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Plillosopihy and Cure of
We give below an essay on the
interesting iand absorbing topic of
temperance reform. To many (f our
readers the views there entertained
will be found moral and worthy of
For the present, I would discuss
an evil which devastates the world at
all times anl seasons, and which it
requires all the world's wisdom and
philanthropy to meet, with all the
l.l power and scientific information
whieb can be brought to bear. In.
t(mperance, the almuot universal
scourge of hunanity, sweeping annu
ally t) a dihonored grave thirty thou
sand of our population, and probably
a mill ion of the earth's inhabitants,
has never yet been rightly understood
and thmoughly treated by the philain
thropists who are engaged in arresting
its march; and their labors, in conse
quence, have been productive of but
imperlect results, in eo:nparison with
what might have been accomplished,
had L,ere been a coirrect understanding
<>f the nature of ti s disorder, and the
philosophy of its cure.
With all due deference for the pre.
vioti ittvestigatiown of physiologists, I
mu-t expres my regret that they have
falile.l to discover a1n enfrce the
onuly great indu valu:ibte practical truth
which, upont this subject. physiq'iogy
Call eotrtiiibutie to philiithiropy-t.W
Wit: tLhe promowihn that intemperane
is strictly a curable disease, and that,
by propier medical atid maoral ieme
-dies, it. may be eitirel i-eimosved firom
the earth, if the nie'essary remedie:- ire
applied on a scale sutliciemly exten
sive. I propose, then, to illustrate:
1. The philosophy of intenhperance
-which explaits its prodiuction and
2. The medical etire and prophy.
3. The moral ctirc and prevention.
Tihe extravagant consumption of
ideoiholic drinks, which is the leading
form of intemperance in our owu
country, is based upon an. appetite,
which manifests itself in many other
modes, none ot wvhich, however, have
been so destructive as that of ailcohol.
Spices, condiments, aid aroimaties;
coffee, tea, tubaceo, opium, eth r,
chloroform, and other narcotics, are
the commen gratifleations of Ihe in.
temperance appetite. In all of these
indulgenees, it exhibits the same
essenmtial character, and love of pleas.
ant stimnulat ion. The universad pres
entee of this appetite for st itmulus, in
all coutntries, and in all ages of' thte
huanrace, especially itn those where
man, as a savage, is stupposed to be
mnore nearly it a s' ate of nature, piov, s
that the love of stimulus is an inhe
rent atppetitc, or organmie tendency of
the human constitution, atnd not the
mere prod uction o'f artificial ctustoim,
imitation, arid disease. If, then, there
be an inherent natural appetite for
stimulation, that appetite must, have
its organie locality, and its laws of
development andl dIeline, which will
enable us to regulate its manifesta
tions. That the love of stimtulation
depends, like the love offood, upon a
particular portion of the brain, was
oe of my earliest discoveries itn seve
rl cerebral physiology. The organ
uponi which the appetite for stimualus
depends, is located Immediately in
front of the cavity of the ear, at the
posterior margin of' the lowver jaw,
about half ant inch below and behind
its socket. Immediately anterior to
the Love of Sthnulus is located the
organ of Alimentivenaess, or the appe.
Trhe exantemnent of the organ of Love
of~timnulus, in an imnpressibIle subject,
creates the trtue drunkard's thirst.
In its first degree of excitemtent there
is mneely. a -desiro fo.r the lig ter
kinds of stimiulatio-fibr such drinks
*ad eider, wine, aind beei; but when the
orgaun is imore intensely exeited, no
t'hig btit the strongest distilled li
a swill satisIy its desires. T1hne
* n. st deleenate females, to whom a
snooi'uil of' arlent unirits wouldr he a
disagreeable and loathsome dose. have
been prompted, when the Love o1
tinulus has been excited, to drink
pure brandy and whiskey with pleas
ure, with as much conort and as lit
te exhilaration as would be experi
enced by an old toper.
