Newspaper Page Text
HEHALD AND MAIL;
- i -i .
Friday Morning, Feb. 4, 187B.
Win. McKee, one of the proprietors
of the St. Louis Globe Democrat, (Radii
cal paper) whose trial for complloity in
the whisky frauds has been going on
for some time, has been foand guilty,
and will be sentenced to the penitentia
ry. McKee is m very rich man. and a
leader in the Republican party, and
tremendous tflort was made to save
him. It is believed that Grant's other
particular friend. Gen. Baboock, will
fare the same fate, when bis trial cornea
It is a healthy indication that there is
springing up a considerable countercur
rent in the commercial system. For the
past, and only one hundred years of
our existence, European factories have
supplied American markets; but notas
bly during the year just passed has an
export tide sprung up hence to foreign
parts, in the article ot domestic goods,
boots. fhoes,pnd leather. This is as it
ftbould bp, nearlng as we are our one-
hur.drrdlh birthday. One hundred
years is full K-.no, enough to have held
on to the loading strings of the mother
country. But to the point: We learn
from the New York Times, that from
the two ports ot New York and Boston,
lor the year 1875, w ereshipped respect
ively 28,500, and 13,211 packages of do
mestic Koods. The exports of fine Ieath
er to England and the continent, for
1S75, excted a million Bides, while, do
ring the name time, from New York CI
ty there was shipped abroad 145,000 pairs
ol boots and shoes
Hon. W. C. Whitthorne, our Repre
sentative iu Congress, is making a na
tional reputation by the splendid, man
ner in which he is discharging his duties
as Chairman of the Committee on Na
val Affairs. The fact is, Gen. Whit
tborne, as an administrative man, baa
no superior, and but Jew equals. Ha
can take bis choice be our next Got
ernor, one of our next 17. S. 8enator,
or a seat in President Bayard or Hen
drick's caoinet. The New York Sun
the hardest paper in the land for office
holders to satisfy, pays Gen. Whit
thorne tho following deserved compli
Mr. Whinliorne, Chairman of the House
ComrinTIi on Naval Attain), manifest, a
commendable degree of real In the duties
lnti u-i.-d to him. We have no doubt hli
fomniitt' t- u ill do eftVctive service in un
4 ail liimr the abuses which exist In almost
vi-rv liraiii'li of the Navy Department; but
wit li sm-li ft wide field for exploration.
mas iniz.H' hiiii where to beet n to the bent
iidv.-iiilam'. We would respectfully BUCRest
that I rn-.avy ray inasier s omoe in rrnia
dt li'li M i i-.isy of aceess from Washington
and oiI'i-i-n a fine opening for In ventilation
Itv ran fully examining the accounts of
(hat orllee. n is very possible the commit'
tee niav M i iue u vein wiiicnwui iea to
Ik IcmiinAi of exceedingly interesting in
From the recent parliameri:arj- d
font of tlie Deinoeratic sideot the House,
when the Amnesty Bui was up, we
iude that, tho Democratic side of the
House, is not propeily organized,
There is rivalry between Randall and
thern for the leadership. Tbey should
go into caucus, and decide this matter
A leader in the House is as necessary as
a trenoral to an army. Let them In cau
cus wrangle among themselves, and de
ride upon what stand the parties will
take upon matters about to be brought
beloro the House. This decided, they
will utand united and harmonious in
the presence of the opposition. And
having selected a parliamentary leader
let them follow hitn without question
or hesitation. To hesitate on a qoes
tlon of parliamentary tactics or strategy
is too often as fatal as a division on the
real question. In the midst of battle
there is no time to consult as to
whether this or that would be the best
move. .Have one leader quick and able
to decide, and let the others follow
Had Mi's i'een understood and acted
one the Democrnleside of the House
would not have fallen into the trap net
for them by the crafty BlaHe.
Am', while we are in the role of ad
iser, we would further suggest that the
Democrat sido ot the House ct alway
on the aggressive never for a moment,
by any strategy, be thrown onthedefen
pive. This last piece of advice is very
Important, ami c.tn be easily followed.
Let their watchword be "Investigation."
Keep the Kepublican party always
fighting to dett nd aud cover up their
corruptions and rascalities. These in
vestigations will not only redound to
the benefit of the Democratic party, but
to the good ol the country, in saving to
tho country ii'any times the cost of the
present t'oi gross; and will save the na
tion fro tn almost universal corruption
whither of late years it seems to have
beeu most certainly tending. By thess
Investigations they vill discover the
cesspool oficrruption that are breed
Ing the nation's moral disease, dishon
esty. When they are discovered, it is
to be hoped Ihal there are enough Dem
ocrats and Republicans not vet inlected
to remove the ciuso of disease.
The l;st ciht years administration
being thoroughly investigated, and its
corruptions t . posed, it will stink so
loud in the nostrils ot all honest men
whether I moorals or Republicans
that they will make haste to remove it
from power, end bury it with all its
fuppi-rfeiM nt of sight.
