- - - - -~~ --. - '-- -A
DEVOTED TO SOUTHERN RIGHTS, DEMOCRACY, NEWS, LITERATURE, AGRICULTURE SCIENCE AN) THE RT
WILLIAM LEWIS, - P opiirons oultd,,
JOHN S. RIIA . DSON, Jn., I PI .ERMS N A1VANC ,
OL. VIII. -SUMTERtVILL E, S. C., JUNVE 21, J$4.-.. NH
THE SUMTER BANNER,
Every WedneI.Cday Morning
Lewis & Richardson.
'T" E RiIi S,
TWO DOLLA tS in advance, Two lhllar
and Fifty ('ents at the expiration of aix inuiiutlhs
or 'lhree Dollars at the end of the year.
No paper discottinted ntil all arrearTges
are r. in, uttless at the option of the Proprietor.
yr Advertisements inserted at$EVt INTY
FI '1: Cents per tq nare, (1:2 lines or less,) tor
the first, and Imlf that mum for each subqe-nt
insertion, (Ollicial advertisements the baame
. $7' The number of insertions to be marked
vn all Ad vertinenents or they wii he publishled
until ordered to be discontiiued, and char;ed
* r?" ONE )OLT.AT per sql:re fora sinde
insertion. Qtarterly and Monthly A.lverti se
tnents will be charged tlie sante as a sin:.le in
sertion. and semi-nthlaly the saune as new oneW'
For the Banner.
To the Citizens of Clareudoun
A communication under tlhe signa
ture of " Wesley " appeared in the
Banner of the 17th1 Mly, jt( poiig a
.eries of qitestions to the candilate; or
the next Legislature ; and as 1, amtotng
others occupy the position " otf a Cat -
didate for your sui ages aniht coatli
dence," and recognize ytour ri'igt to
kntow my oJilnionts uttn all mtatters of
political or district. interest, I shall pro.
eued to reply to the questions propos
ed ; attd in a way as brief l and coipre
hensi ve s my ability will allow inc
colt idJering their very w ide rate, ,iid
the great intricacies and difficulties
whieb surround them. As a citizeni
myself Of the county I have long fit
the nectessity of hi:ving ot:e or mlore
IdVoralie and cihgihi places of transit
to our markets a:crss the Santete
Swamp and river, I am aware that
there is no sect ion of Ihe Statc :o ut
terly delicient it Liis grreat convntiene
and iecess:t y as o.:r own. E. (Ppt by
Railroad there is no sie ati ctnyeni.
cut crossing to tut tatarkets at all sea
sotis of the year, froth tiet town of
Camden to the toutl h of the Saittee
river a distance I believe of not less
thau one hundred and thirty miles; so
that t large portion of the Statt, as
fertile and hriving, as am par t of it
(if nut niorc Su) is altogcthcr depend
utt upon the liatIroa ftitr all cotnlu.
lientiot direct or indirect, with ithe seat
of gvermnent aid the iet re)polis.
The Railroad o'ing to its ret it'teness
fronm italny (it the 4ocalities, remnedits
only to a partial extent this great in
Col vei iCnce-all itCletvenien, a So
great indeed as to attunt to a positive
evil ; to say nothing of the im .ossibili
ty of the planters :vailiug th m:J.-Ives
Of high prices in the iat kets twing to
the tuertaitty and tarldines, of the
tranlstnission of their pilodut to mai~r
hot ; under cit te nta t:tnces -o genier:: Il
and briefly stated, I shiall hel i -ei
nIder the strongest oliga tions .hm .d
1he honored by your couifidenice to use
all of the exertions in tmy power, to
remedy this oppression and burtien
spmne ct)nditioni of things, by eideavur
ing to proeure fron the state assistance
to Ct.s!ruct, or if practicable i coni
struct, a highway which will at all
times tallow of travel across it; and by
having renewed those charters for fer
ries which have expired ; and if the
convenience of our people requires it
to obtain charters for others.