As Alimtentiveness produces ade
pressed condition, which we call hun
ger, and which is relieved by iood
so the Love of Stimulus produces a
difl'erent form of depression and appe
tite which is relieved by stimulants,
ifthe organ of' Love of Stimulus be
largely developed, as we generally
find it in the de-seendants of the in,
temperate, which may he counteract.
ed, it is true, by heroie self denial, and
a continual struggle, but which fewt
have the fortitude to resist. TI
victim of this hereditary organizati' ..n
finds himself in a depressed melan.
cholly, and craving condition, until
his natural appetite is gratified
when he finds himself restored to
serenity and omifort, and, perceiving
no evil eflects from its indulgences, he
is tempted to repeat it, with a strong
conviction thatheq is doing a hcalthf'ul
act, and procuring ani innocent pleas.
ure. It is useless to tell such an indi.
vidual that all alcoholic drinks are
essencially poisonous, and.that every
drop which lie takes is an injury to his
constitution. lie knows, experinen.
tally, that such is not the flict. Io
knows that within reasonable limits
lie enjoys the highest h'ealth and
cofnbt, I while indulging in his usual
potatioins, and that abstinence is
inunediately followed by depression
and debility, which predispose to
disease. Ilence, when he is suiioned
by tho ultra advocate of temperance,
in accordance with an erroneous phys.
iological doctrine, to abandon his
usual gratilication, his reason revolts
at the demand, and instead of syrmpa
thizing wilh the cause of temperance,
which has so many earnest claims
upon his benevolence, he is driven, by
the extravagance of its advocates, into
t feiingr of coolness, it is absolute
hostility to this great nid benevolent
We should say to this large class of
our countrymen who are addicted L
vinous and alcoholic potat,iis, not that
they are consuming essential poisoin,
and perpletating m1oral or physiologi
cal .-ins in ever) consumption of their
uN.ual beverage, but, rather that. tile)
are grat'yiig and cultivating an
appetite which, however' apparently
innocent in its present ihrm, is still an
evil, and is ever liable to increase
until it becomes destructive in body
and soul. If, in its exces;, the alco
holic appetite tends to the destruction
of i'll Iihat Is noble aind niany, eyen its
milder indulgences must be, to some
extent., an evil, although less palpable
in their e0'ects. lence, we aire justi.
tied in warning ev 11 the telplierat
con.sumer of wintes, who never rise-, t
alcoholic -xhilaration, against the
error of his course. But in what doe
erro(r i.onsist ? Mark the distinction !
It is not the vinous indulgence whicl:
We shpuid denounce its a physiologienl
-41n, but thl. , orgaii e depravity (I
debility wlich denmitads it, and wieich
is perpetuated by mil ulg.-nimw. Wh
a imiserable patient, exhausted b
hemorrhage and pro.fud e diclargc
requires to be sutstained from hour te
hour b'y birandy, :.monia. and othei
potent stimin ulaints, what is the ph yio
lo gical disorder which we are to lmojurn'
Is it the use ci' bramndy anid amnonit
which prevent, hinm froim sinking sti I
further-or is it the pirostraItitin anit
exhaiustionm whic'h renidered t hesi
stiii.ulants nleces-ary tIi1 is evide'n
that ini his present condition lie canno.
live long; but in wthat manner is he t'.
lie relieved ? Is it by remnoving" al
onceC the stimnaulants upon w.thich hi
dlepend~s, or by restoring the heaLlthy
action of' his constitution, so as t<
rendler them unnecessary? I'm th<.
debility or the stimumlaton the evil?
