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The herald and mail. (Columbia, Tenn.) 1873-188?, December 17, 1875, Image 1

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TIMELY TOPICS.
The California four-mile race has leen
postponed until Christmas, and all pools
declared off.
The New York Herald mates "William
B. Actor's fortune amount to $200,000,
000, instead of $T0,000,000 a at first rep
resented. Peter Cooper , states that hi
wealth is really incalculable. John
Jacob Astor, his eldest Hon, has the man
agement of the immense bonanza.
IsANc r.orT, the historian, is petting up
a petition to congress to erect a monu
ment at Yorktown, Va., commemorative
of the surrender of Cornwallis during the
revolutionary war. Congress passed a
resolution to build such a monument in
17S9, but, like the congressional action
relative to the Washington monument, it
has never assumed shape.
An accidental discovery of great im
portance, if verified, is announced by a
French veterinarian, who, noting that
the "foot and mouth disease" seemed in
variably to spare cattle elected with
cov-iox, has vaccinated a number of
oxen as a preventative measure, with the
result that "not one of the twenty -five
1 leasts successfully inoculated has, up to
this date, shown any sign of foot and
mouth disease," although living among
animals target v effected with it."
Lkvekiukk, the great Pari astrono
mer, who, some thirty odd years ago, by
the single rule of three and a few vulgar
fractions, figured out the existence and
whereabout of Neptune fieforc he bail
ever seen, or anybody else had seen or
heard, or dreamed of that planet, pre
dicts that this is to lie an unusually cold
winter, a'id that immense quantities of
snow will fall in December and January.
The northwestern Indian, though, says
the winter will lie a mild one, find ibr the
sake of his reputation as a weathcrwitch
and also in view of the high priee of
coal and the insufficient thickness of the
overcoat herewith exhibited, welio)ethe
Indian will prove the better prophet of
the two.
Mi!. T. A. Eiusox, the electrician ot
the Alantic and Pacific telegraph com
pany, while experimenting with a light
as a force, has made a discovery which
may revolutionize telegraphy. Mr. Edi-
;n claims that his experiments have re
sulted in the discovery of a new force oj
n nature similar to electricity, and jxx
sesing its efficiency without lieing sule-
ject to many of the influences which
effect the latter. A remarkable feature
in the newly discovered force is that
the earth lias no effect ujon it as a con
ductor whatever. Wires ota-rated by
this new agent can work perfectly lying
on the ground or in any ositioii so long
as they are unbroken. (J lass, however,
n a conductor.
"Mif. can t
sit down," said a female
inspector at New York
custom-house
the other day,
as she observed a
iauy wno nail jus
-t come oft" a Hamburg
steamer standing on the wharf. The
new arrival was pretty, but she looked
very wear-. They took her, protesting
against the outrage, into a dressing
room, ami penetrate'! the mystery of her
make-up, they discovered that from her
waist down .she was a solid mass of
smuggled hair. Luscious golden tresses
twined themselves around her dainty
limbs and surged to her waist, mingling
with raven locks and auburn ringlets.
The officer stripped her, and .-die then
was able to sit down. She. was import
ing the obi mh-r for a fashionable. Ilroad-
wav human hair dealer.
E.';i.fsil detectives also find it is
raner and cheaper to lirilie liurglars to
deliver up their plunder than to conieI
them to deliver up themselves. The
AllK'tt institute was rohliod of a silver
service valued at 000 guineas and other
articles of value. The police rushed
alwuit in bewildering fury, but found
not tody to arrest and no silver. Present
ly a good-natured fellow offered to bring
all the plunder back on receiving 100.
A check was made out, ami the plunder
was lound secreted in a tunnel near the
town and brought back without injury.
And now Dundee debates whether com
pounding a felony is not the cheapest
way of dealing with it. It is certain
that the police does not pay as an invest
ment, though like an old Hint lock with
out stock or barrel it does create a w.ni-
uernii lecim-rot security.
Tin; Edgar Thompson steel works of
"Pittsburg, Pa., have just rolled and de
livered to the Pittsburg, Cincinnati and
St. IiOiiis railroad company, a large or
der oi steel rails oi sixty feet in length
each, iliese are the first rails of this
length ever rolled in this country, and
the first steel rails of sixty feet in length
ever rolled in any part of the world.
Iron rails of almut sixty feet were suc
cessfully roiled in J.ngland some time
ago, and mention was made of the fact in
the London Times as a remarkable event
in the manufacture of railroad iron. The
difficulty attending the production of
t ails of more than thirty feet in length
is that of handling the mass of steel to
be rolled. An advant"' e w hie' he long
rails are said to posses is thai of cheap
ness. They are sold at as low a rate as the
shorter, and the saving of time consumed
in laying them is considered by railroad
men to make them desirable for use from
an economical point of view.
Tin: right honorable Stephen Cave,
English paymaster-general, has gone to
Egypt to investigate the condition and
prospects of the khedive's finances, which,
through the great expenditures on public
works ami the army, have become rather
depressed. Egyptian securities fell,
with those of Turkey, not long ago, but
the embarrassment must be only tempo
rary, as the enormous fertility of Egyp
tian soil insures good crops and Khedive
Ismail is, moreover, making a live coun
try of the ancient 1. ind." During the ten
years ending Sept. 10, 187.'J, the expen
ditures of the Egyptian government ex
ceeded the revenue by about !?f!.1,O00,
C(N. Of the disbursements 530.000,000
was paid a a tribute to the sultan o
Turkey, n.oM.oot) v:is absoiled in rail
road enterprises, and jSrt,i.K'M,ooo in the
Suez canal. In 1S7; a new loan was ef
fected of about $t'0,OO0,Oon, making the
total funded debt ?2r0,00o,000. The
floating debt is estimated at 100,000,000
more. The difference Ix'twcen Egypt
and Turkey, however, is that Egypt has
a good ileal of substantial improvement
to show for her exK'nditures, while the
sultan has frittered his money away on
household expenses, harems and fire
works. As England holds a large pro
portion of Egyptian Ixmds, it can
readily lie conjectured that it will one
day assess the land of the Pharaoh's,
and the English paymaster's visit is
probably homefhing more I li.iu a p:li s
si.)ii;d call of all accountant f o si raigh ! n
up a set of bwiks which have been poiulv
By HORSLEY & CO.
LATEST NEWS SUMMARY.
There will be no sales of treasury gold
ordered for December, the currency bulauce
being large enougn. i lie secretary oi the
treasury says sales are ordered only to re
plenish it.
Judge advocate general Joseph Holt,
ha been retired upon, hii owa application
and assistant judge advocate general Win
McKee Dunn has heen appointed to fill the-
vacancy, the appointmeutto date from Dec. 1
There will he no appointment of assistant
judge advocate general, congress having
passed a law at the last session providing for
the abolition of that oflice wlien it should be
come vacant. -., -..
The following is a correct list of con
tests for seats in the house of representatives
Alabama Dromhcrg vs. llaralson ; Florida
Finlcv vs. Walls; Illinois Lciuoine vs
Farwell ; Louisiana Spencer vs. Morcy
IJreux vs. DarralT; Massachusetts Abbott vs.
Frost; Minnesota Cox vs. Strait ; Xew York
Lowry vs. Xorton; South Carolina .Lee
vs. Raincyj Butts vs. Lackey ; Virgin ia
Piatt vs. C!oode;'IJaho Territorv Fern vs.
Dennett; Utah Territory Haskin vs. Can
non.
Information received from the Rio
Grande is to the effect that the troubles along
that river, growing out of the tattle raids by
Mexicans, are as bad as ever.; Tho Mexican
raiders have a eontmrt to-rielirer 18,000 head
of cattle at Monterey, and expect to steal
lliciii from Texas. It lias been ascertained
that one great dlflicuPy -under' which the
Mexican government labors U that, in send
ing soldiers to the frontier to prevent cattle
raids, they often, desert, 4 and Wcome cattle
thieves tUciusel ves, Urns adding to the num
ber of depredations instead of decreasing
them. The cattle thus stolen are shipped
after being run into Mexico. Cortina him
self.was detected some time ago in shipping
cattle from Bagdad, n small town on the
south bank of the Jiio Grande, for Cuba
such cattle bearing the marks of Texas
owners. It is also known that these cattle
thieves are engaged to a great extent in
smuggling goods into Texas, and on their
return earrv cattle with them.
KOUTI1.
The supreme court of Tennessee has
confirmed the senteneos of John Jefferson
and Milton Mcbean, convicted of murder
and sentenced them to lx hanged Jan. 7, the
former nt Memphis and the latter at Jackson
Judge Farter, of the United States
court for the western district of Arkansas,
which includes the whole of the Indian Ter
ritory, has opened business for the season,
with over one hundred murderers, horse
thieves and other criminals at hand for him
to pass judgment upon. There are twenty
murder eases to be tried, four hundred wit
nesses are' in ftttriufrinise, nnd the fees for
witnesses and jn'rors 'amount t?iX0eaeh day.
The Memphis Avalanche says," More
than $10,onn,Oo worth of cotton has been
marketed here since the season opened on
the 1st of September last, and this amount is
but little, if any, liioie'than one-fifth of that
which will be handled here this season."
Many well informed cotton men esti
mate the present crop of llr.it staple at four
and n half millions of bales,' of i"o pounds
each the largest t-ince the Mar. The value
placed on the erop.l of cotton, sugar, mol isses
and rice madu iliis year in the south is .-ilmitf.
three hundred millions of dollars, while or
grain, meats mid other articles of consump
tion heretofore purchased in the west, there
will be a saving of at least . I. -.,000,000 to the
southern planters on account f the increased
home production.
r.Avr.
The leading bankers and business incji
of Xew York and other cities are taking
measures to induce congress to repeal that
portion of the revenue laws requiring a two
cent stamp to be fixed on all bank cheeks.
Senor Miguel de Aldamn, the Cuban
financial agent in Xew York, states tluit he
has " under his control" of the last isiie of
t ulian liomls si;,,sii,..oo. .Mr. -Miguel is
wailing anxiously for Cnited States recogni
tion. -
The total value of' silk manufactures
landed at Xew YnrJc in November, was $!fio,"
:;so, and since July 1, $IO,.jtO, toil, against
l,iri;,170, and !f 1 0,-i:-.l.v; for the corres
ponding dates last year. Since July 1, 4,o;i(l
bides have been received, an increase of I'.j
per cent, over the same months in 1ST 4.
n':T. ,
The Dl.uk Wills have been evacuated
by the military, aud .miners are said to be
going in by the hundred.;.
(Jen. James S, . Ilrisljiu , writes to the
Omaha Herald thai thef crops; in Nebraska
this year huve becu enormous Mid that the
state has been fully restored to the prosperity
it enjoyed before tlnv grtissiiopper scourge.
All of the graiu planted after the destruction
in .tune matured perfectly.
Late Cuban advices report that quite
a large force of Spaniards were decoyed into
an ambush and slaughtered.
There is a remarkable comparison to
be ma le between the French and Ccrman
nations in regard to financial matters. The
(iermans, notw ithstanding the large amount
they received from their neighbors, arc get
ting deeper into debt. The budget for lsr.
shows a deficiency of ."0,000,000 marks, while
the French revenue for the year up to Xo
veaibcr 1. exceeds the estimate by 110,000,
tKHl francs.