-' ~To the first distinct question, as to
whether or not I amt in fatvor of gh-ving
the election of electors for Presidenlt
and Vice-Presidet to thte people, and
itn what mode, I beg leav to answer
thathavig te highest respect anid
v:eneration for the pi esetf po litical or.
gatnization of the State, I atm t uw illing'
hastily to advocate anty measure, which
wVouldl tentd to distcjrb the bal lane-s of
governmaent undecr which we are now
so hapfpily ruled, I ami therefore op.
pbsed to giving the election of electors
by general ticket to the pecople bie
camuse I regard it as the first step to
wvardls a radicttl change in thme whole
system. Tl'.e questlonl of representa
tion by popuIlation anid *xation, is the
echief ground upon wichl the people of
tIlie Southern States ar~e coimpelled to
contend fotr their equaity biy represen-.
tatiotn ini the Federal council; and to
abjandonl thaut principle ourselves is to
abandon one of our chief safeguards
r19 the great questions~ now pending be
tweeni thle Noth an id S.>uth,- I conttend
tlierefore that to give this election to
tihe people by a general ticket will be
v~trtually to destroy the poilitical iniflu.
ence of a large portion of the State, and
place the power altogether in the hatnds
of thn tipper districts. At the sanme
titnlt I feel the~ expenise and inconvietji
. eniea resulting to the State from hold
zag an extrat session oft theO Legislature
once hii four years for' th~ purpiose (of
catstingt tihe vote of the; Stalt. To ob
into this objection the constitutionl
niigliL he changfed so asto conlvene the
Legislature earliliin the all anzd thus
einbrae the peI jod) apolnted by law
fok-easting-" the- vite ot -te Ste; nor
ga thid o objeetithj, in- othier
p&1hin of 'view e Tlh% kA.::.
complaints of hasty and imperfect leg
islation owing to a want of' time to
mature the bill before the house and
pass them into laws in a form as per
feet as they ought to be ; and that
nuch that is demanded by the country
in the way of Legislation is thrown
aside fur the want of' time to consider
them. With regard to the election of
electors by the district system, which
preserves the relative position of
the upper and lower country, in my
opinion it is too complicated and eun.
brois in its operation to work well -
and I am therefore at present not ali
advocate for a change.
To the second interrogatotry I would
reply, that except for very especial and
ogeni t reasons in partieular instanles
I shall be opposed to the divisin fI
the large and populous dis:ricts, of the
'State into sinalI election districts S
involving in a very emii inent degree the
destructioln of the preseit systet o
cheek, and balances in the Sate whih
n .W so happily govern us, which are
ricfered to inl the answer to a prey ious
8d. With regard to the pres;entt Ii
nancial condition of the State it wouid
be exceedingly di.hteult to trace out. the
incidental ind renote causes which
have led to the present stringency in
the iacney inarkets, both inl this State
and of the union. Perhaps over trailniln
in the first instance and subse quentfv
the disturbed and uncertain ccndlitii ii
of. Ltiropeain aflhirs, in which Einglanid
with whom we hold the most extei
sive coin i ercial relat ios, is deel' I
involved hav' boutlh cottributed to pr
duce these results. Pei haps al-,o, we
have ourselves inereased the nressure
as fitr a: thiA State is concerned, by the
esta bIishrntet. reccitly of a number of
new baiks which created a necessity
11r the lank of the Stat.e and the Ion
established and well coniducted backs
to restrict their diScouints to Shell :s.
extcnt as to cut off the usual ace'intt
moi' datiotns iroa our own citizens and
thereby ineveti thie in Iis'enisible
fhcilities for tta le and bsljinc.,s at
holte, which are neces sar y inl in dcr ti
inleet engaem ents entteredt into dilm ins
a period tf' an abundance of io0eV
and great Celnitiercial prosperit y.
I or this ! know no temiiedy Ib' li.
1a6 'n. P'rudence and industry are
in Iy jedgiicent tle only reiedial
agzetiis, to relieve us frot presentt em
ba'rragsmlents. I shall be opposed t"
anyi further imlerease in the Onurobert' o
liaminks in the State, as dangerous to a
sound Cirretlcy, and to the true pros
perily of the peo'Ile.
To the 4th interrtgato'ry I reply
that 1 at ah ogether i ndisposed to sat
rifice the interest, of the State for the
beticfit of* liauilroad t orporatiois or ain.
other "" monopolits.'' I do not believe
however. that the Legislative assem hly
is the prper tribunal to judge of the
mlrinmgeiteit of' ch:rters or of the -.x.
tent of injtry to life amd propert)
but that all tliese are prolerty refera
ble to the courts of Law to determine
the tatutre of, and the extent of' dama
ges. flut I amit of opinion also that
their charters sholkd btu so aeunded
under tite Act of 1841 as to create;
greater seeurity to lives and propertk
colmtit ted to their charge i' order to
hold thema to stricter tibligattiis, to
discharge the duties which they virtu
ally promise to the puhlie ; atid w hiclh
atre now greatly disregarded itn the
mtaniner in which they are ait resett
conuted. Atty wt holesomne reimedyv
fur existing~ evils as coninected with
stailroads," which shall be b roughit
about ini contforri ty to law .atid a
proper regar~d for vested rightts w ill
receive liy cordial suppo rt.
