulace. 'The military
every where were saluted with hisses.
'The fugitive will be tatketn down State.
street, to- Cetral wharf, abouit 'two
o'dioek; p. mi.'guarded by rite hundred
atnd fifty j. S.- troops, with a nIne
potttdetr loadled with 'grape shot, A
large force otf.1'lie noe stationned on
Central wharf, where an immense
crowd is assemibling. The bells are
tolling i' te neighboring villages.
lho Mayor placed the city in charge of
the Military.
Abolitiom Excitesactat.
It is impossible to disguise the fact,
that never in the history of this conti.
neut has the anti-slavery party of the
North been so violently excited and
rampant as at this time. 'Thie press
of the free States, with but a very few
exceptions are grossly vindictive and
ruost insolently abusive of the institu
tions of the South, and bolly declare,
that anarchy war or incendiarismi
would be preferable to the present pos
ition of our government. What has
called urth this spirit and where will
it end ? These are vital and mnost in
portant questions, such as cannot, fail
to arrest, the attention of every true
patriot and cause hime to panse and
ponder. The passage of the couprom
ise measures in 18,>0, bought a respite
at the sacrifice of e unstitutiunl rights
-a triumph of' the constitution hias
brought, upon its d eleinders a storm
which has increased ten fbld in violence
from its short and delusi ;"e .s h Uuzbr.
In the ranks of religion, where peace
and brotherly love alone should rein,
the fires of enrmit v and hatred to the
South burn with unparalleled flry, eve
ry class of citizens lenading their voil (
and denunciations to fan the flame; even
the terehant who sucks his sustenance
from Southe n products, in forgetih.
ness oflself interests, wou Id point the
dagger against his o"' n prosperity, and
len (1 aid to abolition encroaehminets
are these the fruits of the Nebraska
bill, a triumph, not of the Slh, but
of the Union and the constitution ? It
must he so and brings to every candid
mind condlusive proof of the utter inn.
tility of all 'compromises with such
Norithern principles, as are aimed in
hatred ana 'ipposition to the wel lfre
(f the Southern sections of this IH'.'pu b
lie.
'Th'e r testiol'. must .he abhitiii i onisnm
or slavery, one that cannot, be longer
postponed, compromises do but in
Crease a difliculty, which -we cian as
well meet now, as at a ttiture day.
Mr. Iovs in clsinI is able remarks
upon the N:l rasika tlu; sms up our
relations vwithI the North
" Iefbre the No rth are two f'.tur
one d isuniion, anarch', ela.e , losS of
liberty, inglorious wars, a miserable
1..1:arism tr tlt: South A in(ric.an
I t'p1n1li.S', the: otl'e uion , at c( ntin -
ine in hii e seu signal a urse o, p,"s.
perity, uni -r.!lld greatn'ess 11nd gh,
h:esitate wh ichm to chooe. Fot'r im
pal t , whtate ver imelanchoi.''v13 od~.
in~gs I inay have i on th'e subic'et, I
ardently hope. ais :a lover of hinit v,
'.hlat the peo plc of the NorthI mr I'
iniducedl toa chiios'e te wiser couri s.
Every thing depends Ipon thme Nuothi
we of' the South aire in the reinlorit v
wve ale p'os~ive'; we nutmke no warup
thia or their inisitumtioins; we deshe
co.cor~ud, if' it i e poissible; we demndii
mnceel justice :.ndl the Constitutio'n'
l's's thant thiat w'e could not demn' "i
with sAr-fety to ourselves.'
The Ha~rds.
Tbic followving is an ex tract from an
a.-h esst of' the "* hard shll " ~ detinocra.
(-y iin conigr, s-, to thei r conistit uents in
New Y'ork:
uts t'o believe that the ianuihineit of' the
th lirstli -f I . etries o f' ntvasures, lo ng.
prenme'di.ted andt deU iberately persnted,
havsing I'the ai r objeqict. the inrma
tion of ai great, setiontal oir southern
party ' of whlich thle pr'esent E 'xecu ivye
'-un'ino of the sna':e politir::1 s:hIemie, it
Iwas <h-t eruiminedI at an early day to ace
qire C'ubla atteely reideliss of conise
qjuiec. 'J!Th st'isure o f' the 'steamier
l~Iack \\Varriior, by th actuthtorities at
1 lavania, afi'brdeid M\lr. Sotile, as' we are
credibly iiitnirmed, the oijportitly to
aiddr.ss'- a c.O imuniicaltion to the Spani
ishi g ivn ii'nt sa ins,,lei., in tonie so
in languai-r of a1 eblarai'ter si insulting
as t'. rend(er co.mipliaince wvith his-de!.