A Word to .Mot Iters.
All over the land women are feeding
their babies from "nursing lmttles" with
white rulilier tops. Traveling in Isiats
or stages one sees dozens of little crea
tures, pale and miserable, tugging away
at those horrible tilings, wdiile their anx
ious mothers " wonder'' what is the mat
ter with them; she would do anything,
to have them happy, smiling, healthy
babies once' more." Ami all the w hile the
poor souls do not know that there is
death in those white rubWr bnttle-tops.
The preparation used in bleaching rubier
i-i a horrible and deadly poison, ami the
constant mumbling and chewing rubber
so prepared places a child's life, in dange.r.
Paralysis bus been caused by it. and many
a baby dies front nuM-Uic rca&ui: Prob
ably the imrajng-hotfle,'as 1t now'cxists",
will in a tiling unknown in the next
generation, for. already a French mother
or nurse, convicted of putting one to a
baby's lips, is lined twenty francs or im
prisoned ten days, ami to wll one in
France is a crave misdemeanor. Dut it
is the babe of to-day that we must think
of, and any mother who cannot procures
nursing-bottle with no rubber about it
would "certainly rather feed her child
slowly with a t-poon than watch its
agonies when it has ln-en thoroughly
Miisoued with while oxide of mercury
and kindred drugs. 1 love the babies so
every one of them I cannot Is'ar to
see this thing done to them through the
ignorance of those who would fain die to
save them pain. And if only one or two
mothers who read this article will throw
away that deadly thing, the rubln r-hot-tle,
and feed their babies from clean,
pure cups with well cared-for silver
spoons for a while, helping nature along
by gi.vingthe weakly child a few sion
fuls of real beef-tea every day. 1 know
I'nat they will be glad that I have written
ngaiiiT.t what often stems to lie baby's
only comfuit and mol her' s only re-t."
Jl'iry Kyle ValUif.
THE MESSAGE.
THE TtRST CEXTUItY OF THE REPUBLIC.
A Kcview of the Condition and Affairs
of the Union.
The Educational Question A Consti
Ititional Amendment of the Fullest
r"; . Scope and Tower Sug
gested. Sectarianism Opposed Compulsory
Kd ncal ion,and au Educational
- Qualification for Voters
Recommended.
Suggestion that Church Properly
Taxed, ami that Polygamy be
Suppressed Kesuini
tlon ofSpecie Pay
ment Urged.
he
No Present Chance for the Cubans-'
The Spaniards Threatened Mexi
can Marauders Alabama
Claims Ocean Tele
graphy, Etc.
To (lie Senate and lluu.se of Representative.
In submitting mv seventh annual message
to ongress, iu mis centennial vear ot our
national existence as free and independent
people, it affords me great pleasure to recur
to I lie advancement that lias been made from
tlie time ot the colonies, one nunilreu years
ago. AVe were then a people numbering only
.i,000,ooo; now we number more than 40,-
000,000. Then industries were confined al
most exclusively to tillage of the soil; now
manufactures absorb much of the labor of the
country. Our liberties remain unimpaired.
The bondsmen have been freed from slavery.
We have become possessed of the respect, if
not friendship, of all civilized nations. Our
progress nas been great in all uie arts and
sciences, commerce, navigation, milling, me
chanics, law, medicine, etc., and in general
education. 1 he progress is likewise encour
aging, our thirteen States have become thirty
eight, including Colorado, which has taken
the steps to become a State, and eight Terri
tories, including the Indian lcrritory and
Yhuska, and excluding Colorado, making ter
ritory extending from the Atlantic to the
Pacific. On the South we have extended to
the fiulf of Mexico, and in the West from
the Mississippi to the Pacific. One hundred
years ago the cotton gin, the steamship, the
railroad, the telegraph, the reaping, sewing,
and modern printing machines, and numer
ous other inventions of scarcely less value to
our business and happiness, were entirely
unknown.
Iu 177G manufacturers scarcely existed,
even in name, in all this vast territorv, in
1S70, more than 2,l0,000 of persons were em
ployed in manufactories, producing more
than $2,100,000,000 of produce, in amount an
nually nearly equal to our national debt:
from nearly the whole of the population of
10 being engaged in the one occupation ot
gricnlture, in 1S70 so numetous and diversi
fied had become the occupations of our peo
ple, that less than 6,oX,000 out of more than
40,000,000 were so engaged. The extraordi
nary cttcct produced in our country bv a re
sort to such occupations lias built a market
tor the product of fertile lands distant from
the seaboard and the markets of the world.
The American system of working the various
and extensive manufactories, next to the
plow and pasture, and ndding connecting
railroad and steamboat lines, lias produced
in our distant country results not equaled by
the intelligent parts of other nations. The
ingenuity and skill of American mechanics
has been demonstrated at home and abroad,
in a manner most flattering to their pride.
But for the extraordinary genius and ability
of our mechanics, the achievements of our
agriculturists, manufacturers and transport
ers throughout the country would have been
impossible of attainment. The progress of
the miner has also been greatly promoted.
if coal our production was small"; now many
millions of tons are mined annually. So with
iron, which formed scarcely an appreciable
part of our product-half a century ago. AVe
now produce more than the world consumed
at the beginning of our national existence,
i-ead, zinc and copper, from being articles of
import, we may expect to be large exporters
of in the near future. The development of
gold and silver mines throughout the States
and Territories has not only been remarkable,
but has had a large influence upon the busi
ness of all commercial nations.
A fl.K.V FOR POI'I I.AK F.PfCATIOS.
Our merchants, iii the last hundred years,
have had a success and have established a
reputation for enterprise, sagacity, progress
nnd integrity unsurpassed by people of older
nationalities. This good name is not con
fined to their homes but goes out on every
sea and into every port where commerce
enters. With eipual pride we can point to
our progress in al! of the learned professions
as we arc now nbout to enter upon the sec
ond centennial. Commencing our manhood
as a nation, it is well Jo look back upon the
past ami study what will he best to preserve
ami advance our future greatness, from the
fall of Adam for bis transgressions, to the
present day, no nation has ever been free
from threatened danger to its prosperity and
happiness. We should look to the dangers
threatened and remedy them so far as lies
in our jior. We are a republic where one
man is as good as another, before the law.
Under suetj a form of government it is of the
greatest importance that all should be pos
sessed of education and intelligence enough
to cast a vote with a right understanding of
its meaning. A large association of ignorant
men cannot, for any considerable jniwer, op
pose as successful a resistance to tyranny as
oppression from the educated few ineyitably
sink acquiescence to the will of intelligence,
whether directed by the demagogue or by
priestcraft. Hence, the education of the mass
becomes the first necessity for the preserva
tion of our institutions. They are worth
preserving, because they have secured the
greatest good to the greatest proportion of
population of any form of government yet
devised. All other forms of government ap
proach it just in proportion to the general
diffusion of education and independence of
thought and action. As the primary step
therefore to our advancement in all that ha-s
marked our progress in the past century, I
suggest for your earnest consideration, and
most earnestly recommend it its u constitu
tional amendment, and that it be submitted
to the Legislatures of the several States for
ratification, milking it the duty of each of the
several Stales to establish and forever main
tain free public schools udequnte to the edn
eation of all the children in the rudimentary
branches within their respective limits, irres
pective ot sex, color, birth-place or religion ;
forbidding the teachings in said schools of
religions, Atheistic or Pagan, taxing and pro
hibiting the granting of any school funds or
school taxes, or any part thereof, either by
legislative, municipal or others, for the ben
efit of any other object of any nature or kind
whatever, iu connection with this important
question.
taxino rumen PRori-iRTv recomvexpkh.
1 would also call your attention to the im
portance of correcting an evil that, if per
mitted to continue, will probably le;d to
great trouble in our land before the close of
the nineteenth century. It is the accumu
lation of a vast amount of untaxed church
property. In 1S."0. I believe, the church
property of the UnirCit States which paid no
tax, muuicijal nor State, amounted to about
M ,000,01 mlSiiOthe amount had doubled;
iu fS7.r it is about $1,000,000,000; by 11XKI,
without check, it is safe to say this property
w ill reach a sum cxceeding?.'5,0(KVl0".oo0. So
vast a sum, receiving all the protection ami
benefit of the govt runient, without bearing its
proportion of the hardens and expense of
the same, will not be looked upon acqui
escently by those who have paid taxes. In a
growing country where real estate cuhauces
so rapidly with time, as in the United States,
there is scarcely a limit to the wealth that may
-be acquired by corporal ions,religious or other
wise, if allowed to retain real estate without
taxation. The contemplation of so vast a
properly as here alluded to, without taxation,
may lead to sequestration w ithout constitu
tional authority, and through blood. I would
suggest the taxation of all property, equally,
whether church or corporation, exempting
only the last resting place of the dead, and
possibly, with proper restrictions, church
edifices.
Our relations with most of the foreign
pow ers continue on a satisfactory and friendly
looting. Increased intercourse, the extension
of commerce and cultivation of mutual in
terests have improved our relations with a
largo majority of the powers of the world,
rendering piaetieable the peaceful solution
of questions w'.ieh. from time IM time, arise,
leaving few which demand extended or par
ticular notice. Correspondence of the IV
piirtmcnt of State w ith our diplomatic repre
sentation abroad is transmitted herewith. I
COLUMBIA, TENNESSEE, FRIDAY,
am happy to announce the passage of an act
by the General Cortes, of Portugal, proclaimed
since the adjournment of Congressfor the
abolition of servitude in Portuguese colo
nies. It is to be hoped that such legislation
may be another step toward the great con
summation to be reached, when no man shall
be permitted, legally or indirectly, under the
quasi excuse or form of a law, hold his fellow
man in bondage. 1 am of opinion, also, that
it is me ouiy oi uie i niteo riates, as con
tributing toward that end and required by
the spirit of the age in which we live to pro
vide, bv suitable legislation, that no citizen
of the United States shall hold slaves as projv
erty in any other country, or be interested
therein. Chili has made reparation in the
case of the whaleship, Good lleturn, seized
without sufficient cause, upwards ot forty
years ago, though she had hitherto denied
her accountability, the denial was never ac
quiesced in by this government, and the jus
tice of the claim has been so earnestly con
tended for that it has been gratifying that
she should have at last acknowledged it.
The arbitration in the ease of the United
States schooner Montijo, for the seizure and
detention of which the government of the
United States of Columbia was held account
able, has decided in favor of the claim. This
decision has settled a question which has
been pending for several years, and w hich,
while it continued open, might more or less
disturb the good understanding which it is
desirable be maintained between the Repub
lics. A rfciprnritr treaty with the King Ct
the llawaian Islands was concluded the same
month, as it contains a stipulation that it
shall remain in. effect until Congress shall
enact the proper legislation for the purpose.