5ith Qust ion, i'iublIie Eduncait in, I
hol to bie of' paaonotut import~itanee,
antd ito Stata is inijurted or impm11 ei u
ed, bmy affording the meanis of aeipurinag
kinow ledge to the poor. I amt in itavor
of thet exptntd i tur e of tihe lar'geat
amt ountt for thle edneaC~tiotn of' the ci ti
zens of' the State ; pridediIh always
that it is exptede in a miantler so ju]
heILiouis, ats to prtodulce results adteiate
to the siumi disbursed I blfieve, htowever
that the present system is altogethter
dlefectivye, that the amlout of good re
sultinig fronm it is by nto mnean is satis
fhetory. I shall feel miyself cal led
upfont therefore ton sulpp)ort anyi) plat by
which the present free schlool systemt
w ill be imprIoved and miade to produce
results whtich will be more satisfaetory
thatn at present to every' friend ofecdi.
eationi ini the State. Thle power' of a
State is in propoirtion to the education
of' all classes oif her youmg citizents. -
'i'he richt have the power' to educate
ttemselvyes--the poor1 ate depenidenit
uipont a prioper' system establilshledj by
the State for' their' beniefit. No systetm
iiow exists which cart f'urnish a plroper
eduationl for tihe poet'. Th'lis ought
not to be.
6th. With regard o a~ change in the
present Judiciary system I can only
repily mn general terms. I am conseir.
vaitivo in all of miy 'notions ofgover'n
rment, and unless chan~ges are very ob
vious imipro~Voeents I 'ain oposed to
them.i Changes in this branch of the'
govvcrl It~it wih it is List' inltenltioni
o4)1 iii ie law gi Vcr':4. to mas~ke mndc.
piendent ill Ite i.chargv of thiir Iii_ h
and rc~p nirih iX duties sihould al ways
be inali wit Lii at care :Ili( a recs~. isa
able d&',rvv . X hv.i taticv. But if' ini
the discharige oft thyilt IIiv.. wh"ich lilac
hsereafter h~e iuiipoustil irlpoitm ilcheange~
can he imiade cosidi ,. to thec cosweli
cllt. Ji$ll(] irii5ii4e Al't Ci ' v ns u t ij
1\VILhiOuL iijltiif 4II ;!1 .11 v.:sv the ill
oftaI~xation s is I tenlt with i.
4204)i ioi a 142ii1"".-Its ( I theu
8th r Iii a m i t t.
:S a eIi it aiili II
,11,tailI aly t: ,.if
2 1124 t I "ii. 1112 i . " . ) l IIi ( .\t 1t i
iii lijiji , ." " . . * i . Lis; i 'I .,I.
it ' , ati~ 111 ,;. 'r ii . -i 1lIt
I Lii il.! tie- .t fsr~i i le ii citu.1i
4." hiltitr :1111i~ 4422 1 i le 11 siii u
The S \"\" 1.11.1 v 1i:'iul "1..11 t'iia ,sIl
t(i PI42!us 211 is c'('i2!jt al '" 1 :2i .1;.
111 li zii} (Il . Il I a treti i l t".' ';II 1'
y(.)Ur iii t i\'sLlt :11'x1 525 it I'li t iiV " . ha
Ille I~l'gi :1111" ; a t'lse 'l tl ..z "
is104 ,i I125 ii214 1' le t .141 1 il t Xi'W
1 l l hliti \ ii, I l lt kiii :11 -.% ~-Ii,
'4If y r I ~1142, 1 ,lI it'ii~ 444'" ht. 4
l ~ t. I k'ci.l I l:It L!.. 6 24r42c hriIIea'.i
4the tlhc tlt :1"i "1 I 2145 42'tiiilit I) ii5.1tI1
2Isvj 7 i1~ b u h is iii I* .4 ii. ' i 1-1
lrIiiiila 51444r Vi it, ~ 1 (Ill vuL know'
ofht. 5121 [42u15VIiacth. y!r *0.n t
et4'.i .5ia i iaiti 21 1 4~te tl 4unit
Nearly';dui~ .'gz i our, tt it Llee41,.