nimnds in the highest deigree imnproh-t
ble. Whet her the aflhi r will be aid just
ed, or whether we are about, to be preci p
itated mtiei~ a war', nme Iuroblems that.
tiiine alonie cani sol.vt'. Thlat, am elti i
will lie made', dlireetly or iindirectly,
it. the comptjiest of' Cubai, aind its inicor-'
portini into theC ( inin as aod itLional
Islave Lerrito'ry, namits, -w'e thial: , of
little dotubt.
Unider such grave and potent ous
circumtstanpces we are tuiwilling to coni
tribte, b.y our votes or other'w'ise', an~y
aid or assistaince to these selfish and
destructive schemes, although under' a
dijb'rent .tate ofj thing, w'e would r'e
gar'd the aunexation of' Cuba with tie.
eid. d favor; anid hioweve' calatuitous
a war mnight be, when satisfied that
the rights of' our aitizens have been
violated, and red res dhomanded in vain,
we woiuldl enf'otce justice at whatever
haizards."
AN Imuuftls RIDDL.-It Was~. dlone
wvhen it was biegun, It was done1 when it
was half done, and yet wasn't done when
it wats finished. Now what wats it ? Of
course you can't guess ? WVill this do ?
imothiy Johinsoin courted Susannah
Dunn. ,It was D~unn when it begun, it
was hunn whien it was half' done, and yet
wasn't Dunin whfen it nas done--for it was
Johnson;'
For the Banner.
Messrs. E'ditors :-" Freedom " and
yourselves in the last, Banner call upon
tme, with others, to answer certain que.
ries. I beg to say that I have sought
110 vote, coicealing or misrepresenting
my opiniens, and that there are other
modes of conniucating oue's seuLi
mnciits than th roughi the colutins of at
newspaper. No voter has sought from
rule an opiin, who has not received a
full and frank response. ly " s-iti
lienlts and principles do not, fluctuate
with the popular breath," nor, " what
is w orse, abide popular opinion." Oui
this point, genltlenen, I call you as
witnesses.
1ir't, the qluestions editorial
Your vi- .W on establishing the
Penitentiary systemui in the State."
OI this subject lly mind has iot at.
tained a satisfactorv conlusion. I alrn
not inl 1ssession1 of the statistics of
crimhe in this and other Stales, nor do
I know how the system works wherm
established. In Georgia it does not
sem to have riet the objects ofits erea
tion. It doesC not pay exNpenses, nor
does it suppress crime. I believe, at
one tine, the 'enitentiaiv was "to let,"
whether it has actually been ret ed I
do not, know. I doubt wlihetlier the
terrors 'tf a l'enittentiary, With hard la
bor, !ha,': head, and stripje1 pants,
would more reaodily restrai iin act of
violence, OI the pt I of an ingry lau,
than those of tle jail, fnles and csts, or
whether the ellect on1 the party punis.l
ed would be miore' who lesome. One
Ibniceficial etlfect of the s" m mtenig !'I:ht be
that, in the lhigher grades of crilme, the
infliction of puiilimeit 1, in ebaracter
with the o(fi'ene, Imiigh t be more cc.in;.
but lietlier the ell'et wo ili be pro.
iicedl of (lecreasilng Cl ime, is a prob.
1em, I inl inc to think, rather resolved
against the system. If a systemt could
bw deviseif that wold effectially sup
press ~'cites and misdemeanors, it
should be adopted at any cost. flit
Whenever it fiais short of thii, just to
that extent, slildjhe question of cost
be conidere.. In the laruer States with
a poiijauation ii'e. dense and more
erininal. the svtemn may be neuessary.
liit is there a.liieient an 1 iit of t rime
in ihi;: Sia-e to warraint the outlay ?
The jails must be retained tor the sane.
kee iig of prioners till convietion.
Nothing, or but little, would thereibre
be savei on this hi hd. Could e lneiti.
tentoiary in this St. der ray E Ith -C.jei
Gnes ofi 1atiiljNetus !it. PaY its superin
tennl:1it and other onie' aIs ?1 I ntw of
vtiy few cases in Sumuter, fur ye:rs,
tl.at cuild have tiirui.lied an1t inmate.