Our WbiMliorne understands this ln
V6tig:;t ion business. IDs resolution,
lately introduced, to investigate the Bu
reau ol lil'K i.iloned and confiscated prop
eity, iilucmits to a bill of indictment
sgainst t hoso in charge of that piece ot
-ftirnitui e in I he National house ol co; .
luption. Ho then asks a committee (.
try these f.:c! I'nd report their verdict
Ho not only asks to look into the ti )
tlrawer, at-.d tho liottoiu drawer, and tb
middle, drawer, immI all tho secret draw
ers, but be proposes to inquire whomad
this piece et' turniture, and by what an
Ibority it was made.
He moved a suspension of the rules
o that bis resolution could be passed
and the ir.ni ittee put at once to work.
The motion failed lo get the requisit
two-thinls vote, a d so the moMon had
to lay over lor tliH regular order. Tbe
Republicans voting" against the mo
tlon are put, upon tho record as
opposed to mi investigation of their ril
llanies, LETTER FE3H WASHINSTOJI.
. "YVasiiingtox, D- C , Jan. 23.
To the JSWif.ir nfth ll- rnhl and Mail:
In my first latter 1 discovered a few
typbotf raphh' 1 errors is that what you
all U? evidently your printers ought
Co read better or I ought to write better
In the description of 'Cheat"
bridge, you put it "bolts and tops,"
when it should be "bolts and tape."
Taps makes it read right tops does not.
I signed my letter 'Maury," not "Mon
ey." I am any thing else than "money.'
But I admit it's the fault of my bad pen
jmansblp. pT the past week I have been very
bnsy, eo rnn't ivc 'ou much news; and
besides you spe the moBt of u in the P"
!ers. 7"lie Cer ,ennia' tne one
now'on the tup!. A vote will becalled
tor on the bill Thureds. evening at 3
o'clock. Tho measure is j;eHber a par
ty one nor a sectional one; for men of
all parfies and from all sections ajvo
cate the bill and ecotnerso. I think, as
I wrole you iu my last, the bill will
pass, but ouly by a small vote. Some
men from the .South, men, both in and
out of Congress, think the South should
vote lor it as a conciliatory move, while
Others see constitutional objections, and
a chance for the 'stockholders" to sava
themselves from loss out of the appro
. The speech of Mr. Hill on the amnes
ty still is a toplo in small circles; and in
the different circles as t many different
opinions prevail; aa to. the effect his
speech will have on the Northern mind,
some Democrats think that the North
era people will not and can, not longer
he influenced by avion appeals; others
think that only one little portion ef his
speech should baye been omitted; and
with that exception, It was a capital eft
fort; while the Republicans roll it as a
sweet morsel nnder their tongues, and
will use it aa a campaign fire brand to
diatnrb, and arouse and exoite the dy
ing prejudices growing out ef the war.
My own opinion and judgment la, that
the speech was ill-timed, and only cal
culated to do injury to the party ef the
North, because, it throws a "stumbling
block" In the path of the Democracy,
and throws then on the defensive, when
tbey should be the aggressors. Mr.
Bill, or any other southern man as
Congress, could In a speech of five min
utes time have completely taken the
wind out of the sails ot Blaine, and
have placed themselves and their party
upon such a high plane before the peo
ple that all the ranting of Blaine would
have only injured him and his party
the more. He has Injured himself as It
is, but with a ' prudent and sensible
speech from a Southern member, be
could have been ruined. If Mr. Hill
bad only said, that nothing that be
(Blaine) could say would detract from
the reputation, fame, or honor of the
southern people, and that nothing that
be (Hill,) or his colleagues from the
South, could have influenced those
whom Blaine led by the nose. That the
past was gone, and was a matter of his
tory for the historian, and not for the
member to deal in to revive dying
hates, and to lacerate again healing
wounds. That he and those of the
South came here in the interests of their
people, who desired, above all things,
eace, real peace, and fraternal union,
and that he nor those of the South could
be goaded Into a discussion, which was
only calculated to revive the bitter sec
tional animosities and hatreds of the
past. A speech ot that line wonld not
only have brought down the house, bat
the entire country. Those Generals, of
fireside heroism, have done more to in
jure the South, than any other class ot
men in it, and the sooner the people
lePrn that that is the truth the better.