1511 ~lthroigh hitch iil y :1 t hetti eii le.
5u:1'iti w.4itsiof ii: 1\, :t~ it r:Ir . 0''K*5:
rtust srfu' 1 \il ~ n~ , i~ur lv44il a~
arit1.; ' ,5 of I If,-. Ill)\ el' * [''I . a 4hi 42, I i:
Isul cttleto' a~si 116.11is at'5.lhuut
111 t e.'iL4 ll'ai 12 i :.; tr il :tl.
will liii.: i *' . , 2'Iliul t hat u iglsl,
li ou reaer i L2C jclc ii ile C 11 d
142ii1 V IC~i .2 ll 14"I it, 4i 1 oldat ill the.
t i i l "1lr , ic i t' it jjI4. *e;i l~' i td
}tat tic \\ iiil . .Is :it i I 1 4242
~I.4it~ liit 11i:11 L'.t I si4GI 41_ "i tlii
rLis t~ ~sI LIII: i I.! i tin .' . S;rIiil nor
114.2 ip\ 2 tiie .'4 4. -I 1."ei tl', /1"'~ t
1' il~t! 'I lt .11i i rul l}1. 21 1ii 'L4 ii !.
s"iI t 4"" I, . iti a;' . .' 11
lean= . W: I ,1 iu~u . ' old o 111e\\
Lh5u4ls ici f L Ilttrr and I''-'~art
.lciii 1; 124 ttlng ii l. If il! 111.
JIltll Ili lilies, 14221 % I i 4,4 4iil 21112.1m
toiaid L ( alt'l the14 ttle;ii 11441 1If.1, of~i
1)42 /1 a1 t ~ i.. .".4s.,..."... 1 r.. C . 1...!
ec'ditg yeairs ! L~et the cotn~potIuise
ijilestioli be defitiitel-v se ttled; let Slave.
iy Agifntiu cease, fur Zadkiel's
Ain ttlae' fur 185.1 tellIs us they will
be fatail to ourt P Olui~tiC pea~ce ! Antd
did Itt0t Zashi cl foretellI the Woei ti(
prantb! Wiitt(i i upoln thet solari eclipse
orf 1~7 wih th2le (leth of 1tIe lii 11).
r(ue of A ustriat, and of Louis P'hijIi pe,
:'.2t:I thle C'1:~ tii*-e insu rrecthitin. Noi t
t hat the I lapsbu ig t was old, oir the
(Jlal,~S gl .it y t and d tol sical or .hat
dfie iu!tl.itlgs iIidise listli had. hieet
heaird year: previ Iy is the~ flliitiy
l~aid .,f 11e:1, but t ht thlese evenits wereC
Itligti(Sti.:ted by tihe- "t a s aid fore.
,hdit~e 'ein III li vcii 15. lie warneld
IhuCIefot :y Z:tdk el, who has p laced
tus toad- thlt tat.' o~f AmIlerica ill the
Annular Let ipsc r% f/he Sall, al IJ'us/o.
iiu;/vin ~ ~ h 139laiic 1, 1.~ m. 1., _l-"!/
%,G. 1 J3i1. Me~at iAl. oin tl~(l G'
'this~ gret, defcet 431 the (3rea~terP
Light of hieaveni will be of a tiI~ia
ttt'a l(:Lt 'Ic ,'~~~~ for the vet t'
itIi-Itn of the e !ia).e is that. of this:
-alai' CUtIhltit"t Wil h the evil pilantet
Sa r lit. The Sunt, a~loudt, and2( Satr
nvil ail three e ti .uttol int the l:3th
Minu~te oif tihe Gth d~egree~ of' the signt
Get 11111,7 w hieli Wa1! s Amin tca. Suelt
cctl 21Ii--jpq1 h11,;fI has never biefore
ti,.C LI,;;r.'. 1t 'he tithe we titld
'I, ri m 'legiie .I' h'e ecitpe, etin .211(
.1 u. C3t,1t1t1 a In.s vi]J Sq uare fltets
i11,.,, the: ;hiilcll . l\tg. AL thlt
t02.t .f iljidcl :his " the ll'' l r.di
an exactla, antd \ 292 : is toined desenid.