Copies ot the instrument are herewith sub
mitted, in order that if such should be the
pleasure of Congress the necessary legisla
tion upon the subject may be adopted. In
March last, an arrangement was made through
Mr. Cashing, our Minister in Madrid, with
the Spanish government for the payment by
the latter to the United States, of the sum of
$so,000 iu coin for the purpose of the relief
of the families or persons ot the ship s ni-
pany, and certain passengers ot the ir
ginius. This sum was to have been paid in
three installments, at two months each and
it is due to the Spanish Government ilia'. '
should suite that the payments were fully and
speedily anticipated by that Government, aad
that the whole amount was paid within but a
few da3-s more than two men His from the
date of agreement, a copy of which is here'
with transmitted, and, in pursuance of the
terms of the adjustment, I have directed the
distribution of the amount among the parties
entitled thereto, including the ship s com
pauv, and such ot the passengers as were
American citizens.
THE (TBAS QUESTION.
Payments are made accordingly on appb
cation of the parties entitled thereto. The
paper has furnished no evidence ot an ap
proaching end ot the ruinous conflicts which
las been raging for seven vears in the neigh
boring island of Cuba, with the same disre
gard of the laws of civilized warfare and of
the just demands of humanity, which have
heretofore called forth expressions ot con
demnation from all nations of Christendom,
which they have continued to blacken. The
sad scene of desolation, ruin and pillage are
pervading the rich fields of one ot the most
lertile and productive regions of the earth,
and the incendiaries with torch firing planta
tions and valuable lactones and buildings is
the agent marking alternate advance or re
treat of the contending parties. The pro
tracting continuance ot the strile seriously
affects the interests nt all commercial nations
but those of the United State more than
others; bv its close proximity, its larger
trade and intercourse with Cuba, and the
frequent and intimate personal ami social
relations which have grown up between its
itizens and those of the Island, and more
over the property of our citizens in Cuba is
large and is rendered insecure and deprec
nted in value mid in capacity of production
by the continuation of the strife and the un
natural mode of its conduct. The siime is
true, differing only in degree with respect to
the interest and people ot other nations am
the absence of reasonable assurance of ;
near termination of the conflict must of ne
cessity soon compel the States thus suffering
to consider what the interests ol the peoi
tnd their dutv toward themselves mav de
mand, I have hoped that Spain would be en
abled to est iblish peace in her colony, to af
ford security to the property and the in
terests of our citizens and allow legitimate
scope to trade and commerce and the natu-
il productions ot the island because ot this
scope and from an extreme reluctance to in-
tcrlcre, in the most remo:e manner in the af
fairs bv another and friendly nation, especi
ally of one whose sympathy and friendship
in the struggling iiilaney ot ourown existence
must ever be remembered with gratitude. 1
have patiently .'.nd anxiously waited the pro
gress of events. Our own civil conflict is too
recent for us to not consider the difficulties
which surround a government distracted by
a dynastic rebellion at home, at the same
time that it has to cope with a separate in
surrection in a distant colony, but whatever
cause may have produced the situation
which so seriously affects our interests, it ex
cites, with nil its attendant evils operating
directly upon this country and its people.
Thus fiir all the efforts of Spain have proved
abortive and time has marked no improve
ment in the situation. The armed hands of
the other side now occupy nearly the same
ground as in the past, w ith the difference
from time to time of more lives sacrificed,
property destroyed and wider extents of fer
tile and productive fields and more valuable
properly constantly, wantonly sacrificed to
the incendiaries torch.
In contests of this nature, where a con
siderable body of people w ho have attempted
to free themselves of the control of the Su
perior Government have reached such a point
in occupation of territory iu power Mini
in general organization as to constitute
ill fact a body politic, having a Government
in substance, as w ell as in name, possessed of
the elements of stability and equipped w ith
the machinery for the administration of in
ternal policy and the execution of its laws,
and prepared and able to administer justice
at home, as well as in its dealings with other
powers, it is within the province of those
other jiowers to recognize its existence as a
new and indepsndent nation. In such eases
other nations simply deal with an actually
existing condition of things, ami recogni.e
us as due of the powers of earth. That
body politic, which, possessing the necessary
elements, has in fact become a new power.
In a word, the creation ( a new State, is a
fact to establish the condition of things es
sential to the recognition of this fact. There
must be a people occupying a know n territ.i
ry, under some known and defined form of
government acknowledged by those subject
thereto, in which the functions of govern
ment are administered by the usual methods
competent to mete out justice to citizens and
strangers, to afford remedies for public and
for private wrongs, and able fo assume flic
relative international obligations and calla
ble of performing the corresponding interna
ional dnties resulting from its acquisition of
the rights of sovereignty, and power should
exist, complete in its organization, ready to
take, and able to maintain its place umong
the nations of the earth. While conscious
that insurrection in Cuba has shown a
strength and endurance which makes it at
least doubtful whether it be in ihe power of
Spain to subdue it. It seems unquestionable
that no such civil organization exists, which
may be recognized as an independent govern
ment capable of performing it- obligations, ami
entitled to be treated as one of the powers
of the earth. A recognition under such cir
cumstances wculd be inconsistent with facts,
and would lompel the power to give it soon
to support by force the government which
had really given it its only real claim of ex
istence. In my judgment the United Stales
should adhere to the policy nnd principles
which have heretofore been its sure and safe
guides in like contests between revolting
colonies and their mother country, and act
ing only upon the clearest evidence, should
avoid any popularity of suspicion of imputa
tive. A recognition of the independence of
Cuba being, in my opinion, impracticable
and indefensible, the next question which
presents itself, is that of the recognition of
lielligercnt rights iu the parties to the con
test. In a former me-sage to Congress, I had oc
casion to consider this question, and reached
the conclusion that the conflict in Cuba,
dreadful and devastating as were its results,
dil not rise to the fearful dignity of war.
Regarding it now, after this lapse of time, 1
am unable to see that any notable success,
or any marked or real advance on the pari of
the insurgent has essentially changed the
character of the contest. It has acquired
greater age, but not greater or more formi
dable preparations. It is possible that the
acts of foreign powers and even the acts of
Spain herself of this very nature, might be
pointed to in defense of such recognition,
but now, as in its past history the United
States should carefully avoid the false lisrhts
which might lead it into ihe mazes of doubt
ful law and questionable propriety, and ad
here rigidly and sternly to the rule which
has been its guide, and doingonly that whieh
is right and honest and of goo-1 report. The
question of according or w iihholding rights
of belligi rriH-y must he judged in every case
in v.'rw of the particular fact--, miles justi
fied by necessity, it is always, ami justly, re
garded as mi unfriendly act, anil a gratui
tousdeinonstration of moral support to the re
bellion. It is necessary, ami it is required,
when lie interests and rights of another gov
ernment, or of its people are so affected bv a
pending civil conflict as to require a defini
tion of its relations to the parties thereto.
Rut this conflict must be one which will be
recognized in the sense of international law
as belligerence, too, is a fact the mere ex
pense of contending armed bodies and their
occasional conflicts do not constitute war in
the sense referred to. Applying the existing
condition of atliurs in Cuba, the tests recog
nized bv publicists and writers in inter
national law, and which have been observed
bv nations of dignity, honesty and power,
when free from sensitive, uelfish or unworthy
motives, I fail to find in the insurrection the
existence of such a substantial political or
ganization, real, palpable and manifest in the
world, having the forms nnd capable of the
ordinary functions of government toward
its own people, and to other States, with the
courts tor the administrating. of justice, with
a local Habitation possessing such organiza
tion of force, such material, such occupa
tion of territory, as to take the control out of
the category of a mere rebellious insurrec
tion or occasional skirmishes, and place it on
the terrible looting ot war, which a recogni
tion of belligerency would aim to elevate it.
The contest, moreover, is solely on land; the
insurrection has not possessed itself of a sin
gle searort, whence it may send forth its flag.
nor has it any means of communication with
foreign powers except through the military
lilies of its adversaries; no apprehension of
any of those sudden and difficult counpucft
tions which a war upon the oean is apt to
precipitate upon the vessels, both commercial
and national, and upon the consular officers
of other powers, calls for the definition of
their retations to the parties to the contest
considered as a question of expediency. I
regard the accordance of belligerent rights
still to he as unwise and premature, as I re
gard it to be at present indispensable as a
measure of right. Such recognition entails
upon the country according to the rights whieh
now from it, ditticult and complicated duties.
and requires the action from the contending
parties, of the strict observance of their rights
and obligation. It confers the right of search
upon the high seas bv vessels of both parties.
It would sii meet the carrying of anus and
ammunition of war, which now may be trans
ported freely and without interruption in the
vessels ot the L uited States, to detention and
to possible seizures. It would give rise to
countless vexatious questions, would release
the present government from responsibility
lor acts done by the insurgents, and would
invest Spain with the right to exercise the su
pervision recognized bv our treaty of 17!,.r
over our commerce on the high seas, a very
large part ol which m its traffic between the
Atlantic and Gulf States anil the States upon
the I atelic, passes through the waters which
wash the shores of Cuba. The exercise of
this supposition could scarce fail to lead, if
not to abuses, certainly to collisions perilous
to the peaceful relations of the two srates,
There can be little doubt to what result such
suspervision would before long draw this na
tion. It would be unworthy of the United
SUHes to inaugurate the possibilities of such
a result by measures of questionable right, or
especially by any discretion.
Apart from any question of theoretical
right I am satisfied that while the accordance
of belligerent rights to the insurgents in Cuba
might give them a hope and inducement to
protract the struggle, it would be but a d
lusive hope and would not remove the evils
which this government and its people are
expei lencing, nut wouiti araw me i nueu
States into complications w hich it has waited
long and already sintered much to avoid
The recognition of the independence or bel
ligerency being thus in my judgment equally
inadinissable it remains to consider what
course shall be adopted should the conflict
not soon be brought t- an end bvactsof tlie par
ties themselves, and should the evils which
result therefrom, afflicting all nations and
particularly the United States continue, in
such event I am of the opinion that other
nations will be compelled to assume the re
sponsibility which devolves upon them and
to seriously consider the only remaining
measures possible, mediation and interven
tion. Oh ing, perhaps, to the large expanse
of Wider separating the island from the pen
insula, the want of harmony and of personal
sympathy between the inhabitants of the
colon- aiid those sent thither to rule them
and want of adaptation of the ancient celt,.
iiU system of Kurojie to the present times ard
the "ideas whieh the events of the past cen
tury have developed, the contending parties
appear to have within themselves no deposi
tory of common confidence to suggest w is
(luin w hen passion and excitement have their
sway, nnd to assume the part of peace-maker
in tliis view in the early days of the contest
the good offices of the United States as a me
diator were tendered in good faith without
selfish purposes in the interest of summary
peace and in sincere friendship for both par
ties, but were at the time declined by Spain.
With the declaration, nevertheless, that at a
future time they would be indispensible, no
intimation has been received that in the
opinion of Spain, that time has been reached.