Ilut I 3-hall not enilarg~e on this siubject.
ben g, as I .1id. undecided and ol en to
'o your ..etnil, I do ni sippose a
seiouis aniswer is coniitempi~ lated. I
wiuild hise my self respecct, in houldingi~
tithe thirough the inifluieic oC(f lhe biottie,
or thle jig. I seeh to repreisenmt ti-eemten'
through:J ipen, honest liirtais. A voite
bougl. t::-: by ithi a p'iit, inay be sol
to miorrow\ f,,r a gili
'lTe <ues't ions uof ' "Freed~om "' in re
v'ers': ord2er
"* 3. Will yo ::, orwlv you not vote
fra imotdifientin (f the precsent militia
systemi, see as to relieve the c'tizeni of'
the znerousi anid unn iecessairy bu rdens
that he. is new ealled to bear ?"'
Yes,~'* preservin th Ii: troel and v:!mt.
teer feaitutres.
"2. W\ill you, or will von nit vote
to) 'ont inueC the' preset, approriauJtioni
of the F.ree School l&nd fair the pu11r
1 osso popiilar oean.tin ;1 and w'.ill
yoti or wilil yiu not vote~ ifhr se m
pro vemiien t on lhe presenit syvstemn?
Yes, withI all imy hieatrt would I vole
fair (i *y mpr"-:e i.nt on the p reset
systeii. I woul pay as mucnh. andl
vote to Ipay as i m ehi to inst rue't ever~y
eit.'in in the State to irced, wri'te', and~
Lthh :k 1 ur him nsel' a s ait y ,thert citL'ize or
rephresenitaitiVe.
i'yanoance, rot in/tiqpinc !s the
Iban'e of free~ inst i iutionsil. I hope~ to
livye to see the day in SuthtI C~arolina,
whlen every voter will thtinki, act., and'
vote for' him sel f, and when the race of
demaigogunes .shall ha~':e "l desended to
the tomb~ of' te Capulllets.'"
"I1. If yvou are elect ed .to the Legis.
liature will you or will1 you not vote
for a llill to give the5 electioni of Elee.
tori.' (if President red Vice Pre'sident
oft the l'nited States to the peopl 'e ?"'
.1 prefer the piresent matde ofanp'oint.
tfng electors, to any mode suggested,
and intfimitely to the presenlt modo in
evecry uSate (e~n ept- this) to wit, the
general ticket system ; a~ mode pro
nounced by Mr. Calhoun to be "' utter
ly idmissile " froml " numelilrous and
inlsurmiiountabile obijectionis."'
I pre'fer it, be'cauise the jeole in of'
feet., b y it, con Itrol thle elect ion in this
State, in '.rd!usion oif the demagogue,
the ofr'dhluler, and .the oflieu-seeker.
Mr. (Cilholtn says tiia in the other
State~s " the usage of' partiesW" has
" virtually suspiended the complex axid
refined macnhimery provided by the
Constitution f or '.he c tinn of' 1e+i.
dent, and Vice President." "Th
nwnination of the successful party, b:
irresponsible iidividuals maehs, il
reality, the choice." Speaking of Lh
c:a ucus nominations of electoral ticket
by the diflerent political parties, I
says, ." but the few of each, who forn
the ticket, actually make the appoint
nient of the electors. * * Neve
Was there a scheme better contrived t
transfer power from the body of th
comfmunlity, to those whose occupation i
to get or hold oflices, and to merge th
contests of party into a mere struggi
for the spoils." I prefer the pres'n
mode because the agents employed ar
chosen by and responsible to the peoplc
and because I do not desire to take thi
control of the electionfront the people
I prefer the present mode to tho JDis
/rict Ticket system, first, because thi
influence of the State is exerted as
unit, not subject to division ; and se
conliy, because tie District Ticke
systemi has been aloined by every Stat
that has made the experiment of it.
Once lin the history of our cduitry di
one District inl North Caroliia an<
one in Virginia control not only til
choice of these States respectively, bu
of all the rest, andl give to the l 'nio
inl 17'17 John Adams as President it
stead of''homias .1eirson. 'The latte
received 20 out of the 21 votes of' Vir
giniia, anid I I out of the 12 votes o
North Carolitw. Thus by the )istric
svstemi small nwhjorities in two )is
tricts, representinig small mlinorities o
those i espective States gave to tl
country its Chief Execeutive, who aftei
one term was (lefeated by his formei
coinpetitor. The division of ?he vott
uf'the .State Ied to the abandinment o
the District system iby all the Stater,
and if' b>tIi Carolima now changes tc
the District system, it will uily be the
prehude to the othcr.