.l Il altftil 5ililaire to th2 l'~t 1' fil'ttt e.
IL 1., no idle taiik toi i"tual the teat
tieave'ii y iad Ies 'I' the Sovereint will
1if the:: .hUeat, 12, t "'r Ala~s ! fulte
111,.,~ 'I' Lie ('.:ie 24. t u. ,l tict'r l
i11 'ti ..I't heir tait ii'ittal ill at :"is
~t~iii Ittise. :lale ...a,.' hia, t.:aeted his
.tltithe! i lie halfI hutm s, ,et siihi
l"Oi~il'; 122. "Ai''t ii hut at teaiitul murtg.
;l., m-1,4:1i' t2 liteheI tt.d 1, th n\ ar.Ii
liigtlit, I t I. lft the hatal tailtt of sla
-h)ol.tailing ill that ittiteoi tail lie
r" "S Cil .2:. tir. Yeva, buts,,2 a thtis (i'ilis
est', te t-Aial~ t tiluod shaih
ti ,iv like ha2tt-- file fihe: aul .s' stet i
r!aaal lie !(!:tta iie-th liiIIW u:t thet
Aitdes stash j'e.s'j.!: s~as! I).- 11111hled, a+)d
2 Cliulllfty 112111 Nlei . li"ne~ , til ,
shall feel the hlll' of thelt: ii r'1cS;oi.
tite.r vtsiiteJ1 lib~ei ,esl.iil ci. urta:l
C' -.-ei vii r stal rags!, :au.! al11
t~t silylici' !hl' Ii),;tv.,l1 i, 1lsaet11sI ut
will be diat it (1I lcu the tici.,t of*
thte puse I'ali ii2fc A eic an tt ' " but
hea 25!It of .l ulls., at 1d Psl eiet:l 1) the
Il ,t SIf .'eti Ie h, 'a lit he I enliu Is W hein
tile er.,i' lil ba:to wor"k ; hilt its
eL-6- tia'f ekt wilt In. tilt iit tle sketini of
1>5:), whlein tbuit F'ebruaryi, great and
s"til wvill I1w the -eiceicsl' ltulnh'lin t
-*tlit, L':iti:d Sa~te, ' ~ tli ttiei iieitihig
that tt;e. .,Li till t "t tear; shltl~
very many thousand, will it call to
another world. I regret exceeingly
to see that it is so near the birthday of
a ?nighty monarch,
England will have cause to weep
I apprehend also some mad attempt
on the inviolability of old England's
coasts, diiring the reign of this eclipse,
or other insult to the honor of En;;. t
land's flag: it will be avenged. An.
dciii authors say that an eclipse of the
Sin in the face of Geminii, "causeth
dissention anong puljests, inveterate
hatred and sedition. and a contempt
of both the laws of God aid man."
The outcry raised by people in non.
slaveholding S:ates agalinst slavery
un11poses upoin no one but theinselves.
Ae Noirtliern men I better than South
een '? Are thev more humane, merei.
tful and generlouis ? Is human nature
North of l asi??n and .Dixon's line 1
difl'erent thing (roan human nature
South of it ? Why should people be
;ii're coin laissionate and miore be.
nevo lent t here than they are here ? t
What makes thern so ? And how do .
they show iU ?
Did they ever hold slaves ? WhIi at
has beconie of those slaves? Did
Ihey give theni away ! Not a bit of
it. Before tlir law abolishing slavery
i. eti into op eratioin-wvhich 'as not c
till sh.iverv eeased to be profitable
they sold everythIiung black in their
loisses-ion to the Southern States.
\\hat an illustration of disinterested
Iphiilntlhrlopy. Why did they nout set
u- a better example.
1)id their pcple ever have any con
nexion with the slave trade ? AMost
undnhuibtetdly. They were the prinei
Ial uniln who carried it on. T'hey
imade )arge fortunes by it. It is ai
cnious fact, that, until the Arerican
ge:Ulirutnment passed laws against the
slave trade, Nurthern phianthropy
wa";s never excited) upona the stuiteet of'i.
I:aI.e they ever shown their exces.
sive eomilpassion for the slave by con.
tributing the mnoney I Iade in the siave
tradhe, or in any other wa-, to his
eiinancipatiou ? Nut at all. Tlhey hae
built up colo)s.al fortunes and ainam
ioth cites npon stave labor. But
I lh-y keep a ti;ht grip of every dirne.