And yet the strife continues, w ith its dread
horrors and all its injuries to the interest ol
the United States and of other nations. Kach
party seems (inite callable to working grea
injury and damage to the other, as well as to
ill the relations and interests which depends
on the existence of peace in the island, but
they seem incapable in reaching adjustment,
:uid thev have thus failed of achieving any
success w hereby one party shall possess and
control the island to the exclusion of the
ther. These circumstances, the agency of
others, either bv mediation or bv interven
tion, seems to be the only alternative, which
must sooner or later be invoked, for the ter
mination of the strife. At the same time.
while impressed, I do not recommend the
idoption of any measure of intervention. I
diall be ready at all times, and as equal
friend of both parties, to respond to a sugges
tion that the good offices of the United States
ivill be acceptable to aid in bringing about
i peace honorable to both. It is due to
spain, so far as this government is concerned,
that the agency of a third power, which has
been averted, shall be adopted only as a last
expedient. Had it been the desire of the
I uited States to interfere in the aftairs oi
Cuba, repeating opportunities for so doing
have been presented within the last few
years, but we have remained passive and
have pcrtormcd our whole duty anil all in
ternational obligations to Spain with friendly
fairness ami fidelity, and with a spirit of
patience and forbearance, which negatives
every possible suggestion of a desire to inter
fere or to add to the difficulties with which
she has been surrounded. The government
of Spain has recently submitted to our Minis
ter at Madrid certain proposals whieh it is
thought may be found to be the basis, if not
the actual submii-sion of terms to meet the
requirements of the particular griefs of which
this government felt itself entitled to com
plain. These proposals have not yet reached
me in their full text. On their arrival, they
will be taken into careful examination, and
may, I hope, lead to a satisfactory adjustment
of the questions to which they refer, and re
move the possibility of future occurrences,
such as have given arise to our just com
plaints. It is understood, also, that renewed
efforts are being made to introduce reforms
in the administration of the island. Per
suaded, however, that a proper regard for the
interests of the United Slates and of its
citizens, entitle to relief from the strain (o
which it has been subjected by the difficul
ties of the questions, and the wrongs and
losses which arise from the contest in Cuba,
and that the interests of humanity itself
demand the cessation of the strife, before
the whole island shall be laid waste, ami
larger sacrifices of life be made, I shall led
it my duty, should my hopes of a satisfac
tory adjustment, and of the early restoration
of peace, and the removal of future causes
of complaint be unhappily disappointed, to
make a further communication to congress at
sonic period not far remote and during the
present session, recommending what may
then seem to me to be necessary.
The free zone, so eailed several years since,
established by the Mexican Government in
certain of the States of that Republic adja
cent to our frontier, remains in full opera
tion. It has always been injurious to honest
traffic, for it operates as n incentive to
trailers in Mexico to supply without cus
toms' charges the wants of the inliabitai. ' s
on this side of the line, and prevents the
same wants from being supplied by the mer
chants of the United States, thereby, to a
considerable extent, defrauding our revenue,
and checking honest commercial enterprise.
Depredations by armed bands from Mexico
on the people of Texas, near the frontier
continue, though the main object of the in
cursions is robbery. They frequently result
in the murder of' unarmed and peaceably
disposed persons, and in some instances even
the United States postotlices and mail com
munications have been attacked. Renewed
remonstrances upon this subject have been
addressed to the Mexican Government, but
without much apparent effect. The military
force of this Government disposablefor service
in that quarter is quite inadequate to effectu
ally guard the line, even at those points
w here the incursions are usually made. An
experiment of an armed vessel on the Rio
Grande for that purpose i n trial, and it is
hoped that, if not thwarted by the shallow
ness of the river, and other natural obstacles,
it may materially contribute to the protec
tion of the lierilmeii of Texas. The pro
ceedings of the Joint Commissi! oiunder ihe
convention between the United States and
Mexico of the 4th July, IStiS, on the subject
of claims, will soon be brought to a close.
DECEMBER 17, 1875.
The result of those proceedings will then be
communicated to Congress.
I am happy to announce that the Govern
ment of Venezuela has, upon further con
sideration, practically abandoned its objec
tion to pay to the I nitea States that share
of its revenue which, some years since, it
allotted towards the extinguishment of
claims of foreigners generally. In thus con
sidering its determination, that Government
has shown a just sense of self respect whieh
cannot fail to reflect credit upon it in the
eyes of all disinterested persons elsewhere.
It is to be regretted that its payments on
account of claims of citizens of "the United
States arc still so meagre in amount, and
that the stipulations of the treaty in regard
to sums to be paid, and the periods when
these payments were to; take place should
have been so signallr regarded. . Since my
last annual message the exchange has been
made of the notification of a treaty of com
merce and navigation with Relgium and of
conventions with the Mexican Republic for
the further extension of the joint commis
sion respecting claims with the Haiwaian
Island for commercial reciprocity, and with
the Ottoman Empire for extradition, all of
which have been duly proclaimed. The
Court of Commissioners of Alabama Claims
has prosecuted its important duties very
assiduously and very satisfactorily. It con
vened and was organized -on the 2d of July
18b'7, and by the terms "of the act under
which it was created was to exist foj one year
from .'hut date. The act providedc however,
that should it be found impracticable to com
plete the work of the court before the expir
ation of thej-ear, the President might,by proc
lamation, extend the time of its duration to
a period not more than six months beyond
the expiration of the one year. Having re
ceived satisfactory evidence that it would be
impracticable to complete the work in the
time originally fixed, I issued a proclama
tion, a copy of which is presented herewith,
extending the time of .duration of the Conrt
for a period of six months from and after
the 1!lM day of July last. A report made
through the Clerk of the court, communi
cated herewith, shows the condition of the
calendar on the first of November last, and
the large amount of work w hich has been
accomplished. Thirteen hundred and eighty
two claims have been presented, of which
b'S2 had been disposed of up to the date of
the report. I am informed that 170 cases
were decided during the month of Novem
ber. Arguments are being made and de
cisions given in the remaining cases with all
the dispatch consistent with the proper set
tlement of the claims presented. Many of
these claims are in behalf of mariners, or
depend on the evidence of mariners, whose
absence has delayed taking the return.
Necessary evidence is presented to me that
it will be impracticable for the Court to
finally dispose of all the cases before it
within the present limits of its duration, in
justice to the parties claimed, who have
been at a large expctise in preparing their
claims and obtaining the evidence in their
support. He suggests a short extension to
enable the Court to dispose of all the claims
which have been presented. I recommend
the legislation which may be deemed proper
to enable the Court to complete the work lie
fore it. I recommend that provision be
made bv the creation of a special Court or
by conferring the necessary jurisdiction upon
some appropriate tribunal, for the consider
ation and determination of claims of aliens
sgainst the government of the United States,
inch have arisen within some reasonable
tl-ae or which may hereafter arise, excluding
all claims barred . by treaty provisions or
otherwise.
Il h:is lt'n found iuiiiossiltlc to irivp iriwr eonsid-
eratM.n to llie claims ly the Kxi- utive f N-itaitinenl
of the Government. Subli a tribunal would utford
an oiHrtiinity to aliens other than British siilyit-ts
to present their claims on aeeount of acts commuted
against their jutsoiis or priix'rty during the reticl-
bon, as also to those suim-cis of Oreat Uritiaii wliose
claims, having arisen suhmipieiit to the inn day of
April, lst.-, could not lie pnseiib! to tho late com-.
mission, onr.ini.rif pursuant to the provisions ol
theTreatv of Washington.
The oleetric teleimotli has lKs-ome an essential and
indispensable aelit in the transmission of liusinis
ami social tiiessnps. its oiHrution on land and
witluti the limit ol the particular Mates, ia a neces
sity under the control of the juridieton within
whieh it '.Mierates. The lines on the hi:h srtis, how
ever, are not subject to the purtieular eouti-ol of any
one iroveinmciit. In lsiy.i a ismees-iion was granted
by the I- rench Ooveriimeiit to a conqiany which pro-
osci to lav a cawe troin Hie snores At rnmee to the
"nitcd Mali's. At thaf ttme there was a telesrahliic
connection between the United .States and the con
tinent ot r.uroie through Ihe luis-s-ssioiis of (Jri-at
Britain at cither end of the line The eontrol of an
association which had, at a lare outlay oi eapltal and
(Treat risk, denioustnib'd the practicability of main
uiiing sueh means of communication and corre-
poiidelli-p by this ageney, doubtless involved a (;reat
xienc, nut nosMiiiv not too lanre at the time lor a
iu'oimt reimiiienit ion for so costly an enterprise. It
was. however, a heavy chan;e upon the means of
commtniieation whieh progress in the km ial and com
mercial intercourse ot thewoiM louuil to Ik? a ne-
sssitv. and the olituminii ol this 1 ri-iu-ii concession
bowed that other eapilal than that already invested
ras readv to enler into cnmictitioti. with the assur-
aneeof adequate returns for their outlay. Inipri'ssed
with the conviction that the interests not only of the
jmijiIc of the 1'nited states, but the world at large.
mantleu or woiim iiemanu ttte multiplication ot
such means of eommunieatiou Iwtweeu separated
continents, I was desirous that the promised con
nection Miould lie made, but certain provisions of
this coni'es.sion were deemed bv me to lie objection
able : particularly one,.whieh gave for n lon term of
cars, exclusive right of telegraphic communication
tv submarine cable between the shores of France
and the Vnited States. I could not coin-ede that
any wer should claim the riht to land a cable on
the shores ol the I nitei Mates, or to its citizens, an
eipial right to land a cable on its shoi-es. The right
to control the coniliuons tor the laving ot cables
itliin the jurisdictional waters oi the United Sialics,
conneet our shori- with those of anv foreiirn
tale, pertains exclusively to Ihe liovernment of t lie
United Stab-p, in 'fe-su -h conditions and limitations
as Congress may imihisc. In the absence of legisla
tion by Congress. I u-as unwilling on Ihe one hand
to yield to a fercign Suite the riidit to say that its
grantees ini;ht land on onr shore, while it denied a
similar riizht to our !enple to faitd on its shores, on
the other hand 1 was reim lant to deny to the great
interests of the world., and of' civilization, the laeili
ties of sueh communications as were projwisi'd. I
therefore withheld a resistance to the landing of Min
eable mi the condition that the ollensive inoiioimly
feature of the eoiu-ession would be abandoned, and
that the right of any cable whieh may bcestablir-hed
by the authority of this Government to land on
French territory, and to connect with French land
lines, and enjoy the necessary facilities or privileges
incident to the use thereof, iqion as favorable terms
as anv other company, lie conced'sl as a result there
of. The company in question renounced the ex
clusive privileges, and tho representative of France
was informed that Ihe loterslanding this relinquish
ment was to lie coiistriud as granting entire reciproc
ity and equal facilities, of w hich it hail been de
manded by the opposition to the landing of the ca
ble, was withdrawn. The cable, under this Freneh
.concession, was landd in the inontli of .Inly, lsli;,
and has leen an ellicieni and valuable ai;ent of com
munication Itetween this country and the other eon
tinent. It soon iassed under the control of those
who had the niaiiaeenicnt of the. cable connecting
(treat Britain with tliis continent, and thim what
ever liciirtit to thejpublie might have issued from
coiuiM'tition lietween the two lines was lost ; having
greater facilities of additional lines and additional
security of accident to one of them, but these
increased facilities, aud tltir-. together with the com
bined control of capital, the two eouianies gave also
gri'ater power to prevent the future construction of
other P.ni's, and to limit the control of other lines of
telegraphic comiiiunhsition between the continents
to those posftessint; lini already laid. Wilhin a few
months a cable has ln'en laid, lcnown as the lnited
Stales Direct Cable, coninvling the I'uiU-d States
directly with Great llritarn. As soon as this cable
was reorted to lie in working order, the rates of the
existing consolidated companies were greatly re
duced. S'niii, however, a break was announced in
the new cible, and immediately Ihe rates of the other
line, which had been reduced, were again raised.