We revere men whose judgments have
been seasoned on bard-tack, blue beef.
and musty meal, in camp, by the
storms of rain and snow, heat and cold
dust and mud of the march, whose be!
ligerent dispositions were fully satisfied
upon the battle field. Our soldier
statesmen are the most prudent, " judi
cl .U-, and ' he sifest consellors the pec
p- i , . h " win wr engaged i:
see rol 111 Youra Ac,
To the Editor qf the Herald and Mail:
In a late issue of your paper, yon pub
lished Gov. Porter's open letter on this
subject; and your strictures on the
same. You roll all the odium of our
disgraceful financial troubles on the
Governor; and you say the people will
elect statesmen hereafter. Neither the
Governor, Democratic party nor our last
Legislature say that the bond-hold er'i
claim for bis interest is nnlust. When
the Legislature met, bis was the pre
ferred claim on the Treasury .made so by
law. The Legislature repealed that law
The convention enjoined on the Leg
ialature oot to levy a higher tax than
40 eta on 100.00; and so candidates lor
the Legislature pledged themselves I
their constituents. They kept thei
pledge they obeyed the convent ten's
injunctions in this regard. The finan
cial affairs of the State were prominent
ly before the Legislature. The Comp
troller and Treasurei were called on for
reports and estimates. Tbey were ren
dered, and freely dlscu-sed, and teh
paintul fact that 40 c s tax on $100
would not yield revenue enough to dis
charge our legal obligations, was made
notorious. How to do that other thing;
the platform required of them in blgb
sounding words maintain the honor
and credit of the State, put onr Legists
tors into quite a perplexing predica
ment. Tbey passed the dog law, they
taxed Railroads,-and attempted to stop
some of the drain from the Treasury in
the administration of instioe. This last
act proved to be unconstitutional, and
"cost mre than it came to." They
made sn honest effort to raise the rev
enue to pay onr debts; we should be
grateful to teem, could the platform
makers have come out of the dilemma
Into which tbey bad drawn our Legis
lators as well as tbey did? They did
no doubt, the best they could. We
praise them! Bond-holders especially
should not be parsimonious with lands
tions, for this iionejat effort was made
with an eye to their interest. Jt is fear
ed however, the men who were so dull
as to invest in our bonds, will neyer
comprehend the weighty obligations
tbey are under, to praise the last Legi
lature. Our Governor evidently thinks
them dunces, as the proposition he
makes to them, or as he says, he don't
make, shows. Good men sll over the
State, be knows of, thinks 6 percent too
high a rate, and would be pleated t3 see
them recede to less. Gov. Porter de
serves well at t It band of the men who
made the nlatform. He can show he
earried out the po:icy of that, and did
H'rying it out work his political
'.T Mi wt r , . ic in ink his course
oi Imiii, jilor iii ihe I inocratie par-
y Hesajsit' J,eglMnur- failed to
provide the mxia to py i be interest
on the bonds. It is true, the Legiela
ture did worse than thai; it passed an
act to prevent him fojn borrowing the
money to pay the interest. He vetoed
it. and good men, honest men, all over
i be State rejoiced; not the good men be
ne.k of in his letter. Gov. Porter can
itand before the men who made the plat
form, and show be has been their faithful
servant, except in this matter of the
veto, and he can show bis repentance of
'bat, for be is complacent at the fortu
nate failure of negotiations to borrow
money, with which te pay the Interest
of 1875. It was hoped he would be
brave, would be consistent and do what
his veto indicated he should do, When
the honor and credit of the State should
demand It borrow the money, and
pay the bebt. The animus of the plat
form, and the acts of the Legislature
were stronger than Le, and he went
down before them. Gov. Porter went
down before them can be rise again on
bis financial proposition to the bond
holders? Will the people of the Stale of
Tennessee endorse that proposition,
and justify his acts?
Your correspondent was a whig, la
now a Democrat, and Is pained to see bis
party led by unwise counsels into the
depths of humility. If not disgrace.
The prosperity of the State, and tbe
weltare of his ptrty moved him to
maks this communication. Let us tax.
all consuming and now producing class
esof property, and we will soon pay
our debts. Your remarks on the dog
law and whisky tax, cannot be too
highly commended. You are on the
right road from poverty and debt, to
prosperity go on. Ttbo.
The gale on last Tuesday played hav
with the shipping on the Atlantic sea
byard, an well as with tbe inland xlver
rrafta st Louisvilltf, Mmphit, Ac.
Telta" EepUes to "C" '
Lewisbcho, January 29, 1876.
To tht Editor of On Herald and Mail.-
If I read-Mr. "C" correctly, both In his first
letter and iu his reply to my criticisms on
his politics, he takes grounds Identically the
sama as ine late "reconnoisaance la force in
Ohio and Pennsylvania from which I diner,
toln corlo. 1 attacked his whole line of bat
tle and did not aaaatut his weaker points.
I produced some facta and figures, alt hougn
Mr. "C." failed to And them after a car-ful
rereading. -1 distinctly stated In my former
letter my aiasenl irom tne programme
marked out by Mr. "C." because in tn nrst
place, the Democratic party must endorse
and declare "paper promises to pay" a legal
tender for debt, a principle wholly at vari
ance with its whole former history. I again
Challenge Mr. "C or any other man to
show where anv (state or any Democratic
statemen, or auy National Democratic Con
vention baa ever in tne remotest uegree
adopted any principle in tneir deliverances
favoring paper promises to pay as conauiu'
tlonal money up to the meeUnn at Colum
boa, On 10, last year. j eitner can l eiaorse
bla proposition that the late decision of the
Hupreme Court is a finality on thin question.