I 'iy v"l I not buy the freedtlomi of
slaves. They will not aid the fugi. I
live nlegro who has escaped fi omii sla.
very. to escape fiomi starvation. Tley
wifl not shiow inery to their own
white pear, nautcht less to the blacks of
,liot her seet it'l.
Whi t ihen. ie they raise such a fuss
alut slavery ? Not bcause they are
:more sy i tnathisiug or iore limnaune
that) ot hers, fihr true hinnanity and true
Sylupatlhy show themselves in fruitful
Iee,.;, and not in barren words. It is I
easier to pick flaws in your neighbor's I
character thelm to reform i your own.
I0 or eover, the outery against the noni- c
gal sahiverv of the black laborer diverts
at tentioin ftnai the real slavery of the
. r:hein laborer.
Northern abolition is made up of
fanaticiinit, e. v. hatred, and all un
ehatritall!eue.s:. It is a thing of the
head tan1.d ti' the finey. The heart has
niothing to do with it, except in its
waist passinits. Antipathy to the 11
aister, not sviuatlhy witut the slaves, I
is its iruh g pt iinci ple. Again we say
if these by' ' pocrite I nup1 ose uiponl themii
.selvyes, they imposei uponh lol lit n~e else.
Rich mondt Dupat(ch.
(1 vsUM Foa11 (hmnDENING lURPOSEosks
--'1 his valujable I'ertilizter is not yet
-lhalf'appreciated by sou thein gardeners I
As at mi.tnnrie for poor' soils, it is valu- ia
Iess-j; its chief' beniefit arises fromi its r
pow~er' of' holding amnd fixing the ammao- o
iiia w hich ise~s fromt manurlle alrieadhy t
in the soil, and we look upon aniything<
as maulite thatt is tfod for plants,
whbet her it comeIs Ifroml the stable or t
the swi op. Froi m the sul phaur ini
Gyp*fsura, it, is a g reat, pr'evenutative o1 (
wormiis; gardenis well dIressed with) it t
will be e'xemptt fromi the eut, wormis.
Yoiing cabbages and turlipjs sprinikled
with ini thir gernnaltinig stalte will be
exemlpt friomi the ravages of the greenm
wt rm1. G..uano is donubly increased in
valoe by being suwed withl plaster.
Th'le past di sunin er has f'ully (level
oped the uitility of' Gypsumu ; whenever
wie applfiied Gypsum to the onions,
Elngl ish peas1, pOtalt oCs, or' meloins,
there we have had the finest crops not,
withs'taindiung the drought. WVe observe
when t here hats beeni no0 deow att night,
anul all vegetation looks parchied and
d ry, wher'e the Gy psumi hats beent f'ullby
used in the gau deni, there is a damap.
wass in the miorninmg like a d~w hand I
tallien. It, is asserted by an einlent r
Northern ll urtienbhurist, that G3 psumn I
is possitively inijurious to strawberries; I
.we have iio doubt but it stinmlates I
the vine into too rapid a growth, anld
as we of the South want fruit inlIsted 1
of vitne, it should be uIsed cautionisly..
hnt for- galrden vegetables, where those
vegetales have any13 thing t) feed upon,t
Gysud is a1 great .promoilitor of'lappu io
tite by mioisttenling the food re' r .
.he roots to take up with their thousand
The Judges otften tell stories on the
nembers of the bar, albeit they ar':
nuch oftner the subjects of stories
henselves. We lately heard one of
he firmer illustrating the propriety
)f "lettin' well eno'lg alone," by the
An alliry case was cn trial in the
iircuit Court of Pike county, in which
one six or eight peace breakers were
epresented by almost as many law
ers, each of whom, in turn, put the
mnly witness for the State through the
ortuires ofa tedious cross exen:tiationt.
Cat , a well known Montgomery
Practitioner, was counsel for a big
clack looking fellow in the crowid, who
nswered to the nane of Salt(ottall.
ks to this defendant, the only proof
vhicl was elicited on the exariiination
n the chief of ;lie witness forn tht pro.
cution, was that-to use the peculiar
bhraseology, of the narrator-"wlie
lie rest on 'em a cussin' and clinchin'
nd pairing ofi' for a reglar r'val, Sal
nstwal jest kept 'sloshsn' about ." 'Jh
oflicitor and Nat both coanstueted this
o mean that Saltonstall was only
nbovii.g about, drunk among the com
>atants, and the forter did not press
rr an explanation. 'resently, how
ver, it (atie to Nat's turn to crops ex
inite for his ci lit; and as he had
eceivetl 'litc a hatndsone fie, con
idering how things stood, he felt
wond to make somethig of a 'demon.
tration.' -So qjuoth he, wit It the air of
he avel:ger of injured innocence.