This cable licing now repaired, the rates apiear not
to lie psluecisl by either line from that formerly
chaivisl by the oilier company. 'J here is no reason
to lclicvc that lai-e amounts of capital, ImiIIi ai
home and abroad, are rea'fy to seek profitable invest
ment in the advancement of this useful anil niosl
civilizing means of intercourse and corresoiidc!i-e.
They await, however, the assurance of tic means
and conditions on which they may safely be made
tributary to the good. As these cable telegraph
lines connect sr;irate Mabs, there are que-'iioiis as
totheir organization ami control, w tiu-h proUibly rati
lie in-st, if not solely, settled by a convention Ih--tween
the !rsMctivc States. In the ab--iicc, how
ever, of iniernai ional conventions on the snhjs-t,
municipal legislation may sii-ure many points which
ap(Kar to me important, if not ind'e-isMisable, for
the protection of the public ninst the extortions
which may result from a monoHly of the light oji
emtiiig cable telegrams, or from a combination lie
tween several lines.
1. No line should lie allnwisl to land on the shores
of the 1'nited Stales, under the concession from pn
olher iiower which does not admii the riuht of any
othr line or lines formed in Ihe I'mb-d spates to
land and freely connect wilh and oierate through
land fines.
2. No line should le allowed to land on the chores
of the Unih'd Elates which is not by treaty stipula
tion wilh the Government from whoe shores it pro
ceeds, or by prohibition in its charier or otherwise,
to the satisfaction of this Government, prohibited
from consolidating or amalir-iiiatiiiij wilh any other
cable telegraph line, or combining therewith for the
purpose of regulating aud maintaining the coil of
telegraphic communication.'
a. All lir.e should lie bound to give preers-'.etire in
the transmission of the ofhci.il messages of the Gov
ernments of the two countries between which it may
be laid.
4. A ower should ls reservisl to the two Govern
ments, either eonjoimly or to each, as regards the
messages dispatched from its shores, to fix a limit to
the chm-tfcs to lie maintained lor the transmission of
ni-ssages.
I present this ffiibject to the consideration of Cou-gr-ess,
iu the meantime, and unk-sK Congress other
wise directs. I shall not oppose the laudinjr of any
telettraphie cable whieh conipbi-s with and assents to
the intuits aliove enumerated, but will feci it my
dutv to prevent the landimt of any which dies not
conform to the first and vs-oiid points as stated, and
which will not stipulate to concede to this Govern
ment the precedence in the transmission id its offi
cial mesrages, and will not enterinto a satisfactory
arrmrenieiil as regards its charges.
Among the pre-winp and important subject which
n my opinion, the attention of Conilrcss should he
directed, are those relating to fraudulent naturaliza
tion and expatriation. The t'nilcd Sboes. with
great lilierality, otters its citizenship to all who in
Hsd faith comply with the reijtiircuicals of Jaw.
Th-se rtuiri-mciits are simple, and ujm.m as i.nor
ahle terms to the emigrant us the highest prlvdege to
which he is admitted, can or should M-rmil. 1 do
not orirjfis;' any additional requirements to those
which tht law demands, but the very s;inpi,-iiy ami
necssary formality in our law, and have made
fraudulent naiuraMzatioii not tintrcquent, to the
discretion aod injury of all hoHV-st citizens, whether
native or naturalized. Cases ol this character are
continually being brought to the notice of the Govern
ment by our representatives abroad, and also those of
persons resident In other countries, most frequently
those who, if they have remained in this country
long enough to entitle them to become naturalized,
have Kencrnlly. not much over passed that period,
and have returned to the country of their origin,
wher they resute, avoiding: all duties to the Unit.-d
Stales by their uhsunee, auti claiming v bo exempt
from nil Unties t the country of their nationality
and of their residence by reison of their alleged
naturalization.
It is dui to this governnieut itself, and to the
(treat mass of naturalized citizens who entirely, both
in name aud fact, become citizens of the 1'nited
States, that the high privelege of citizen
ship of the failed .states should not be held by
fraud, or in derogation of the laws, and of the good
name ot every honest citizen, (hi many occasions
it has Ikwii brouuut to the kuoleli;e ot the Gov
ernment that cerlilicatesof naturalization an held
and protection or interference claimed, by partie
who admit that not only they were not within the
I lined Mates at toe time ot tlicirpietcua.il natural
ization, but that thev have never resided in the
I uited States. In others, certificate, and record of
court show on their face that the persons claiming
be naturalized had not resided the required time iu
the United totates. In others, it is admitted upon
examination that the risjuii-ementa of law have not
been complied witb. in some rases even, sucii certu
cates hnve been matters of purchase.
- 1 hi are not isolated cases, arising at rare intervals
but oi common occurrence : and which are nqiorted
from all quarters of the idolie. Mich occurrences
cannot aud do not fail to retlect uiion the Government
and injure all honest citizens. Mich a fraud being
discovered, however, there is no practical means
within the control of the Government by which the
record 4 naturalization c:ui lie vacated, anil should
Uie certificate Ixi taken up, as it usually is, by the
diplomatic and consular repiesenlauvcs ol the Gov-
ernmcnt to whom iL mav have been presented.
There is" nothing to prevent the iK'-ou-ilaiiuing fo
nave been naturalized Iroiu oui-nung a new ccrtiu
cale from the court hi place of that which has been
taken from hiui. The evil has lieconie so great ami
of sueh frequent occurrence that I cannot toostronly
recommend tliat some ellect ttal measures ne adopted
to itrovide a tirooer remedy for the vaculinu of anv
records fraudulently, and of punishing guilty punies
to the transaction. In this connection 1 relet also to
the question of expatriating and the election to na
tionalilv, in which the 1'nited Mates is foremost
holdiiiE to the rinht of expatriation, and was princi
tmlly instrumental iu overthrowing the doctrine of
perjictual allciriame. Congress bus declansl the
light of expatriation to lie national inherent right
of all neonle. But while many other nalious have
laws providing what formalith'S shall lie necessary to
work achanne of aUegiauee, the l iilnsl States has
enacted the provisous of a Jaw, and has in no re-
lect marked out how and when expatriation may
be accomplished bv its citizens. Instances are brought
to the attention ot the government where citizens of
the United .suites have naturalized or native born
hnve formally iiecome citizens or subii-ets of forehin
owers, but who, nevertheless, in Ihe -absouce of
hiiv Drovisioos of Ici'isl.-itioti ah t ln-4e o ucst ions when
tnvo Ived in difficult iuii, or when it wt'ins to te fur
their interest, claim to ie citizens ui tue I mtM
Matt1, which they have long Min e at-ami-ined, an(
to which lor years thev have iciiuerou no service nor
had thcinse2vcis in anv way aiiictiiihio. In other
cass naturalized citizens imn,oHutcIy after natur
alization have returned to their native emintry
have become enEUUed in Iiumiics, have a.'evnU'd t"
lice or inrnuit liicoiisi.tntit with Amerienn ciiizeu-
shin. ami erineo no intent to return to the t nitet
Mates until called upon to discharge pome duly to
the country w litre they ore roidin, when at once
they aswrt their citizenship, and call ujnm repre
sentatives of the Government to aid tliem in their
unjust pretentions. It N hut just ire to Umafuie
citizens that no dotiht should exist on sueh ques
tions, aud that tomrress should dctertiiin- hy tho
enactment of a luw how expatriation will le ac-
fonipli.hed aud hang" ot eitizenMiip be et-
tfl Wished
1 also invite your attention to the necessity of ivj
ulalim; by law the tt;Uus ot Asiurieau women who
marrv foreigners, and of defining more fully that of
children born iu foreign countries of American par
ents who may );e residiiitf abroad, and uImj ol some
further provisions rejrulatini; or jrivin hy:tl effect to
niarri;t;ies 01 American citieu oinuitciAn m nni-iii
countries. The correspondence sufnuuted licrewiih
shows a few of the coustMutlv occurrititf questions 011
these poiutx presented to the ortiirrntitii of the
toverument. Thrie are few subject to emrie'e the
attention of Congress on which more delicate rela-
)U'iif are deieudiii.
The month of July last- the building envied for
the Ihiartmrnt of State was t:d;eti possesu M of :iinl
eruiied bv that Jteimrtiueitt. J am happy to miy
that tlie archives and vuluahlu papers of the iov
ernuient in tin custody of that iN pnrtment are now
saiclv deiMitdted and cared properly for.
Ttio rcuort of the Secretary of the Treasury show
the receipt fn.nn customs, for fisal year ending June
M. 17 1. t naye neen 5ibs,in.s.w irj(auu ior uie
fiscal vr ending lune 30. 175. to have Uvn l-7,-KC7.722
a decrcasd for the last fiscal year of $.
$40! Ill Keceiptn Jf miu internal revenue for the
year enanii juue .o. er c m- JIM
the year ending .June 1W. 187 were llO.uuT 4n: 50:
increase 7.5117.70. The reirort shows a complet
history ol 4he working li the Department for the
Jast yearand contains a roeomniemiaiiou lur re
forms and for leiaslati n, in which I concur, but
cannot comment on so f illy a.s I should like to do if
snace would permit i .but will confine myself to
few surest ions, which I look umui as vital to the
beit interests ol trie wnoie jeopie coming minx re
view of the Treasury.
. tmean siHcie resumption. Too much stress can
not lie'lnid uon this quest ion, and 1 hop,' i ongress
mar be induced, at the earliest day practicable to
injure the consummation or (he Act of the lasi Vn
jrress, at its iat session, to brintf atwrnt smvie re
sumption on aud after January 1, l7f. At furthest,
it would le u ureal blessing if this coul l be consummate-'
oven Rt an earlier day. Nothing seems to
nip more certain than that a full, healthy ami jkt
nianent reaction can not take place in favor of the
industries aud financial welfare of thccountiy until
we return to a measure of values recognized
throughout the civilized world, while we use a cur
rency not equivalent to this standard. The world's
recognized standard sjecie Ironies a commodity.
Like tho products of the soil, the surplus seeking a
market wherever there is demand for it. Under
our present system, we should want none, or would
we have any were it not that the customary dues
must !w paid in coin, and because of tho pledge
par the ntere-t on the public debt in coin. Th
yield of precious motals would flow out for the pu
cha-K? of foreign productions and leave the United
Slates he went of wood aud drawers of water Ixvause
of ihe wiser legislation on the subj' t of finance by
nation with whnmjwe have dealings. I am not
prepared to say that lean suggest the -st legisla
tion to .secure the gceat end most heartily com
mended, it will 1k a source of great gratification to
nio tollable to approve any measure of I ' m i iircs
looking effectively toward Mvuring rcMi nipt ion.