I prefer the pres:nt mode becaus,
iii my jidgment, it is not on/y constitu
tiona/, but because it is tie mode in
tEnd(er/ to be pursued by the Patriots
who foim'ied a c'onstitultionmal govern
icent for 1:3 sovereign States.
If therefore the South Carolina rodt
of appointing electors is the oue in
tended by the constitution, there is nl
u.SUr'n.n en the part of the Le.. isa
lure and no abridgement of the right:
of the i'eople. Such is my faith a;
"tone of the people," and thi argumienl
is, in part, as liWlows : The very word:
ot' ttls eonetitution itself suggest til
idea. Art. 2., See. 1-., 's ir. thes words
'fThe executive power .hall be vested
in a President if.-thie United States o
Amrica. 1 ie shnll hold his ofiL
duin ~g the termn of four' years. and, to
get her with thec Vice Pre'sdent, choser
for' the si.men timie, lie elcted, as follows
". Eachl State s/hal/ Eloin ju, in such moan
ner' as the I gialure thereof mayv di
rect, a nlumbeir of electrs," &!c.
Thei words " eppoen t"' nd "elect'
are useid ini tihe const ituiition to conii
diff'eent ideas, and even iduas of oppo
sition. Whenever time framnei-s of tin
conistitutii on initeiided an eletion thes
used the word. And unless this clause
foirms the exce'ption, it w'onid be d izli.
culit to finid inm that iinstronen t lhe wvord
" pin/jOl.t " -used in -t lie samte senst
wi th thle word "e/ct."
Examples. Meiiber's of' the Uouse
of' lIe;resentativyes are to be chiosei
every scaud year by the' people of th<i
several States, and no one shall be
lierentative', who shall not wher
eetedi lie an i nhabi tant of' that.State .it
wvhich he shallI be ehosen. Two Sena
to re;a art t.o. be electeid from each St att4
byw the IeislaThturei, amid in case of' va
canocies dluring the recess oif the Leais
lat urie, lie Exective mut': m''tak e teim
No Senautoir o' 1 epr'esentativ cat
during theo time foir which lhe wa
e leteid, he' EIJp;fioi to) any civil .ifilee
&ce., cr'eittedI during his term.
T[he l'iensideint has poweir by stmm
with the advice of the Senmate~ to inoi
natc and aJ'point Ministers, Consuls
Jiuidges, ke. -
!Aesides, the costittionm aind amnd
umnt s thrioughoaut speak of the oflice o
.u elector as an 'tppoinfnment-a'n ap
pointmnent by a State ini its politica
capacity, through its omrgamn, the Legi~
lature, as (dist inguished f'rom the act o:
its seporate member's as individuals.
Such is the construdt ion of' the bon
venttioni, by whomti the consti tutioni was
originated. On the 17th of'Septembei
1787, the convention agreed to th<
constitution aind ordered it to be scnt
with a letter and certain. resolvyes to tin
Congress of the confederation then ir
session. 'The first Re'solutioni expressei
the opinion of the con vention that t ii<
constitution should "lie submitted tc
a convenition of delegatos, .chosin ii
eaich State by thec p'cople theteot:" Thu
second e.:pr cass thfe opinion " that at
soon as the convention ofninio State:
shall have ratified this condtitution,thli
United Stat'es in Congre'ss iisemblei
should fix a day on whieli elector
should( be appointed by the. States, whicl
shall have ratified thisanio. * * 4
e That after such publiciation the electors
should be appointed, and the Senators
i anid lRepresentatives elected."
'Th it by the word used, the constitu.
s tion contenplated another thani a pop1.
ular uppointment, is further exemplified
1 by the use of the term prior to the 17th
of Septemn ber 1787, tai the in' erpret a
r Lion (f its meaning by the practice of
a that period. The very conrention,
c whose labors resulted in the constitu
a tion, was the creature of a recoin amen.
2 dation of the 14th September 1780, of
- Commissioners, appointed by the Ley.
t islaturos of New York, New Jersey,
l ennsyl vania, Delaware and Virginia,
who met at Annapolis. 'I hey recom
mended to the other States, " the ap
pointment of Commissioners to meet
at Philadelphia on the second Monday
3 in May, 1787, to take into cansidera
tion the situation of the United States."