" Come, : ittiess, say over again in
shat it was that Mr. Saltonstull had to
o with this aflir ?"
" Saltonstall ? Why I've told you
everal times. the rest on 'em clinhled
lid paired off; but ,Sal!trstall, jest
":. elosk h2e about.
Ah,.my good fellow.' exclaimrd
:at, quite testify, 'we want to know
hat that is. It isn't exactly legal
Viidence in the shane you put it. Teil
s what you iiean by 'alushin' about.'
" Well,' answered the witness very
eliberately. '1'li try. You see, .John
hewer and S kes they eiinebl and
>nt. That's in Ilega farm, ain't it ?'
" Ohl, yes !" said Nat-"go on ith
"Abitey adlllacktinan thten pitch
d intoi , e tnother, and I3laclman, bit
If a piece of A.bnev's lip-that's legle
No, ainl't it '"
" Simpson and Bill Stone and Mur
iV, was all to gether on the ground,
bitin,' gougin' and kickin' one ano
cr--that's legle, tot,, is it?
"t Very' !-but g' on !"
" And Salt':nstall made- it his busi
ess to w:dlk backwards and forwards
Iroluigh the crowd, with a big stick in
is hand, and knocked down every
JOsC man in the crowd as fast as hce
tune to 'emii !" That's what I call
Nat is of opinion. now, that unless
rina facLi case is made out by the
rosecution, on th direct examination
f their witnesses, it is quite a: well
r the delndant to was e his right to
lioOns OF (itaso TAetAS.--\\'e
ave receci vd full confiritation of the
errors reported to ho in course of per
et ration, mi conntection withI the gntano
rade, at. the Chtincha Islands. It. is
ickedl til andt wheeled to the shoots,
applears, by con tract. Thle con trae
a'r has iminpo ted Chtinamnen for this
ork, nearly six htundred of whom are
ow on these islands. Th'ley are .hired
ir hive years, at the rate of' $4S per
nituin. They commientce wor'k ini the
murniog as soon as thev ('an see to
pork. Theyw~ have five totns of guano
) dig and wheel to a distance of' one
ighith of' a mile, It is all, or nearly
ll, so hard that it has to be picked
p' ; anid i f they do not accomplish thes.'
ve toins by 5 o'lock p. in., they are
ogged wvithI raw hide whtips, some five
act long, ree'iv'ing one dozen stiripes,
aebh ofi which starts the blood ; th~en
hiey are driven hack - to finish their
cork. Thle guano has a very bad et
ect upotn -them, swellinig their legs mid
:et. Notwithtstading all these, how
vor, iil they ei' get ailontg, t hey are
omipelled to finish their task. Our
a formstant says:
"I have kntown as many as thirty
ogged in ote day. TPhey- hav'e nom
uniiday allowed with the excoption of
nie mi a year, the same work going
'ii on suinday as during the rest of' the
i'eek. Th'le consequeneo ,ero this ill
reatmienit is sujeidu in various lroimi
chas leapitog .fr'om the rocks one
undred feet high, cutting~ thieir Iiroats,
tud hmurriy thiemiselv'es alive. This last
as actually been the case,' to iiny
nowledge. One miorning, thiree were
'tntd who had so huriede' Lhemselieb '
wo were dead and eo aivl. The
ast recovered to prolonig his missftable
xistence for a short time."
It is time that-the voice of civiliza.
loln thr'onghoiut the world was beard
ii dleinnciun of such hurr'ors as
bzeso.--. 0. Pinyune.
have not travelled in Spain, or we.
little acquinted with the niumers
customs of the country, have an
that all Spaniards are grave and.
like the Castilian.- 'This, how-,
tar frot being the case'.- The pc.
of each province are alnost.as a...
as dill'erent nations, having --nt..,
and customs, dress and dialcet; im
liar to thcmselves. -This peculiarity 1.
doubtless owing to the isolation of the
chain of mountains Whilt intersect the
.pcnisula, and cut off intere"mmiinunica
tion, as well as the - fact that for ag.
these provinces fo:rmed separate an
distinct kingdoms. The rude, bonr:'!