Thme inuestion answvers itself. In liktn
mannier should we regard all who an<
addicted to alcoholic stimulation as
v'icti ims ofanmi origani c evil or inafirmait
which requires to be rectihied. S.
long as the debility exists, and th<
craving for' stinmilus is perpietuaitod
no legislation to annihilate the alcohol
ic tradle, and nio amnount, of virtuom
self' denial, that we can reatsoniabl
expect, will accomplish what the east
requires. It may he, that. if alcoholi<
dIrinks wvere bianished from society
the constittution oif aman, giftem.d as it i:
w ith imm Jiense powver's of' adaptation
a temperate constitutioni, and that t .<
organi of' theo Love of' Stimulus, atbso
lutely starved into atrophy, wout
gradually cease to be an influenitia
element of the human constitution.
But, in this tedious process a great dea
of' moral evil and unhappinmess w~oum
be produced, anid there is a st.ronj
probability that other stimulant
would be introduced, destructive t<
health and longevity, amnd capable c
prod ucing a gradual deterioration i
the constituttions of mankind.
I hol therefre; thati. t he oxt
nal means for the cure or intemperance
which have heretofore been adopted
the moral suasion, the legal coercion,
and the immense power of'public sen
tinent and juvenile education-are
bit superficial and imperfect modes
of treating a constitutional disorder ;
-methods which aim too much at
efTects, and too little at causes.
Those causes lie in the universal
constitution of man-in his natural or
inherent tendency to nervous depres
sion, with a consequient desire for a
stimulus which shall lift him out of
that sphere of misery toward which lie
naturaly gravitate3. It is not merely
by snatching from the poor victim the
devil's tostrum, alcohol, which all evia
tes his synIptoms, but prolongs and
aggravates Ii constitutional disorder,
that the cure is to be wrought. The
disorder must be cured] by revolution
izing the constitution of the pationt,
and annihilating that craving infirmity
which constitutes the esse .ee of the
disease. Two allpotent cures have
been offered us by the Creator, pl -in
ly and palpably indicated inl the con
sLitutiona of man and of nature, and it
is mervellous, indeed, that a world so
full of learning, so full of benevolence
--paying inillions to two professions
for the cure of body and of soul-has
iot yet understood and applied the
two great remedies-the physiologi.
cal and the moral cure of intemper
In my next, I shall develope the
curability of intemperance by medici
nal and hygicnic imeans-hoping to
satisfy the reader that intnemperance
may be medically treated, by safe,
simple, and wholesome measures,
with at least as great certainty of sue.
cess as we generally experience in the
treatment of any disorder of equal
permanency, magnitude, and danger.
II.-PJIYSIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CURE
Having shown in my last that in
temefiniiu is not merely an affair of
exLernal ci-OumOte1iIes, uut a& ..t;Lu
tional peculiarity or temperament, de.
pendent upon an organic develope
mcnt at the base of the brain, in the
region of th ie appetites, which produces
a nervous exhaustion and deprestion,
with a desire for stimulatior, the
)ractical question before us is this :
In what manner can we elliciently
and pernianenmtl remove the constitu
tional inifirm-ity which demands stimu
The mnodus operandi of the cure will
be best understood by examini'ng
farther the physiological nature of the
Vhy is it than man grtps at ex ter.
nal objects and continually seeks a
supply ofnourishing aind stimulating
food I Why cannot his living organs
contimue to act, and maintain their in
tegrity of suistanee, like a tree in mid
winter, independent of .lood ? Or,
like the frogs which we sometimes see
eneased in the solid stone ?
I he nece-ot-y for food arises from
Ie a!ct t hat. his con.;tititiomi is a disin
tera:hin, or self wasting apparatus.
i From six to tep ointics of carbon,
wit ia propotional quatii ty of nitrro
get, a id arge btindiit. e quanti
ty (several rounds) of oxygen and
hvdrogeii, are daily thrown off and sep.
arate.l frm the substance of his body,
and discharged into thle atmosphere b~y
various routes. Not only are the sol.