Unlimited inflation would probably bring nliout
sptvie pavnicnts more sjieedilv than any legi.-dalion
looking to the redemption of legal tender iu coin,
but it would U at the expense of honor; the legal
tenders would have no value beyond settling present
liabilities, or, pnqterlv speaking, repudiating ihem ;
thev would buy nothing niter the debts are all set
tled". There are a fcw measures which seem to ine
iniMr(nnt in this connection, and what I commend
to your consideration, is n repeal of much of the
legal tender acts as make these notes leceivable
for debts contracted Rtter n date to l?o fixed in au
act of ilsrli, so as lo be not later than 1st January
1S77. We should (hen have quotations at real
values, not fictitious ones; geld would no longer le
at a premium, hut curi'"in y :it h disronui, a healthy
reaction would set in at once, nnd with a desire to
make the currency to equal what it puio!ts to be,
tho merchants, manufacturers, and tradeition of
every calling could do business on a fair margin of
profit, money huving an unvarying value. La
imrersaml all classes who work for stipulated pay
or salary would receive more in I heir income, be
cause au extra profit would no longer U charged by
capitalists to compensate for the risk ofa Uownard
fluctuation in the value of tho currency.
2 That tho Secretary of the Trea-ury he authorized
b) redeem, say not to exceed two mi limn dollars
monthly of legal tenner notes by issuing in their
Mend, along bond, Ioanng inttresi at the rate of
:W25 100 per cent. ler annum of demoniuatioiiN
mnging from S-rWHi to $Hw each. This would in
time reduce the legal tender note- to a volume that
would lie kept f fter it. without demanding redem
tioii in large su us suddenly.
:t. Additional power to In given to the sWretary of
the Treasury to accumulate gold for the final re
demption of the currency, increasing the revenue,
curtailing expenses, or Ifoth. h is preferable to do
lioth. and I recommend Ibat ft reduction of oxcndi
t ore he made herever it can be dour without im
paring government obligations or cripplir g Die due
exivuliou thereof. One measure f.r increasing the
revenue, and the only one, I think, is that of the
restoration of the di.tv on tea ami coffee. These
duthn would add piol.KoIy ?1.""i,(nw lo the present
amount received tor import, and would in no way
increase the priev paid for those articles by lhe
consumers, i hose articles are the product f
countries collecting revenue from e.rts, and as
we, the largest consumers, i educe the duties, they
pi(tn tiooateJy increase them, wilh I his addition
to the icvenu'e, many duties now collivb'd, and
which give hut an in-igniticant retm n for the cost
of collection, might he remitted, and to t he direct
advantage of consumer alone. 1 would mention
those articles which enter into mnnulaciurrs of all
sorts ll duty paid upon such articles iro dirtvtly
to the est of articles when manufactured heie, and
must lie paid for by consumers. The duties not
otilv come from the consume alone, but acts as a
protection to foreign manufacturers of the ame com
jtetiug articles in our own and distant markets.
1 will suggest or mention another subj'vt bearing
uji-mi the problem of how to enable the Sc-i tary of
the Treasury to accumulate balances. It is to devise
Mim ttcr'inothod of verifying chums auainM the
l rover itniri.t than at prex-nt exists, through the
'ourt ot Claims, i-pci ially thse lainis "row ing out
of the late war. Nothing is more certain than that a
large vr ecu I aire of amounts j raised and paid, me
part or wholly fraudulent, or are far in ecc-s r the
real looses MiMMned. The largo amount of h-y
proven on good testimony, acmiding to existing
laws, bv affidavits of tit tiliotis or unscMipuions per
sons to have Uen sustain d on snu.ll farms and
plantations, ore not only far ttfyond the iosohlc
yield ot ttuwu places for any one year, but as every
one knows who has visiP-d the pctmes the poibt
tioiis, thev are. in many instances, more than the
individual claimant!, were ctn worth, including
jHT-oiial and real estat
The report of the Attorney Cenerni. whu h will
1 submitted to Congress at an eaily day, will con
tain a detailed hi-tory of awards ma le and
claims pending of the class here referred.
11IK ARMY.
The rejsit of t lie Secretary of War w oteiwnying
this message gives a detailed account of Ihe army
operations for the year just passed, expenses for
maintenance, etc., with recooinjendatiom for legis
lation, to which I respectfully invite your atteutiou.
To some of these 1 invite special attention.
first Tuu necessity of making $:0,'Mi of the ap
propriation tor a Mib'-istonee department available
lief ore the Iteginningof the next fiscal year. Wilhout
this provision, the troops at HintH distant from
mipplv and production must either go without food,
or existing laws must Iw violated. It is r.ot at
tended with cost to the Treasury.
Second His recommendation of the enactment
of a hVNtfin of amitotic for the lautiii. s of deceased
officers, bv voluntary reductions from the monthly
pay of officers. 'lids ain is not attended with
burden on t he Treasury, and would for the future
relieve much distress whieh every oi l army ofheer
has witnessed iu the past, of officers dying Mjddciiiy
or lving killed, leaving families without even the
means of rent hing their friends, if fortunate enough
to have friends who can aid them.
Third The repeal of the law alwoishlng mileage.
a d a return to the old system.
Fourth The trial with torpodoett, under the hi-.orvt-ioii
of the corps of engineers, and appropria
tion for the same. Should war evei occur l-ctw-vn
the I uited States and any maritime power, torpe
does will be among, if not the most cilective nnd
cheapest auliliiary for Ihe defense of harUu s and
also in auy.reN.sive opei atioiis, thit w; mm huve;
hemv it is desirable to learn by ex-r.in.-nt their
Ih-M construction and ttpplicatiu as well ascfhvt.
Fifth A tpermaueiit otgani4ition for the Signal
Service Corps. This service has how become a
necessity of pea-e us well as war under the advance
ment made by the present able uaiuigexueut.
e
VOL. XXI. NO. 23.
Fifth A renewal of the appropriation for coin
pi) ling the official records of the war, etc.
The condition of our navy ai this time Is a subject
of satisfaction. It doc not contain, it is true, any
of the powerful cruising ironclads which maku so
much of the maritime strength of aomo other na
tions but neither our continental situation nor our
foreign policy require that we bhuttld have a
large number of ship of this character, while this
situation and the nature of our purU continue to
make those of other nations a little dumcerous to u
under any circumstances. Our navy doea contain,
however, a considerable number of Ironclads of the
monitor class, which, though no t properly cruisers,
are powerful and effective for harbor defense, and
for operations near our own shores Of these, all.
the single turreted ones, 15 in number, have been
substantia Hy rubuilt, their wooden beams replaced
with iron, their hulls strengthened and ther engines
and machinery thoroughly repair d, ao that they
are now in most etlicitnt 'condition and ready for
sea as soon as they can bo manned snd'mit
in commission. the five uouM-j turreted
Iron clads belonging to our navv, bv f;ir
the most powerful of our hip " for fight
ing purposrs, are also in h;;a N. undergoing
complete repsirs, aud could Im readv for vi i() )M.ri .
od VHtviiiir from four to six months. With tioA
conipleled according to the present dchitfu. and our
two iroii-clwd torpedo Inrnt now rendv. our iron -chid
fleet will be, for purpose of i'ffitti ;tt home, cu nal to
any force that can readily broiiL'ht nHinst it. If
our wooden navy, also cruiser of various sixes, to the
nu inner oi anour inriuutiw tuofe now in ceuiiiiiH
sion, are in the Atlantic, and could bo retidv for datv
n fast as men could te enlisted for thoe not h I ready
in commission. -i tiieso. one-third an in effect new
Binps; mid though nome of reauondcr need con
flidcrahle repairs on their boilers nnd niachiti' M
they nil are or can readily be umda effective. Tin
constitutt a fleet of more tlmn . wnrtdilpp. of w hit h
l. r iioii-cfml, now hi timid on the Atlantic coast
1 "be navv has been brouubt to thin roiotiiiioi Iiv m
die hoi mix! prscticHl application of whnf roufd fe
apareu iroiu current aipropriatious of the last fw
ywrn,ano: I row tlmt tmole to inwt the tvmkiIi le emer
gencv of two years uao it hss ki-ii definitely, without
proclamation ornispisy, una though it luiw nvo-ttsar
ily Mtraiyhteued the lepsrltnent in its ordinary et
pcudittire, and as far ss the lron-rludi are couci-med
has added nothing to the rruiMiia force of th imvy,
yei ine rcmiti is not me lean HtttiMrtrtorT, Imm hiu-c it
i to !e found in a irreut Incrcsse of rrnl mther than
apparent force. I lie exneiiM incurred in lite 1104m
teimncc of nr effective naval forre in all its tutUM rV
are lufssnrily large, but Mich a force in essential
our pf otmn, relations and character, and atletts
henou:-ly the weight of oar principh'M and twdu
throughout the w hole sphere of naval irsnoimihilif v
The est i n ap for the regular support of t hii brunch
of the aervice for the next year amount to a little h r
in tne ncrreaatn than those made for th current
year, hut some additional appropriations arn aked
lor o.jer in not included in tho ordinary maintenance
of the iiavr, hut behaved to lie of pr Hiiii import
a nee ai tins mm. it wouni. tit my opinion, in wo-o
at once to afford sufficient nieana for the immeiliutti
oiuplufion of the ne douile-turr-ted monitors now
iimh'i'goina repairs which must otherwise advance
stowjy, and only ns nioiicr can be spared from cur
rent expense. rupvlemented ty these our navy.
arnieu wiiu ine uhuucuv weapon oi modern war
fare, manned by our seamen and in marge of our
instructed oincers, w in present a tore powerim P
the home purposes of a reHpoiibiblu though peaceful
nuiint. r-
OVB FOSTAL FtnVICE.
The report of the Postmaster Oeneral. herewith
transmitted, give a full history uf the w. rkinv-H of
the oepar'meiit for the year jut pat. It will I
ohftcrved that the deficiency to te supplied from the
eiieral treasury increased over the uinouut required
r the preceding1 year. In a country o vast in area
as the United State, with large portion spa reel y
settled it must be expected that this important ser
vice will he more or less a hmucn upon the 1 reasui y
for many years to come, but there is no branch of tho
puhlic service which intei-eel the whole eople more
than that of cheap and rapid transmission of the
mails. The commercial advantage to be gained by
direct line of American steamers to the Nuth
American Mutes will far outweigh the expense of
seiwce. Hy act of t oustm, approved Alarclj I'nd,
ls7', almost all matter, whether properlv iuhII mut
ter or nut. may lie Mnt any distune ihroiiuh the
mail in packaizcfi not exceeding fou r poundu in w eijrht
for the sum of sixteen cents per pound. K far as the
iratieinissioii of real mail mutter this would
seem entirely proper, but I sua cent that the law he
so amended h to exclude Iroiu t he minis merchandise
of ult descriptions and limit this transportation to
all urticlen enumerate d uud which may I classod us
mail muttr proper
THE JXTEBIOa ETHKAD
The discovery of gold in the Black HiIIh. a portion
of the Sioux hesenatioii. has hsd theefb-rt to induce
a lare emigration ot miners to that point. T' u f ir
the effort to protect the tieatv rights of theladialiff
of that section has leeti successful, but the next vear
will certainly witness a larue increase of emturaliou.