Tbe Democratic party and Democratic
statesmen do not to aceept IU Tne best
legal minds iu this country are against it;
even the Republicans themselves ouly Jus
tify it as an extreme war measure. Are not
these facts ? Has not Mr. "C." read tne ar
guments of Reverdy Johnson on this ques
tion, ana aoes any man in me cniiea siaies
rank Mr. Johnson aa a constitutional law
yer T Is not the weight of evidence against
Mr."C." when he assert that the decision
of the court is a finality on this quewtlonT
Will Mr. "C." dare attsert that "green DacKS
are constitutional monev with his constitu
tion spread open before blmt 'the cat- he
cues is wholly inapplicable to the question
In point. The issuiUK of treasury notes for
a specific purpose without the legal tender
clause, and without the idea of making
ineru a circulating medium lor a muk serien
of years, is tw distinct and widely separate
DJectB:theone is somethinic analogous lo
our county and comptroller warrxnt system,
while the other stsps upon tne broad cloma
of money in all iu functions. Bui I must
correct Mr. "C " in one fact. Delta has nev
er advocated an exclusive metalic curren
cy. I want what is termed a constitutional
currency, uoia ana paper interchanKabie
at the option of the holder. This can be ac
complished, and certainly no man can give
a sufficient reason why it should not be.
When Mr. "C." declares for inflation and
he distinctly asserts that fact in his extract
before me he simply postpones Indefinite
ly the day of resumption, and continues for
anoiner generation at least a depreciated
currency. A depreciated paper enrrency
always cheats the daily laborer; it cuts short
nu meat i.na tne preau of his cnuaren. ana
renders uncertain his daily toil. In Eng
land, with a National debt twice as large as
ours, there has not been a time within the
last forty years, for any considerable leucth
of time, that you could not go to the Baik
of England with its notes and sret KoldTu
exchange for it. And must we stand all the
day idle and say that it is all "noasense
we can never get back to a specie basis lor
twenty years at least T France, poor pros
trated France, has paid over two thousand
millions dollars, gold value, since 1870, and
yet our financiers are taught to follow the
Wllkins Mlchawber plan f forever waiting
lor "something to tarn op," and reel just
like Miciiawoer dia wneu he stave his 'prom.
lse to pay" that the little transaction was
tnerepy eternally settled. This is worse
than child's play. This is eating the life
out of the country. This Is paying heavily
lor the whistle, lalk or interest, when ws
are paying, actually paying from 12 to 15 per
cent, on every green oaca dollar mat we ure:
a depreciated currency is a high interest ou
any people. French paper never iell below
xpi per cent, in ner late misiortunes. dnsii
we continue this enormous burden on our
people? Will Mr. "C." inflate and drop the
greenback to 25 per cent, below par? Is it
not a thousand fold better to set our house
in order and work steadily for a gold bais
ana siop tnis aepreciatea interest? can
Mr. "C." feel where the shoe pinches? Ou
bond interest is heavy enough in all con
science, "but what are you going to do
about it?" How will you help yourself ? It
Is easy to say, pay off the bouds in green
backs, but can you do it Justly and lawfully
cut bono ? Will you not simply have swap
ped the devil for a witch? The bond must
be paid or not paid: the greenback must be
penu or not paid; which will yon tnae?
can see no permanent relief to the country
in ihe remedy proponed by the Ohio school
oil corn s not from any source which will
iuoricote the ruiy gudgeons or those wn
.ire clamoious for more irredeemable prom
tees lo pay, hen the history of all c viliza'
lion stands before them as a warning
against sucn tony, iet Air. "c study tin
history of the old Kcotchman. John Law
and he will find his financial theories elab-
orated, defended, advocated, and exploded
more man one nunurea years ago. nut .Mr
"C. ' was only firing a ricochet shot at th
Republicans across our last Democratic
platform. He assumes the correct n era of
that platform, but that of the Platform
adopted at Cincinnati and Baltimore he pooh
noons, in a remaraaoie manner, now. list
en, Mr. "J." while I slate a fact that I think
you will not controvert. Tennessee was the
first State Convention that met after M
(rreeley's nomination at Cincinnati, and
that Democratic Hi ate Convention endorsed
Mr. Ureeley and sent delegates to Baltimore,
instructed to endorse bis nomination by
that Convention. This step of Tennessee
had a powerful influence on the Baltimore
t ou ventlon it virtually insured Mr. uree
ley's nomination; and now Mr. "C." openly
repudiates i ne action 01 nis own suae hiic
that of the National Convention at Ball!