idl tissues thus consumaedJ, but thu blood
upon which every process of life de
Ipends, is still moure rapidly wasted;
and uinless this waste be supplied by
o gestedl miaterials, the blood and sol
idl tis'ues are redluced inl eight o; teni
idays, to an extet incompatible with
-life ; and death by starvatiena is the
conseuen~~ice. Thme rapidity with which
the vital power becomes completely
exhausted, depends partly upon the
rich abundance of ahe blood and tis
-sues, and partly upon the vital tonmicity
and firmuness of st~ructure, which resist
waste. In co nstitutions remarkable
for- firmness of fib.re, and a great quan-.
tit~y of rich blood, wvith certain anti
septic qualities of temperament-, ab
stinenace ra.ay be borne for several
-vweeks. Indeed, so many marvellous
stories, of apparent authenticity, have
been told. ini reference to abstinence
fromt food, that it would be impossible
to set any definite limits to the endu
rance of abstinence.
The important hygienic p~oin~t to be
understood is this :that, other things
being equal, the constitution is mnore
independenat of external support, in
propmotioni to its firmness of fibre, and
I the predomiinance of the tonic over the
relaxing elements of the constitution.
I In other words, where the muscles are
I well developed and firm, while the
;viscera which form the various secre
t tions, and thus waste our substance,
are of butt moderate developement, the
f poe of resistance rises to its maxi
i mum ; and the constitution has th'e
least necessity for incessant supp~liefl
-of nourishment andl stimulation. n
the contrary, when the vital tonicity
is moderate, the tissues relaxed, the
viscera active, and decomposition
rapid, life becomes speedily exhausted,
and an incessant supply of nourish
mnent and stimulation becemnes neces
In these remarks upon tonic and
atonic constitutions, I have spoken of
iourishnient and stimulation without
distinction, as they are demads of a
similar iature, associated together,
and belonging to adjacent portions of
the brain. I lence, in the management
of these demands, similar principles
are to be observed. By increasing
the tone and firmness of the constitu
tion, it becomes more buoyant or sell
sustaining less inclined to dissolution,
and more independent of external sup
The tonicity which is needed in these
cases is not merely that which sustains
the muscular strength, hut that also
which sustains the pleasurable activity
of the brain, giving one full possession
of his intellectual and moral faculties.
Whenever these deeline-whenever
hope, energy, enthusiasm, and the
more pleasant sentiments decline in
activity, leaving us a prey to despond
ent melancholy-we Icel the need of
stimulation, and eagerly resort to cof
fee, tobacco or wine.
'The question, then, arises, -whether
it is possible, by any medicinal agen.
cies, to check the more exhausting
processes of life, and to maintain that
buoyant energy of the brain and mus
eular system which miay render the
mind cleerful. happy, brilliant, ener
getic, and altogether above the neces
sity for material stimulants-being a
coiditioni, in fact, to which stimulants
I have long been convinced that a
tonic regimen might be devised, which
would gradually lift the constitution
above the necessity or the desire- for
any species of stimulation ; and that
those articles of the Materia Afedica,
belonging to the class of tmit,;c. would
furnish valuable remedies.
tihe ui uaimiro, and ortifig his
constitution against a relapse inmto in
temperate habits. Other more imime
-liate and eugrossing subjects of atten
tim. and thou'At, have prevented me
!roma following up this suggestion as
its importance demanded, and subject.
img it to the test of an experiment.
Meantime, however, the principle has
been tested by others, and my highest
anticpations have been fu ly verified.
Of all our vegetable tonics, I know
of nione more-valuable than our favor.
ite article, the Hydrastis Canadensis,
or Golden Scal. The oflicinal tincture
of Ilycrastis. in doses of .from five to
twenty-drops, is. one the most. valua
ble and sanativo tonics known, and
has an extensive range in our ,fateria
Afi(bcu. This article, w-hich upon
generaliprinciples, I had recoimended
as one of the best agents inl the treat
ment of intemperance, I have since
learned from my colleague, l'rofessor
N., had been suceesstully used by him,
in the treatment. of a patient of intem
I have also been informed by a
gradiate ofour last medical class, that
he had accidentally verified the princi.