The regulations for l he relinquishment of the ivoM
netiis liaviua iu i lea. u win r uecetsary tor t umrres
to adopt noine measures to rrltevethei mbarrasroncnt
grow iug out of thcraunos named. The t-ecretuty of
the interior fiieeest that the supplies now appro
priated for the sustenance of that people toeing no
uiger obligatory under the treaty ol lrov hut simply
a gratuity, may be issued or withheld, at his discre
tion. The condition of the Indian 'territory, to
which 1 have referred in several of toy former annual
luesctHce. remains practically un hwitirc,,. The
retary of the interior ha taken measure to obtain a
full report ot the condition oi that territory, and
will make it the suhiect of a special report at a a early
duy. t It may then be necessary to make some further
recommendation tn regard to lekfiMiation tor the n..v
eminent id' that Territory. The steady urn th and
increase of trie business of the I'ateut Olnce indicate
iu some measure the progress of the industri.il act i v
ity of the people. The receipt of the office are In x-ci-ss
of theex jeudi t in en. and t lie office genera lly Is in a
prosperous and sat ft- factory condition. 'J he remrt of
the te iei al Land Mhcwshow s that thre were 2,tM,4 -1
acres lets disposed of during this, than during the last
year. More than one-half the decrease was in lands
iisiM.ged ol under the homestead and tnnher culture
1WH. Tlie (hius' ol this dec i ease ia supported to Ire
und iu the irrnnsiionner svonrire and the droiii Iih
w hich prevailed so extensively in some of the frontier
Mates and Territories during that tune as to dis
coitrane an 1 deter entries by actual pettier. The
ash receipts were les hy t.uiz.-i; Until during the
'receding etir. The entire surveyed areii of the pu h-
jc domain iHtvst.zrci.u'.M acres, of w hich 2i,oT7,:,;ii hc ten
ere surveyed during tlie past year, leaving1 l.l.M.
l.TtVi acres still unsurveyed. The report of the
Commissioner presents many interesting siiirget ions
in regard to the maiiHgeuieut and diimitioii of the
publie domain and the modification of the existing
aws and the apparent importance of what should
injure for them the careful cousidera ion of Con-
It less. Ihe nu in tier of pntouer still continue to
lecrease. the liighe t nuuiher havinc heen reached ,
luringthe vear ending June an. 1-71. loiriit! the
hiKt tear 11.V7. lames were dropped therefrom
showing a net deer ae of I tin. but h ; le the number
f pensioners ha decreased Ihe annu;l amo'intdue
on the Tension rolls Iihs increased $l.47.1,'ti:t. This is J
caused hy the inr reused average rule o pension.
hnhhv thebheral h"3tdation of roptres has in- ,
r reaped from fyi-ia 17 to fiavi in Iflr.'. Toea-h
invalid m'iihuit au increase in tho uverimt
late of fifteen per Vent, in the three jear. I
Purine the year ending June in.. there was paid
acco;nt ot pi n loners including the expense ot
disbursement kJv.tl, 1 Its, beintr d.y'L 1cm than wa
paid tho preceding year. 1 hi reduction in t he
amount of expenditure was produced hv the de-
re a se in trie amount of arrea rages due on n Mow ed
hums ami on tensions, the role of w hich was m-
reased by the icgi!ation of th preceding soidi of
onjjrees. At the close oi tne jat u-rni year there
re on tho pension roll '.4,S21 person, of whom
in,i.T were army pensioner. nA,i7 !-eing 1 iu alel
lid lH.Sfs.r) widow and dependent relations : ,T.4Jl
ere navy pensioners, of whom l,fi.Vi went invalid
and i(,7-s4 widows anddependent relations: 1'l.n.s.s
ere pensioners of the war of lsl2, l.7i of whom
ere surrivor and , IW were widow. ltieii-
m ited that M. i p will lie required for the pay.
ment of pensions for the next, fiscal year, hu aintnint
I '..i,(aju je than the estimate lor the pruseut
ear.
The geological expedition have Is-en prosecuted
ith energy during the year, covering an ara -f
about 4",ouo square mil s in the Territories of fdora-
tah, nnd New Mexico, developing the airieul-
tural and min'-ral resources, and furhh hug inter
esting scjitiitific aud topogruphical detuiln of thai
regiou.
The method for the treatment of the ludisn
adopted at the beginning of hit first frm Im been
steadily pursued and with satisfactory results . It
ha been productive of evident Improvement in the
condition of that tar and will be continued, wilh
onlv such modifications as further ex pork-nce may
indicate to be necessary. Tlie Hoard heretofore up
)inted to take charge of the article sud mateMul
ertaining to the war, the navy, the Treasury, the
nterior and the 1'pe.t Office 1'epxrtiiiciti and the De
partment of Agriculture, he Suiithonin n Int-iitnto
and niiii(ioner of k oo.i u rid h imIh-s. to le cont ri l
uted under the legislation of hist session to the 1 nter
national Kxhthition to Ite held at Philadelphia ilur
iug the i 'entennial ear I"7n, has heen delinquent in
the disi hargeof the dulie hich have devolved up
on it in and the preparation so tar made witi the
menus nt their command give assurance that the
governmental rontrihiitioti will be made one of the
marked cha racteritic of tlie Kx hi tut ion. Tie Hoard
has otteerved cidtsideraldo econoiuv in the matter of
the erection of governmental building fortheov
er ii mental Kx hi bit ion, the expense of w hich it I es
timateil will not exceed say ..-o,toi. This aui'Mint
Iihh tM-eti withdrawn under the law from the appro
priations of hc of the principal departments which
leaves some of there departments without sufficient
means to render their respective practical exhihifs
complete and satisfactory, the Kxtiildtion being an
international one and government being a voluntary
contrihntioii, it I my opinion that Its contribution
sh ii lt be of a character in finality ssd extent to
siistniu the dignity and credit of so distinguished a
contributor. The advantage to the country of n
creditahlc display in an Internntimal point of view
i of the first importance, while an indifferent or f n
cred itable participation by t he govei tniient w mild be
huiuilh'tin to the ptri(dic feelings of our people
themselves. 1 commend tl stimiites of tho hVard
for the neeoKMtry ailditiou.il appropriation to the
favorable consideration of ( 'ongrcHH. The Powers of
V, u rope, almost w it bout exception many of the
South A nierican State and even the more, distant
Knstern I'owers have maiiifesfed their friendly sen
tinicfitr tow ard tie I nited States, and the interest .f
the world In our progress hy taking step, to join (th
us in eclcbrat ing tlie ( entennial of the nation; ami I
strongly recommeiid thu t a mure nationn I im porta nee
l-eiiento this exhibition hy uch leyislutioii. sod
by such appropi iations ua will insure its surce-.
Its value, in bringing to our shore inuumerMhte
usi ful worksof art Hiidsktll; t he conimingiing of tie
citizens of foreign countrie und our own, and the
interchange of idea and mnnuliK f ures, w ill far
exceed any pecuniary outlay we may nuikc
I trausnift herewilh the report of the oruinbromcr
of A criculture, tocether with the report ot the Com
missioners, the Ih.ard of Audit, and the Hoard of
Health of the lustro t of Columbia, to all of which
1 invite your attention. The bureau of Agrn nil uie
ha accomplished much in dlsHeiuinHtlo? n s f. j I
know 'b'due to the acru ultuiift. and also inrrnffueiug
nw and userul production mlapted to our soil and
liinrtte. and are worl hv of the continued engouiage
iiM ul of the (Jovernmeiit.
The r- Mirt of the Commissioner of Kduratiou,
w hu h accompanies- tie rejn.rt of tlie Secretary of the
nterior, show a gratifVing progress in cducatit.nnl
matters. In nejjy cery annual message tlmt I
liave bad the honor of transmitting to ongre 1
ihm filled attention t the anomalous, t.ot to ssv
sca'Moi Ion, coieli I ion if aflu irs exinl ing in the Terri
tory of t. tah and have ;ked for definite b:ilat ion
to correct it. That polygamy should exist in a free
enlluhteued and Chrittiau country without the
power to prevent so flagrant a crime against decen
cy and morality, seems preposterou. True, there is
no hiw to siird:iiu this ui nattirnl vice, but what is
needed i a luw to puni-di it a a crime and at the
smimc time to fix the stat u of the innocent children,
the oiff-prnig of this system, und of the pose I My in-iiiH-ent
plural wires, but a an instirution polygamy
should be banifhed from the land. While this is m
1 ng done in vf te tlie attention of Cotigren to another
thouph perhaps no Ie- an evil, the importation o
Chinese women, but foir of whom are brought tt
our shores to pursue bonorsMe r uef!il occupa
tions. Observation mads while visiting the Terri-
tories tif Wyoming, I tah and Colorado, during the
t autumn. on in',.l m fh-it rxiFtiiitf lw. ri-cu-
Iitiii2 thi- QiKponitmn "I piii'li: ihm.Im. titular, t-t.-.,
mii'I prolmMy I lie nnninif lw, tl.ciri.i'lvi., am very
m-i'viiv" ain Hiioni'i i. ('uri';iiiiy uini-lnli-.l aitj at h.ii
rly ily in a Territory wIh-i-h rultivalion r.f tlii
Moil ran only l.r foil. in cd hv irri.'Hti"ii in not rrarti-ral'Ii-.
1 li litn-l. i-aii ntily Ih- iif-l ai pii-tnr.iui-,
anl tlti" only whi-ra "t'Kk tan n-arii wnt'-i in .iiji-nrli
ill, liiirnt cannot lw Kovcrnf. liy the "unm Jaw. tin to
I'lilrii- an IhihI.. -vrry ai-n- ef whi.li- U an .n.li--jK-ii.lont
(tain by iiHlf. f.nn.l niimt In lo.l.J in
larar nnatitili-. to jm-tify tlie i-xipiimi f roniinrt
iny wat.-r ni".n it tn maki- it fruitful it to juntify
it 0i 7. i ri it an pHHturaj.''-. TIik timlx-r in rimnt of i'ih
toirilorii-. i prim irmlly i-ouliin .l to tin. mountain
it'iiion. vi liirli are hM for entry In kiiihII iu;iiiii -ti'-
onlv, an.I a mineral liind. tls timter (. the
property f tim t'nili-. stale, and for the .ij..-.l
of w Itiuli there i" nr a.le'iiiat" fnw. 'I lie "ettl'-r inilrl
be,-nni a roDMiimer 'f tlii. tiinlier, whether he Iiv i
upon the plain, or enirna'-a in working- tho iiiui'-h.
aeure every mall beanine. either a tre.pHK.'-r ti ini--l I',
or kiiowinaly a pHtroli of tretpaHeri. My oppor
tunitle. f.r oheervinur were not .ulli'-lent for me in
reeommemima tojuatify hy leiKlation th--e.ul.r'-.-i.-:
hut I mi reeniniiieii.J that a joint i-omniiiti- of t"
Honsi-a of t'oncr'-.H, aiillit-i.-nliv I.-rt, o le- ilivi.le-1
into committee., tie oi ealii.ril to viKtl all the IlliliinC
Sl.it. " ami Territurie dur.nu' tin- l oliiilej miiuiiici .
mill that the Committee "hull report lo l'.iiil,n-i l
the next He". ion Hllch 111, or all .Illl. lll. to the
law. io. it may derm in-l-eeary to l-e III" the l. t III-li-retH
or 1 he lioveriillielit ami the people of til""-Tt-rrtlol
ie., w ho are iloiiii; m iiiiii-h for their .-vel..p-
nt. 1 am "lire the riti.'-n npviiiK- th" lern-
torie. (leaerilx-il .In not w irll to e p-eepaeeel h. nor
W ill thay bo. If legal wa ara pruviiluil fur tliem lo
iWim. nwnnri nf thftKl actual UCeSitie cf thlf
nosition.