more, and calls them antt-Dem icrat. Can
didly, Mr. "u." this is begging the question
You can't dodge that way. if you did not
"stone Ihe prophets" vou held the clothes o
those who did. But for argument, we will
sink the Nashville and Baltimore Conven
tions, and yet you can't find a single body
clamoring to De Oemocretic rrom jacxs
and Jefferson to Polk and lireene who have
ver advocated or endorsed "paper lega
lenaerx," as you propose in your openii
.article. Firsi. give us a currt-ncy. with
go d basis and banking, and the kind ol
banks will regulate itself no trouble about
that. (Jive us a currency with a gold bMsis,
ana prosperity win come agajin. one us
an honest dollar and I will Insure honest
labor; take from demagogues the mafcin
ana nnmatung o- money, ana leave it wii
the people, t on grew has no more power to
aeoiare money man tney nave to nx tne
value of the horse and the cow. A partimn
Congress is a dangerous tribunal to trust
the issues of our money with, Congrei-s
seems to have a special girt rorspetinin
money, but a poor ear for making and sav
ing it. Ulve us back onr Constitutional
monev. and to the devil with all your erevn
banks and promises which meau nothing
is the only wish of i;ki.ta
Our "Whit" Going for- All Ha 1b worth-
sow Navy I rauaa win oe ivetti
Washington Correspondence of the New
The Naval committee of the House hav
lng nnder Considaratlon the House reso
lot Inn introduced bv Mr. Morrison, which
was referred to them by the Honse. has or
dered that the chairman appoint sub com
m It tees to lexumlne and inquire whether
' - - - . . . ...
any errors, abuses, or rraads exist in the
administration and execution of exlutlng
laws affecting the branch of the navai
service, with a view to ascertaining what
reformation can pe maae to promote in
tegrity, economy and efficiency therein
and to be instructed as follows:
First A sub-committee on tne retired
and active lint of the navy, and tbe staff
thereof; to inquire whether Ihe number
tneroot can pe reuuoea, ineir pay uuuiu-
lshed.orany change made therein for Ihe
promotion of the economy and efficiency in
uie service, iteieireu, u jnwssrs. jam,
Stanford, and Kobbius.
Necond A suo-comniitiee on finy yarns
aud their management, to inquire wneiuer
their pumper may ue reauceu, anu 11 so, in
what made and to what extent, and in
their manaseiueut wht ohsnge pan be
made to reduce the cost thereof and reform
the ailpcnil utilises snd corruptions existing
therein. Referred to Messrs. Willis, Stan
ford, and Jones,
ihlrd A sub-committee on the Marine
Corps, to Inquire into the necessity for this
corps as a orancii or pari 01 uie navui per
vli. and whether it is necessary; do any
abuses or frauds in its conduct exist, ana
what Phonic In regara toereiois aemanaea
oy uie eiBtpvie oh m ,u,""uj y
Referred to Messrs,
Willis mid Harris.
Fourth A sub-committee on the material
of the navy, to inquire into its present and
paMi condition, the cause 01 us present ai-.i-gfd
weakness, and what should be the
future policj of the Government in regard
hereto, Ihls t-uojeci 01 inquiry iu luciuue
nn.nl nnlnniiee MS well ss si en in machin
ery, eUs. wsU.'r'rpa to messrs. miiin, xiarris
FifthA sub-committee on the personnel
of the navy, exclusive of commissioned of
ficers, in inquire wnat lecisiaiiou is nectw
sary to regard to recruiting in the navy, to
training schools, clothing of seamen, etc.
and whether sny errors, abuses, or frauds
exist in fha ptirchacs of provisions and
clothing tor the navy, and whether any
change or reformation iu regard to these
subjects for the promotion of economy and
efficiency In the naval i-ervlce can be made.
Keierred to Messrs. xvouums, xiuneigu ana
Williams. ' .
Sixth A sub-committee on me laws in
relation to naval contracts and contractors
and the purchases made for and on accouut
orthepavai service; on ui iuv uu regu
lations affeiilng fhe service of vessels in
nnMilrmixiir uihfiTirlae: oa Ihtts and reeu-
lt.ifinn in rtitaid to the duties and ret-ooii-
slblllty or inspectors, ana on mwn ana' reg
ulations affecting paymasters, their bonds
nnrl mnda of accounting their liabilities.
etc; aud also ot any agent of the depart
ment naving cnarge 01 uaw iuuub ana
nmwnv. of the custody or oversight there
of, this committee to inquire into whether
any anuses, errors, or imum in tne
administration and execution of said laws,
snd what change pr reiormatiou could be
made therein. Referred Messrs. W illis,
Harris and Lewis.
Seventh A suo-commmew u expendi
tures, tolnqolrenow estimates are made,
what nave neen uiw amount w receipts.
and their sources; the expenditures per sd
mnm or vears.and what is on hand to ex
hibit forsuch expenditures, ar at what rem
edy and change is aemaaaeq ip correct any
abuses or irauaa cxwudk id id uiapositipn
mads or to be made of tbe appropriations
oy tne iiovonnii'oi ui navai service.
Kflrred to Messrs. WUJlams, Burleigh aud
The Chairman or ins N aval committee.