ple in himself, in; taking tincture of
QuaSsia, which he found to be incom
pntible with the use of alcoholic
Tlhe torough and decisive demon
stration, however, of the efficacy of
the tonic systemi has been made by a
physiciami of Texas. A Dr. Urban,
while practising in that State some
years since, finding his supply (ofQuin
ime exhausted, waus comip.- lied to re
sort, to ot her tonies ; and having a good
supply of Quassia, mlade it a substitute
andl prepared a nmedicine w hich an*
swered his purpose. 1mn using this
preparation, lhe discovered accidentally
thot it, possesed a marked antagonism
to mltemnperate habits ; and nlot only
tendled to destroy the desire for alco
holic drinks, but rendered the stomach
repugnant to them, to such an extenlt
as to cause a f rejeit ejection by
vomiting. Being himsel0!f accustom ed
to a very liberal use of spirituous Ii.
(pluors, the discovery was first made
upIoni his own person Hlaying satis
tied hiimself of the thect, he tried anm
other experimenut upon his friend and
associate, Mr. Unrnmey, writh the same
results. Ardent spirits could not be
retained on the stomach, which had
previously been fortified by his tonic
remedy. Satisfied by this experience,
he tested the new remedy thioroumghly
amnlg his f'riends [and patients, until
he obtained sallieient evidenen (of its
value and power in curing conlirmed
habits of intemnperance. Hanving thuns
established the reputation of' his reme
dy ini Texas, he has since located in
Louisville, anmd is endeavoring to pre.
pagate its use, under the title of
"Urban's Anti-Blacchanalian Remedy."
When I first saw his startling an.
nouncement, I took the earliest oppor
tunity to call and obtain seine infer
maton ponthe subject-and received
fro Dr.Urban the nersonal narra.
tive of his experience, with sufficient
testimony to convince me of the val
ue of his remedy. Satisfied that it
must be essentially a preparation of
some efficient tonic, I mentioned my
conviction-and he informed me that
the principal ingredient in his nostrum
was Quassia, from which, with the as
sistance of Sulphuric Acid, he had ex
tracted the active principle.
Whether Quassia is entitled to any
special preeminence over our other
tonics, I think there can be no doubt
that it is a most excellent and efficient
remedy. I am confident, however,
that in various forms and conditions of
intemperance several other tonics
might be advantageously brought to
bear, their use and combination being
varied according to circumstances.
Aniong these, I would mention the
Ifgdrastis Canadensis, or Golden Seal
--Leonurus Cardiaca, or Motherworth
-Euonymus Atropurpureus, or Wa
hoo--and the Lycopus, Virginicus, or
Bugle-weed. The Leonurus is espec
ially valuable in cases of delirium tre
mlenS, and general disorder of the ner
vous tystem.-(Sec Eclectic Dispenea.
To the medical profession, and es
pecially to medical friends of temp ner.
ance, I would most urgently recoi
mend the use of Quassia, in the treat
ment of eases of intemperance, and an
occasional trial of the tonics which I
have recommended, or such others as
they may find useful (Liriodendron,
Iron, Inula, Chainomile, Columbo,
Gentian, Orange Peel, etc.;) and as
the establishment of the successful
cure of intemperance, by measures so
sure and safe, is a matter of such im.
portance, I hope that no one wh has
any success will keep it to'himself. I
would, therefore, most earnestly re
quest physicians who take hold of this
matter to send me a report of the re
suits of their trials, in order that a suf.
ficient mass of information may be
collected upon the subject to establish,
beyond all doubt, the durability of in.
teniperance, and not only enabl phy
inA fi m~hao *hi din'der. but
to arouse the attention of our National
and State Temperance Societies, and
enable them, by the distribution and
application of a medical remedy, to
arrest this terrible disorder. When I
have witnessed the immense moral
power exerted by an eloquent temper
ance agent, in arousing the enthusiasm
of the community, and procuring the
adoption of the temperance pledge,
how deeply have I regretted that he
was not ablo, at the same time, to
carry wi:h him an antidote to the
drunkard's thirst-which would enab:e
him to arrest the progress of the sot,
and to relieve the intemperate from
every difficulty in fulfilling the tem.