(L'(iOESTIONS KEfAPITf I.ATLP :
An thi wl" f. tli, In.t anminl dick.-ix" wliir'n I
tinll h e tli lioiniriil irmjHiiiiltiim !' unir l'
fcre my lurrein.r in i Iim'ii. I will n-p't .r whm
tiilatc tlimiii-'i-tii'irn M-li I '!"-i 'f tiIhi 1 nr'""t-
nce, (uilwljitli slioul.l Im- li-i.l:ttvl ii'"U tin -
"'VnThwt th ftnt- flmil ' riilr-il In utf'inl tin
npiioi Iiliiiti i'f H c"'t "iniiii'ii i.ln.i.1 e.liii utloli l
cv.rv lillil williiii if limit". ......
2 'riinl n "n-iiirinii ti-iiHii "IihII io taiiKlit innnr
ll'nol (Ulnnort.-.f In IT in 1 rt l till- Mill. r
IT tlie i.r.wwiHi.f "fir Inh l-J -l "P"" '
nitf. Mk" -ilin-iiti..n .-.iiipiil-Tv. to iW pnvo
nil iwrin wlm c Hfin..! rr.nl ml fr"i" '" "-
ine volii dfn-r tin- v-r 1-'": iiifiniii-liiiiie r.pi.
huvnwr, on fremiti" ft il'ilrmy win. may lie
voter- 01 Oir- ti tiii n ii"-niJ m'-nt tn kv '"'rt.
.1. Horlnr" t'liuMi nri'l st'it" H .r.rai an.I
.li.un.t. hut faih fi-.-f wit I. in ii- rr"l"T "Phoiw. ana
tlmt nil l lmrili ir..ny "Imll Just pr"'r-
"V"i'.lri'v..X'uV li.i-it'.l iniitioririfv. rnili i." fi.l.ma
my. an-l llii.' iiiiiiituli..ji l ii- n f.-r illimtinmt-
p:i riin-H.
tn tlx fii'i-iminl rmr. If wrnlil
..-.iii n. iimnh. ni.w a- w- m."1 '"" IO "
ft nl ri-nlurv r '"?r ..Hlniii.tr -a in. h ,
a iiii-.t tittinu thin- U't 'h--f r . fi.riini.
:.. Thi- .-i I ! nt . f "- ii Ihw i." will '"ir.
MM-e.l) n-tiirn tn ..mini i lllwr, ,M l"u-
iiii-ihI tin- ri-l. t f tin' witI.). .
IMii-vinir tlmt tl.-H- vi. -flI m'"'"
pIvm KiiI.k i!.v:it iiiiij.'i-itv "f II." n"1" tl':" "'.tf
n. I r-"lii..li'- i:i-ii . f tlie- I uitcl . I "nl'imt
tii r-t to L'yociwrf.
Siuu-.i V. S. UKT.
Kllxt'UVK Mansion. Vor. l-7'.
S.vlLOKS DEVOriU.I) l$V C.IXMIMLS.
Nlrkrnlnor Vat nf tlx- 'nm r Two
lon V curia nml mi i:nzli:i Itark.
A year a;o lw-t I'l liruary tlie lurk
Jewess, of l!ofton, wiilctl I'nim'.N'i'W Snitlt
Walt's in tlie ilircrtiun of the Auckhiml
Island-, a group wliieh lii-s in t!;e Siiith
l'aeilie oceim mar New esilaml. A
lay later the Huston bark Delia M.
Lonjr ami mi l-'upli.-h bark, name iiu
knnwn, l'ull-.iweil on the same eourse. No
tiiiiiip) of the two l!o.-ton vesseln were
reeeiveil ill this eitv till recently, when
Capt. r.reiner, of liiil.lefor'l. Me., of the
bark JJarathon, .New York, rrturniu.!?
Iroin a voyage nrnunl the wurhl, brofight
back a terrible story in rejranl to tliem.
At one of tliii juirts at which he ptopH'il
he ha'l fallen in with a Kiilor, or wnno
one wlio knew him, who purported to be
the sole survivor of the three crown. The
vessels, he said, bad lieconie oceahncd iti
tho vteinity of tho Ar.cKhiinl Inlands nnd
laid there together K-vcral days, 'i'ht y
were boarded at nilit by cannibals, who
eanie in lare niinilx is. ovtrjMiwercd the
crews, plundered the ships, and scuttled
them. The men wen carried prisoner;-
to the shore, and funiish"d food for the
horrible feast of thrir captors. No par
ticulars of the hirhl or of tlie survivor's
escape were obtain 'd, but the facts are
pretty well autheiit.iealed, and the lofip
absence of the vessels furnishes pood
irrouiid for bclievin;r that ihe story may
lie true. The survivor was ons of tlie
Jewess, und he is said to have related
that tlie surprise was complete, the ves-im-Is
ln-iiij; some distance from land, and
on Sibils of enemies bavin;? been seen.
The usual precaution taken when n ship
is liecjilincd in the ieinitv ot land in
liabited by savages is t-i d -ivc sh.-ini nails,
placed closely together, throii";h lioards,
which are placed over the decks, and
fastened firmly down, leaving the t-luirp
iron jHiints stiekiiiL' up. It is then im
possible for the bare!. uited savairen to
step Uxm the deck, and they are shot oil
at leisure. This precaution was not taken
on iioant tne .Jewess, me survivor saio,
liecause no danger was suspected. It is
understood that no ship of the United
States navv isow stat ioned in theSiuth
seas, or within reasonable distance of the
vicinity where the tern Die trnjeily is
credited un bavin;?, ln-cn enncted. Ihe
Jewess wan nearly f''' tons burden.
(.'apt. Mayo, of Chel-ea, was the man-
niui; owner, and Mark (Joogins, of Iast
1'iobtoii, Caleb Dalon, and Frank Lane
were part owners. Frank Lewis, of Fast
r.oston, was one of the males on the three
.... i , .i .
vessels. 1 lien? were pn.namy iniriy men,
but the names of any cannot lo ascer
tained, most of them having been shipped
in forcfi'ti ivuts. June win proliatiy
l.iiiiLr to light lulh-r particulars of tlieir
horrible fate.
Tlie Exportation of Cotton d'oocN.
Alludin?: to u recent cable telegram
to the cll'ect that Aiiieiicaii calicoes are
now exjiorted to d'reat Iuitain, the Iial
timore Jazette savs that Manchester has
lit last found a powerful competition in
this country which she little drcamcil
would be ever able to contend with her
in the world's nun ket, is in the produc
tion of manufactured cottons, she has
for a cent u rv reigned supreme. English
importers admit the superiority of Amer
. , .i i- it...
lean cottons, mun as rcgaio ijuuiuy
ind finish, thereby paving one of thu
lighest tributes to American skill and
industry. This first exportation of our
otton goods to enter into competition
with the cotton kings ot I.iigiaml we lie-
ieve to hi but the tori i miner of what
will prove a large and profitable held for
1 TI
American cniei i'i is.-. i ne iniwi jooiv
to the great eottor.-tiioiiui-iiig states tit
f he Smth. wiiose numerous and exten
sive cotton factories are springing; up in
every direction, and whose unfailing;
water courses afford almost unlimited
jM.wer waiting to be utilized, to supply
this new demand. There the cotton is
In night in seed from tfie planter, wri'lo
labir uud living are comparatively in
expensive, thereby making possible the
production of cotton cloth at the lowcrt
possible co..t. Suit hern manufacturers
should give this great change iu the tot
toll goods market their earnest attcntioii
and make every dibit to push their pro
ducts into this new channel of consump
iiou. They should Ih-iuI every enrgy'
n common "with the eastern manf.icturers'
to make the expm tat ions of Anierii-iin
cotton an unexampled nuccess, and not a
mere problematical eilort on the part of
tho first shipiK-rs. It is au-picious that,
this initial venture has turned out a
brilliant and somewhat uih -xpeeted mic-cet-s.
Exchange.
Crime I;i etv Fuglaiid.
The professors and students of social
science should turn their attention to
New England. Tin's section ol the coun
try, which has hereto prided iiself upon
a comparative freedom from the worst
species of crime, and read many a lec
ture to less fortunate count. unities in the
west und south has, within the last
year or two, experienced a change for
the bail as remarkable as it is lament
able. The murders of the Joyce chil
dren ; the tortures and butcheries laid lit
the door of Jesse I'omi-roy; the inhuman
daughter of little Mala 1 Young;; the
killing of Mrs. l'.iiuiha.ii, and the hor
rible fate which overtook Miss Lang
nuido not only t-ho.vs an utter con
tempt for the laws of (!od Mid man, but
disjilav a cohbbloodcd fiendishncss never
lie lore known in American criminal an
nals. It would we in as if the wretches
who perja-tratcd these dec's were not
only devils in human shape, but cowards
of the most despicable sort. They wreak
their more than brutal vengeance ex
clusively upon that t-lasn whieh have
heretofore been seldom bar;.:ed save by
red-skinned savages. They seek out
helpless women, young girls, and little
children, and not sal isfn d w ith simply
destioyimr, them, accompany the de
struction with refinements of barbarous
cruelty, the mere mention of which is a
shock to the hardest nerves. Murd. r
under any circumstances is a loul of
ience, but the recent murders in New
England have almost made ordinary
homicides respectable, hy comparison.
Neither revenge nor robbery have in
spired them. They appear to la- the
work of demons whose sole object ja to
gratify an insatiable desire for blood ;
not blood alone, but for the infliction of
outrages and torments from which death
is a happy release. Louis J.'iiUican. ,
Tri:GitV.i:x of tiij: Wavi. Xothin
Qan be more suin-rb than the green of
the Atlantic waves wh.-n the eirciuu
rtances are favorahlc V the e.-:i.ib.tion-t
the color. As long as a wave roua.n-s
unbroken no color api-cars b"t "hen t..
foam just doubles ov, r the cn; t like -jn
M..;.i under the cornice
.11 I'lllU 1-1 IV " ' . . ,
1 i i .... I 1 1 II ISl
X-
we often see
fiuisite creen.
. .li.il-iV'l. i." -
Ii mcta lie "
biii-
l: 1 ... .1... I'..., ,,, is IU I I
.-JIV to .
nancy, out i. . , .. ., 1i1II1, ,.-
oroduetioi
j lie Jo ii. i I-; '-.- ,.
rr-,l I illl
au-o. "" ' ';,;... tl.ro-i
i ii.
rs ti
recuons .a, "
ot
l!ll- II V"
reaches the epe, ami
its ui-itclili'se) color.
wae, producing as
I'liioiindiiial orotub
.jv(.s lo I hut poil""
The t'ol-iilig of t'1
il does, a series l
.jmccs and furro'..
whicli act like
fvlinurieal ici.scw, oi.i-.-
luces variations m
ll t- Hitcti-iiy oi tin-
Jii.!;t and materially nhaiici
its lH'iuil v.
"Inn von see any colored folks rp
d-ir'" a-ked a iiclmo womau of nnoth. r
,v'ho' said she had ben to Heaven in n
trance. "Oil, git -ul v, id you Do you
'sposc 1 go
iu tie kiteui n w uiu i uuui .

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