Mr. Whitthorne, appointed hlmseii a mem
ber of every one or tne sub committees, ana
says he will be obliged toany one baying
in lormai ion to communicate it to mm, to
aid In unearthing the frauds in the Navy
The Sorin Afield Republican iaoonvina
eed that Ohio and Indiana are embar
rass In fr tbe presidential question by
the multiplicity of their candidates
snd delusions. It says: "If both parties
could fenee tbem off and fence them
out lor the next year, things would go
very smoothly. But between Hendricks
and Morton and Pendleton snd Tbur
man snd Hayes, and tbe continued lo
cal tenderness for tbe rag baby, after
everybody else is prety much weaned
tbey are makinaa mess of it in both
H. CRNtl has moved., tt3
by "Cheap Johnand determined to wind up his , busi
ness by the First of April, will continue his Closing Out
Sale, Regardless of Cost, until
of. Everybody come and get
TYLER & WILLI a US',
Call and examine our etock of
made Boots and Shoes, Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods,
Hats, Umbrellas, Valises. &C.
manufacturing department as to quality of goods and style of workman
PLOWS, PLOm, PLOWS!
WE NOW HAVE ON HAND A FULL STOCK OF
Avery Steel Plows, Parmer's Steel Plows, Oliver Chilled
Iron Plows, Avery Cast Plows, Dixie Cast
Plows, Iron Beam Double Shovels,
Plows, Hames, Collars, Chains, Bridles,
HARNESS ETC., ETC., ETC.,
AIL AT LOWER PRICES THAN EVER BEFORE.
Feb. 4, 1876.
1. The study ot science habituates the
mind to accuracy of thought, and hence to
accuracy of expression. J here is no half
WMy reKting-prround in science. The pupil
t ither understands the subject or does nol
understand it; and unilr a skillful teacher,
he is made to sharply U fine tlie line that
separates his it;nontn'e from his knowledge.
And he, in one sense, may be regarded an
well educated bo can sharply define the
line where his knowledge ends and his ig
2. The study of science cultivates the fac
ult v of observation; dealms with things
and nut wnn uora
s, ii irwnp mm ii uu
. ..." .... 4.1.
leclsof nature are
and have relations full of interest. It teach
ri . V.
IUU 1 lUlCirai. A V Hlll-
es the necessity ot observing accurately all
the conditions, neglecting not the least, In-
asmuch as in the apparently most unim
portant condltK.ns ia -4en found the clew :
to the suiight f r expianation. This habit:
of obst rvution, dl-ciflintd by science, Is a1
source of never-failing enjoyment to tlie .
3 Tne study of scienc--forms In the mind'
the habit; of inductive thought: and in this
consists its chief distinctive characteristic.
The truths of science all depend ou experi
ment and ottstrvation. They are general
truths, infi rre t by induction from a large
number of particular tacts. It is by the
study of the methodb ly which scientific
truths have been discovered ihat the mind
becomes imbued with the habit of inductive
tliouuht, and in all the relations of life
learns to apply coriectly this great princi-
plf fdJl"cL,v.'ry- , f ... . ,w!td to manage. ble proportions, the situ-
J-ZS11"' Rj.?"Bd tioo is biKhiy distastelul ta those who
carried into other departments. Whatever
is a subject ol consideration is regarded as
cause or effect. Language, the form of ex
pression, is tauifht scientifically when the
principel are shown to lje generalizations
founded by induction upon numerous
5. The study of science fills the mind with
a love of abstract tiuth. Tne ohiect held
before it is truth, not victory. The anll
scientitlc method is tho searching for ar
guments in support of a theory: J.be scien
tific method is to endeavor to dissever the
theory, as truth in science Is only regarded
aa etablished when it can witlistaud ail
possible tests to which It can be subjeoted.
When it cannot be dissevered, then it Is. re-
iriirderi km oroved.
6. fine of the distinctive characteristics of
the discipline imparted by the study or sci
ence is independence of thought and conse
quent self-reliance. The truths of science
r-st upon a nrtner oasis man iu nmuuni
of men. however eminent for their know!
edge; they rest npou the solid basis In in
ductive logic. Opinions In science are val
uable onlv so far as tney are generaliza
tions of observed phenomena.
Science does not overestimate me vai
ne of words. ."Words." said Hobbes."are tbe
counters of wise men, but the money of
fools." Science deals not with words but
with thimrs. not somnch with tliB expres
sion -of concent ion as with the conception
Hence it cultivates not laiK uui inougni,
not speech but silence. And tins cllseipiiu
of silence the ureal power of silence. Is es
pecially worthy of tne consideration oi tne
young men ot the South.
Permit me, in conclusion, to sny one
word In regard to the supposed materialis
tic tendencies pl'fjie study of science.
This chariie now so potular, acnarge so
often heard from the pulpit and repeat
ed in the press, Is au instance of a large
generalization from a lew lsoiaieu instan
ces. It Is tne study oi me laws oi nature
law-glver. Man discovers a mini to nis
knowledge, he recognizes a something in
lite ftirjereni irom pnj n ni joh-t, . oumc.
thing be cannot explain by any physical
or chemical laws. He sec s that tlie arrange
meutof the molecules in the bludeot grass
is explicable 'by no known law of nature.