Congress, 21st February 1787, declar
t ed it expedient " that on the sceond
3 Monday in May 1787, a convention of
Sdelegates, who shall have been appoint
I ed by the several States, be held at
I I'hiladielphia." Under these recon
aiuendatiorns, delegates were appointed,
t and did meet on the day named.
i The Cdnstitution and Government of
1 the United States were the ofl prings of
that meeting. Ilow were these dele
-gates appointer? In rery Stlte, by
F the Legislature thereof, except Rhode
Island, which never was represented.
I clai:n their acts as ccmuentaries on
their mordls.
After this resume, one rem-i, per
haps not rermane to the subject, may
-be pardoned. The Legislatukcs of the
States were tIa promoters of the unity
F' and liberty of the people, and not the
usurpers of' their righits. " Pre-existing
bodies " were then bulwarks of liber
ty, order and ut-ioti', not towers of
ty ln, anarchy and confusion. In
genuous minds do not suspect wrdng :in
those whose labor results in their good.
\Why should not thme convention, rig
imated and crnpowered as statld, en
trust State L'g.isatures with electoral
appointnents ?
But this is not all. On the 1:h of
September 17"48, after eleven of the
o igiiial 'tates had ratified the consti
tntioni (North Carolina anid IRhode
Island iot voting) Congress "Resolved
That, the first \Wdnesday in Januarys
text be the Jay 6r ppointing electors
in the several States, whith-before that
day shall have ratified theom. d consti
tution." E evry Sti'; is I .am inform.
ed, by her Legislaturcs aJpoinlted elec.
f tors, ju t as South Carolina then ad
still does. Washington was unani
muouslv elected, accepted an1 _d serv.ed.
Latter day Prop1hets have discovered
that he wvas the willing recipient of
power conaferred by the appointees of
eleven usurping Legislaeture.<. " Timeco
I Tanaosi, et D1)oua erente's."
Seventceen tirmes has South Cairolina
unichallenuged cast her vot~e for Pa esi
dent. Seventeen timrzes has it unc-hal
lenge-d beenu (opened and counted in the
Senate of' the lUnited States. New
Yoik east her vote .froam the beginniing~
in thie same~ way douwn to '35 or '0
and Delaware dowii t'o 1814.
And still this is not all. Congress in
I1845 by havw directed the electoi-s to be
appoin ted .bn a Ceraini Tu-egy in
November of evdy fourth year. I
also provided that each State might by
law provide for the filling of any vacan
cy that might occur in its electoral
college before the vote was eatst. And
further that if any S ate sliould fii to
miake a choice of electors, on the afore
vaid1 day, " then the elector's may .be
appo:inted oin a subsequent day in such
mnannmer as the Staxte shall by law pro
vide." Ihere is a Congressional admis
sion that vacancies may be supplied
just as a Legislature miay provide---the
constitution confers no such power on
Congress,.it .is true ; hut if a Lecgisla
ture may appoint to jill a vacancy,
why mayi it not fill the whole college
at once. And .why not do it as well
withLout an e-lection, as after a failure
to elect ? The dit~brent .States have
I' legal proviion~as-on thesesubjects, and
consequently admnit that .eleetdirs may
I vote for President, without an elebtion
by the people.
F Without exhausting the ar'gument,
or tou-ch$!ng any of the various other'
- onsiddrationis of a more practical kind,
I conehide my v'indication of thirty
thr-e Legislatures of South Carolica
Prom tihe charge of usurpation, by
qtioting tihe most etninent Jurist of the
aUnited States, and one of tihe most
eminent Judges o-f South Carolina.
Judge Stoniy wrote three volumes oil
the constitution and speaking on (tis
very subiject says, " the (oppo~. .
mecnt of electors hasi been vatriously'
provided for by the State Legislalures.
In somec States the Legislatui'e hdve
directly chosen the elebtors by theni
selves, in others they h'ivi bee eboseti
Iby , a general tiek66 tdroughout .Alc
whole State, and ini otihek by the ,poog
pleoin electoral distetyflxel lby the
Louisistere, -a edtimni' tr-~r~ ete.
air
tors being appointed to each district.