Gal Iician ; the industrious Catalan iI,
idle, jo vial Ardalusian ; the sly, vini..
tive Valencian ; and the grave, digni
lied sons of Castillo, differ from each
other as much as the ihhabitants of'dis.
iict nations. In traveling over this
beautitiful country, upon which it i:
has lavihed the cloicest favors, an
which under the rule of R'imans
Moors, was a land - flowing with mi..,
and honey, the tourist is struck with
scenes of desolation that every when
meet the view. le roams over wild
unpeopled wastes, treeless and arid,
where the melanchliy picture is often
heightened by ruined castles and vila..
ges, the signs of formier -prosperity
passed away. The towns -tlrough
which lie pas es, are-too often the -
abode of l o:erty and wretchedness.
and an air of glooril and sadness perva.
des their silent strets. The seapco
have lust their orimir commereial imkt
portance, and the -ilent nuays, oline"
thronged by a busy- crowd, nue -
the decayed condition of the land.
And wherefore,it may be asked, is tiL.
poverty, desolation and ,wretchedli
so visible i. 3. coluntry wichl a'5s
advantage unsurpassd by ainy in Chr
tendon ; where a fitile soil and eve
variety ol etirnate- admit .f the pr.odii
Lions of ti opical and temperate. zman
where the bowels of the earth y.
precious metals, coal and qiarrit.
imuumerable variety aof imrbule
fine, with a posit ion in.sit fav '
conlnerce, and a line ot.,ane ." 14
ding in f:ne harbors Ye.
is this beautiful and once
land so -fallen ; 'er peaph.
ignorance, and so far behti....
er civilized natio n in arts
tore ? The answer iaa ni'
these words.-bad guver u:. .. _
CLIS in uSpuin.
AN ieX. MPLE FOR Yo UL1.o -
The Mes rs. lIarper., of N
who rect-ntly oat aboint ti1,000,u.
ire, but who are still in indep .
e reumstances-able to re-com.:
operations on an extensivescale
maenced life Ior boys. - The
York '1'immes furnishes the folb
brief history of the caren of the
perM-: .. ..
"The catablishment.uf th'e .
was founded by .aimes Iarpei
oldest of the. four who now cam.n
the firm. He camr. to the city in
a lad fifteen years old, and set
apprenticeship of six: years u dc
& Thonnet, the leadiniig printea
day. 1s brother Joahn soon- i
himu, and lcarn'-d th, trade of Mr.
Sey mour, a printer in John street. a
1819, with a capital James had saved.
the brothers Iopened a small bouok and:
job oflic in Dover street. The first,
book they printed was Seneea's Mor.
als;- the second was an edition of tho
Methodist Catechism.. Thsi first book
they published on their own account
was Lecke's Essay.- on the- Humnan
Understanding. They toiled with un.
remitting industry, and maintained the
highest character for enterprise urid
integrity. Ina 1820 the th r'd brothecr,
Joseph Wesley, joined them, and six
years later Fletcher becameaxmember*
of the firm. -From that time till new ..
they have carried on the -publishing
wvith a degree of well 'directed e:nergz
wvhich has few parallels. -They r
iii-ved to Cliff street about 1820, amid
have add. d one buildig after anothaer
to their establishment as the demands
of their busi.ness required. Tlhie anaount
of books they have issued- is almost
iiiealculable. For the last, few years
they have publishaed, on an average,
twenty-five volumes a' minuate, for t-en
hours a day-and from three to four
thousatnd personis have obtabie'd a live
hahood t'romt theoir emtploy ment."
T1hie liindoosidea 'nf hell-is, to sat
the least; suflicient-ly terrifie to arrest
the attention ot sitmie's the most incor
rigible.--Sofiie say, they,-are miade to
tread on buriaig sandas, or1 shiop~- *.
god istones;:thers are rolle-d- auno.a
thorns aid sptikes and puitrified fle.
others dragged alongj, the rouighest ~
ces by cords patssed through the tesio
plarts f. the Isody ; some are atauck.
by jackala, tigers and elephants; othia
are pierced with itt'rows, heated .w
elubis, pricked wit ht needles, near~
hio t irmels, a,:-i t'uiiee'rtd hv i
liquid firecor bo.ilina oilt
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