His profoundesf philosophy is wholly at
loss in the effort to explain by physical
laws the formation of a leaf. He sees no
"logical continuity" between roylecular mo
tion aud life, aud hence in the growth of
.i.. ic In 11, nirtt ionH fifth..
start, he fcees everyirhere the Impress of
the hand of God. f ' , '
It was Newton who "asserrea in nis pni-
losopbv the majesty of Ood," while he '-exhibited
in bis conduct Hie simplicity of tbe
Faraday, whose name has conferred hon
or on all people who speak the English lan
guage, thotign rich with the scientific hon-
rs ol inlsworiu, Htuiaunervu to ineciuiu
ikefMlth of nis early years; and Herchel,
distinguished for bis gentleness, courtesy,
and ptoty, drew from the eternal sta-s
Uiose truths which he made principles of
It is preeminently tbe student of science.
whose mind is impressed with his own in
significance and with the pow er and wls
d. m of God.
The Finances of the State.
In looking over the financial history
ol our State lor the past seven years.
we bave reason to be gratified witn the
general result. Doubtless many errors
werecommittea, dui many aiuicuiites
were surmounted. We should not iorget
tbe forty-three millions of debt that
oppressed us but a lew short 3 ears ago.
Most of this debt bad been created in
tbe development of our railroad system.
Our legislature, of that day, wisely dis
solved the Stale connection with these
roads, some ot which were run at an ex
pense to the Slate ol twenty nve hun
dred dollars a day! This one measure
reduced our debt one half; but yet there
were cavilers, belore the sale of toese
roads, and since, who objected to this
sale. Tbe State, it was said bad made an
enormous sacrifice, wholly indefensible
on financial grounds. But the objec
tions with the objevtors, have passed
. , , . .
awav. iuf a long periou no wora 01
censure nas Deen neara iu inis conneo
tion. Let anv man ask himself tbe
queatlon, how muoh would tbe State's
interest in railroada bring on the man
ket to daT Some of tbem would not
ring the price of an old song!
If the eale had not been made, our
the store formerly occupied
thejen tire .stock is disposed
Bargains. t ,
Readvmade Clothin&T. TTnnrV
Satisfaction guaranteed in our
J. P. Street & Co.
IS t ate status would be financially, aa
(hopeless aa that of South C rolina, Ala
huui a, and others, of our tnncn-endur
ing Southern sisters, who are con leased
)y less able "to pay a moiety of their in
debtedneas, than we the whole of oura.
Fortunately tor us, (thanks to Gov. Hen
ter) we Rot rid of our oppressors years
ago, and since that period have levelled
a iponatain or debt, in addition to this
amount of debt liquidated, we bave i
tbe same period ot time met our liabil
! itips on account ot old issue of tbe B.iuk
- : oi itinaesfci-e, aim u aiing aepi, amount
t . ' . . . ' .
' i inf to oertnree millions or dollars,
i . 1 r
nut wuy is it, Luai,uuriug iu wuuut
period of patriotic struggle for tbe lst
few yoars every measure, looking; to tbe
credi'able iuanHKement of our debt btrn
i been met by noisy protest, charges ot
corruption, and multiform "flapdoodle?
JNolsy once in their opposition to
' measure, that wiped out at otio "fell
swoop" twenty millions ot State debt,
tbey are quiet now as thi- policy, since
- time bas abundantly justified the
dom of tbe act. Yrt: "All silent, and
aJl damned!" With our forty tbiee mil
lions of debt, and tbe State's continued
connexion with railroads, repudiation
was not only probable, but inevitable
' but cow, 6ince our debt lias been ret' uc
wanted a clean balance sheet, at tbe er
pensoot tbe lost reputation oi a State
With some twenty-three millions ot
debb, and five hundred millions ot prop
erty; witn new eouro s of revenue aris
ing partly Irom tax on railroads and tbe
diminished cost to tbe mate of criminal
prosecutions, realized, and in prospect,
we have no yalid excuse to offer to tbe
comciercitl word tor failure in State
obligations. And thereat bushwhack
ing politicians are muoh "disgruntled
ior, mattered over the State are men
who, when you allude to State honor
and credit, reply with derisive laughter!