To those who do not belong to the
medical profession, I would recoin
,mend the use of the tincture or
Quassia, in doses of a teaspoonful, of
of the extract in doses of three grains,
from two to five times a day, until
the desired impression has been
produced; and, for further information,
would refer them to any intelligent
physiciani, or to the United States
)mspensatory; or if it be necessary to
obtain a remedy completely prepared
fior use, with the necessary directions,
I would refer them to the Anti-Bao.
chanalian remedy of Dr. Urban, of
Louisville, which, I presume, will
soon be for sale in the principal cities
of the Union, if it is not at present. I
p resume that the nostrumi of Dr.
Urban contains but little of impor
tance, except the Quassia. Trhough it
is cont rary to thme fatshionable ethics of
medicine to recommend any nostrum,
even if its principal ingrediente are
known, it would be altogether too
punctilious to be influenced by such
scruples, when the salvation of a single
drunkard is concerned. . .
The discovery ofa satisfacetory med
ical remedy for the eradication of in
temperanoe will rank in importance
with the discovery of vaccination; and
although there may be variousformu.
uke adopted for this purpose, which
imay be susceptible ot continual im.
lproe mment, the principles which I have
thus briefly laid dmown will be suffilcient
to guide a philosophic physician to the
discovery and use of the true rem
In my next, I shall present the moral
cure and prophylaxis of imtemperance.
Ill.--bonar. CURE OF INTEMPERANCE.
Ilavinig showni in the last number
that intemperanco, as a physical
disorder, consists of a peculiar craving
aippetite, conectedl with debility or
depression, which may be removed by
an efficient tonic regimen, let us now
proceed to take a mnore comprehensive
view of intemperance, as a disorder of
the entire constitution of mau, involv.
ing his moral nature, as well as
his physical organism. Intemperance
should be eradicated from. the mental
as wvell as the physical constitution;
and a perfe~ct cnre requires the use of
'moral as well as phvaical medicine.-.
Let us, then,. analyse more thoroughly
the nature of in tenperance. .,
Why is it that men resort.to alcohol.
ic drinks, or to coffee,. opiuiq,..and
tobacco I Is it not for the exhilw.ation
or elevation demanded? Simply .be.
chuse it is not spontaneous-because
the constitution of those individuals
naturally sinks below the elevation
which is necessary to happiness; and,
to rouse the slugglish energy of their
oppiessed functior.s, they resort to a
transient physiological stimulation,
which produces no permanently good
effects, instead of resorting to the more
natural and wiser processes, which
would restore their debilitated facul.
The brain which is still dull fromt
fatigue, from unintellectual habits,
from sensual excesses, or from excess:
ive manual labor, is but poorly quali.
fied to contribute to the joy or plea-.
ures of a social evening; and the
deficiency which is felt is so promptly
relieved by the exhilarating influence
of strong coffee or tea that the tempta.
tion to their use becomee irrosistible.
The selfish cares of business, the
anxities and irritations of life, the
fatigue and depression cf labor, and
the moroseness which settles upon us
when, for days in smccesiun, we have
searcely an, hour gf 4appy~eotions
these, and similar influences combined,
depress the moral nature to an extent
which becomes gloomy, it not paintful.