No question has ever arisen, as to the
cotnstitutioinality of either iode, except
that ofa direct, choice by the Legisla.
ture. But this, though 6flein doubted
by able and ingenious minds, has been
firmly established in protice, ever since
the adoption of the constitution, ar('
does not now seem to admit of Contro
versy, even ifa suitable tribunal existed
to adjudicate upon it. At present, in
nearly all the States, the electors are
chosen either by the people by a gen
eral ticket, or by the State Legislature
The choice in Districts has been gradu
ally abandoned, and is now persevered
in, but by two States." These have
since changed.
Governor Johnson, long an orna
ment of the Bench in this State, in his
message of November '47, says, " The
present system has wor ked well here
tofbi e, and I al, upon principle, op
posed to any change, unless certain
and practical advantages are to result
from them. This certainly has ono
advantage. The members of the Leg.
islature have greater facilities ofascer
taining the qualifications and claims
of the candidates than the great masses
of the people, and are therefore less
liable to be imposed on by the artful
misrepresentations of designing men.
If you should think otherwise, it will
be for ydu to determine whether to
elect them by Districts or a general
ticket. It is obvious that if the gener
al ticket system is adopted, the up
country will, on account of the greater
number of voters, have the entire con
trol of these elections." Then speaking
of tie compromises between the up
and low country he says, " The prin
ciple of this compromise, has generally
governed in the election of Senators to
Congmess, and goodfith requires that
it should be carried out in the c lectioi
of electors."
The constitution of the United
states authorizes the Legislatures of
the several States to prescribe the
manner of appoiriting electors, and I ='
have heard it urged that as the power
was limited to prescribing the nianner,
the Ligisiatures themselves had not the
power to appoint. Our ihng continual
usage gives the answer to this argu
ment. ; but if tire questions was now open,
I do .ot tliik there m ould be roon
for mueh controversy about it. Thu
power to appoint, necessarily involve.
the right to direct the manne r its whidz
the power is to be exeeuted, and :the:
idea that one nidy iuthorize that to bi
done, which fe himself is prohibited
to do, would seem to involve a contrsi
diection."
Nir. Madison satys, "V Wthout th~i
intervention of the State Legislatu~ es;
the Presadeni o(f the United States ecan
not be elected at all. T1hey must i
all cases b'are a great share in his .ap~
pointmient, aud, willigperhaps, in mnost
eases, ofthesmse'lves Ieeidme it."
These are my viewvs and authority
for them. But if the people Will hay-e
a chanmge, predicate that change upon i
special issue, made up and decided at
the ballot box. That much at leabt, is
due to the present mode for its age and
the .good it has done. I rep~el the
allegation that I desire " to withhold
their .rights from the recile." " Cn
stit-utionajl checks are necessary for the
pt'eservatio~n of popuilar governments,''
so said Joh-. iUurledge, and added, "the
people wanit to be protected against
themselves; no man is so absurd as to
rSuppose the people collectedly will
consent to the prostration of their lib
erties ; but if they be not shielded by
some constitutional .cheeks they wiir
sulfet~ t.heim to be destr-dyed to be
destrofed by demi~gogues, who filclh
the confidenice of the people by pre
tending tc be their friends; demia-.
goguus, wh,. at the time they nre soothi
ing and cajuling the people with bland'
and captivating ,speeceiesre forging
chains for them ; demagogues, who
arry daggers in their hearts, and .se
ductive smiles in their hiypocritientl
faces ; who are dooming the :people t&
despotism, when they profess to be -e.g.
elusively the friends of the ,people.;
against subh desigu s and .arti~ices wero
ourW constitutic'nal checks made to
preseive the people of this country"
mid agaitisV such " G'ood Lord delivei7
us."
Respectfully,
A. C. SPA IN.'
For the Banner.
Mecssr's Edieors :--Through your col
unmns there hiave been i-ecently a series of
que'stionis piipotnded to ihe candidates for
the I.egistine, more particularly as re.
gards the jtroprtiety o't' giving the Elee lion'
of Electors of Prdadent and Vice Presider
to the people; and I- will seek the same
jnediumii to express briefly miy view's to~ tije 4
voters of Cl'arenmon't Nlection g'out y) q
tveayeairs past, I hiave beecri in faynr of
such a mlhan. e, bljdievinig that it would en
ly~teni thn plici mind ron mnttlers of led.
9 policy, andm that .. lhe peopl~e wud reel
fin creac ineterdiii ?Ihd actun of ihe"
G~:mhGoverrnmiet, 'Thti cha~gne ~ro

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