Agreeable anciety may not be within
reach-books may possess but little
interest to bhose who have not been
familiar with their use-and there
seems to be no refuge but in some
narcotic stimulus, which may deaden
the sensa of mental or physical pain,
much in the way of refining. the coar
and stimulate the torpid organs of the
brain to vigorous action and joyous
emotion. Coffee, perhaps, gives a
partial relief, but it does not meet the
demand. Wine and brandy'are then
called in to rouse the.slugglish facul.
ties, and restore the lost emotions of
pleasure. But perhaps the voice of
Preneae ihedr&famitoppa 8
ro~m the aut1iPA1Jatm , bosa .an ii
safer substitute- is sought and found
in tobacco; and the smoke of the
cigar, or bhe pungent stimulus of the
leaf, spreads an anodyne influence over
mind and body, whilst it rouses
blisLful and social feelings, and happily
removes the depressing elfects of a
long chain of vicLoU infl4ences. That
tobacco, opium and wine have these
delightful influences, in stimulating the
intellect, rousing the affections and
hopes, the genial impulses an. practi.
cal energies, mutay not be known to
those who are most zealously engaged
in opposing their use-for upoir this
subject an incorrect view of physiology
has become widely prevalent..
.But, in truth, the real clarms of
these articles cousi, in the fact that,
for the. tiie ..being;. they rouse oulr
ftultios to' a temnporary energy, and
thus lift us up out of the purgatory
of mental depression into which we
necessarily sink when we violate the
higher law% of our being. Hence, the
demand for narcotic stimulus is always
most prevalent among those who have
departed most widely from the nobler
attributes of humanity. Woman, in
all the bloom and brilljanoe, of her
beauty, with roses poi iur cheok and
celestial softness In her eye, seeming
in our presence as a ministering angel,
presents the higheet type of Jovable
haumanity; and in her constitution there
is no demand for artificial stimulation.
Rum and tobacco are horribly discor.
dant with her delicate and refined
organization--and the, incessant flow
of her energy, Itope, love, and intuition,
need no atificial impietus. But in
piopoirtion as she degenerates from
her beauty and loveliness-in propor
tion as she becomes coarse, animaized,
and vicious-in proportion as she
sinks into that purgatoriai sphere of
existence in which the brutal, criminal
and unfortunate are formd--she losed
her repugnance to alcohol, and clutches
at whiskey and tobacco, to obtain, by
their anodyne power, a fhint tempora
ry conciousness of the bright hopes and
lof1ly emotions which belonged to her
earlier years of innocence and blIss.
Her genial emotione are aroused not
so much by their direct stimiulation as
b~y benumi ng or piralyzinmg her pamnful
sensibilities, and produc-ing al torpid
tranquility of the lower atnimal facul
As with womnr, so with men and
with nations. Men of a lofty intel.
lectual and tioral nature--the high
est type of masculine humanity, ar-e
above the necessity for alcoholic
stimulation, and recoil from every
forma ot' intemperance ;or, if the
indulge in spirituous drinks at all, are
content with the milder beverages, and
lighter wines. On the other hand,
wherever we find course and brutal
humanity, accustomed to quaareling,
fighting, gauming, bloodmshed,. profainiity,
and other formns of vie, we maiy be
confident that a fierce appetite fiir
alcoholic drinks. prya * df
mothing will.preveit their u+-. but the
impossibility ofrprocuring ther. Sav
tge races are Invtriaby drukuards
when thiey have free access to ardent
ipirits ; and whiskey has done m11ore
than the sword of the white man, in.
Jepopulating our continent of its aboI
rigntj. ..y herever, .w find a nation
1harpeteriZed by indifference to ardent.
spirils,. we. may be surp, that they.
ibound in the reflming and humanta
rian sentiaimns. . Indeed.! .i ost per.
qons can realize.these truths il lher
selves, by a lit tle obsers ution. Wh
rmur mioral and.intellec ugl bi:enitie.s
are most clevated, or .when ptainsi!ir'
the most, brilliant.. wnrks. of geaiiu 4. otat
in enjoying the societ. of those whom
we love best, we feel une , desire for
ardent spirits. But whtn..dcpres~ed
by a succession of difficuvlties, and
maddened by wrongs :and.injuries,
which energize every fierce angirniql.
passion, we are enabled to enjoy the
unadulteratpd brandy, ruin. or whiskey
whidh in our better nirifii'ts. would
be harsh and disgusting;.
in short, Withtit dwelling farther
on this prolific theite, which is t,
yet half illustrated, it is obviOtns thit
the cqnsumption of aletoholie drinks,
and other narcotic stimuntis, is att
instinctive effort.of ith - depreswvd aid
degraded cotiPtit;uton, for ther:%iolent;
resturation of its hligher Iowers; its
energies. hopes, loves, intellect. uad
moral sentiiment-anl elfor:.. producing
a transient success but, a perminent,
If then, we woUld relieve inteiper.
ance, we mu-it keep man fromn sinking
into the purgatorial regions of lu'.ata
dispair, where he is teminpt~ed to grasp.
at these termporairy. art ificial mtitiga
tions of his suf'erings. In other words,
we must keep up the energy of the
moral and intellectual nat-re of-iati,
and give to his higher powers - that
permanent and steady vigor, which'
Will eep them sustained throug-i.life..
The tonic recomnended as the mngdioal
remedy, will do a great .dealt e
vent that. exhaustation and dejiessmn
wJk.ben'unib the highe& e
tho, bra j,-niland , v i fl iths U1 a fjrut6
the moral iai w61ivall lh physiciietitre
of. intemperance. But our higher
powers need something inure than a
mere tonlic support. They 'iced to be
strengthened by a systematic exertion
A. considerable amount or this
desirable gratification, is already ac.
conplished by the processes ofeduca.
tion ; dspecially, where that education
is accoilnplished chiefly by oral instrue
tion,. froti tne lips of'able and eloquent
men. And,, it is well. known.. that
intellectual education accomplisies
scr appetites, and checking the ten
dencies to vice. But edbeatimn will
never perform! even . half its duty, in
reformmng man tromn vice until it hius
become not--, iveelv- finllectual, but
emotional and industrial. The itifor.
tunate scholari who has merely a dr) ,
lifeless, intellectual education is
turned adrift upon the world, with a
feebleness in his emotions, and Ann
gour in all tha energies which go to
make a man, with. but.litilp sell ens
taining energy and..spontaneous hap.
pimess,.and with no reruge fron1 the
melaocholy which settles upon him,
but in those pleasures which he has
learned to derive froni literature,'and
the activity of his own intellect. Onf
the other hand, an education' tiihat
embraces the industrial and emotion.
ii elements of our nature, which Keepst
the pupil under the incessant intfluene.
of action, enterprize, social enjot) ment,
eloquence, music, and con tagioaus
enthusiasm,. sends himu fth fuelly
equipped, with an energy oaf charactera
and internal resources tier naupindss,
which defy the depressincglindueiess,
and~eqyp thle aid of stimnulants.
But'ad it is not my purpose now,
to'discuss the education of the voting,
I would refer to the lamentable def~ct
whaich our society exhibits in refe~rence
to the mural imeans of couneraicting
As the world is now going on, atdd
has taaeen goaing oan l'ua thau'ands uf
years, adult meiin mut and 'will hhve
stimnulant-. T'ho labaorinag miss oaf
mankind are dtoomjed toa acteaoaaag of
toil which withdraws thua viiknapwer
from) the brain, to atcc~iuilate 'int tiht
mnusclesq, thus det~erioating ie 'mal
predominance to merei anuntia bl. A
purely tanimnal exisateneo; deprived oaf
emotioal ami int e'llec tal pleasurties,
is barree aind dreiary, if not absilutedy
mnote ny and etiery - is 'band it th
family circle,-but. thte m~any unfava.
rable circamancaies and ecre wha,
beitong tto mt, reider at nut, am im
perfect solacte, aund th.e , on-r-tu.1~a
Iabgre.' baa lint the alltetinauv a.
pioddmng on ihroutgli 'is liue of~ daera
paower'S ot alcohol, wnticla lifia' up a
l.lan brel'fi mtnientfs, . u asomenwlpa.
himt ba$ck.to a still Mloomeiear'raa~tit