Tbey will aak you if, really now, you
know, you are in earnest in using such
antiquated woras; you must navr
bonds, somebody must baye paid you
to use sucn pDrases, or you must be ex
tremely verdant, a regular innocent
and belong to the "Mary bad-a-little
lamb-party!" It see ins to have been
appointed 'from of old," that certain
men should thus unconsciously reveal
themselves; but what that revelation
imports, it would be alike unnecessary
and unprofitable lor us to characterize
When an individual is willing but
unable to meet bis debt, no true man
will ever reflect injuriously upon bis
misiortunes. no will retain toe svmpa
thy and respect to bis associates. And
so oi a tate. noum oi us there are
States bo plundered by foreign thieves,
that tbev can never pay but an incon
siderable part of their.debts,and no mans
ly man can nave tne neart to say tbey
ever should pay more. Bat we having
naa tne cantroi or our own puDiio f-
iairs lor years, have no valid reason to
give for failine to honor our obligations
Tennessee must take her stand with tbe
discredited States South whose lutnre
is wrapped impenetrable gloom. through
tne greed or vulgar tyrants; of she must
stand with the solvent States on her
other borders who, uncursed by carpet
oagery, noid with her tneir fortunes in
their own hands. Her choice must be
made. On the one hand she ohooses the
only course that can develope her great
resources or wealth, promote ltnmigra
tion, increase her commercial facilities
and importance and preserve her honor.
hitherto unstained; on tbe other, ahe
falls by her own hands, a public sal
cldo deliberate feio de se.
Tills Is to notify the legatees, devisees,
aisiriDuien ana Celrs at law 01 jonn w.
Cbealrs, dee'd, that the settlement with N.
B. I heoirs and J. M. Mayes, Administrators
i ina saia joon w. cneairs, aec a, ana ft
P. Wade, Administrator of Mrs. Susan T,
Chealrs, dee'd. bave this day been conclu
ded, and that on Monday, t he 14th day of
r euruary, i7, 1 will move the court ror
con flrmatlon of said reports.
A. N. AKIX,
February 4, 1878.-H Clerk.
By virtue of a'Decreeof the Chansery court
at Columbia, Tennessee, rendered at its
Oct. term, 1875, in the case of Will Polk,
Trustee vs. John W. Thomas, et ats., I will
sell at public outery?u the highest and best
bidaer, at the Court House door In tbe town
of Columbia, on Saturday the 11th day of
March, 1876, the described tract or parcel of
land to wit; lying and being in Maury Conn-
ty, iennesee, civu aistnci, xo. m. .Bound
ed on tbe north by Stephen Williams and
Mr, ilangrnm; on the east by A. V. iartee;
011 tne south by W. C. Sellers: on the west
by Mrs.Nolin; containing by Jestimation,
It'ftcreaand 19 perchesaid lsftdwili;iesold
exclusive of homestead, the metes and
bounds of which homestead will be exhibit
ed on day of sale; also exclusive of a small
part claimedts- one W. H. Cunningham.
tbe land wille sold on a credit of six,
twtlve and eighteen months, free from the
equity of redemption. Notes with good se-
rrom day of sal
01 me purcnaser or purcnas-
er,; and a lien re tamed to secure tbe pur-
cliese money. Said lands will be sold in two
or more trauta or parcels
i l. U. COOPER, C. A M.
Fjfbntary 4th, 1ST-
WE HAVE RENTED TUFT HOUSE FORMERLY OOfiTTPIED A8
Poet Office, and directly opposite the
a large assortment of
Carriages Buggies and Wagons,
r ..... v . - .
And propose to furnish a Vehicle of any description as low as can be bought
elsewhere. We intend to establish a permanent business, and warrant sa' is
faction to every one who will favor us
furnish HARNESS at very low rates.
yourselves. . . t - -
Opposite Maxwell House.
Elegant Dress Suits,
Nobby Business Suits,
Boys Dress Suits,
New Styles in Ties,
West End Scarf,
The Rutland Scarf,
Silk Hankerchiefe. febl-2m
ah nrV unit accounts due Withersnoon
Sanders and H. W. Handera, will be placed
in the hands of an officer If not paid before
the first of March. W.J. DALE,
Feb. 4-3t. xruttee.
J. B. Bond etal., vs. S. B. Bond et al.
In this cause it appearing from complain
ant's bill, which la sworn to, that L. S.
Bond is a non-resident ol the Htate of Ten
nessee, so that the ordinary process of law
cannot be served 'upon her: it is therefore
ordered by me that publication be raae
for four consecutive weeks in the Herald
and Mail, a newspaper published In Co
lumbia. Manrv count v. Tennessee, requir
ing the said non-resident to appear before
the next sitting of tbe Chancery Court, to
be held in the town of Columbia, Maury
countv. Tennessee, on the first Monday in
Am 11. ItfiH. and plead, answer or demur to
eomnlalnant's bill, or the same will be tak
en for confessed as lobar, and set for hear
Jan. 21. 1876. D. B. COOPEK. C. 4 M
R. M. FJRIERSON
FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES.
Prescriptions carefully com'
pounded day or night.
J. H. JAMES & SON
-YOU CAN BUY-
, From TWO TO SIXTY DOLL R3
each, written guarantee to run
well and give "saiisfac
Our Clocks arc made at the best Factories
and of the bust ma'rlal. All persons
Are requested to come and examine oar
stock for themselves.
jau21-76-3m. J. H. JAMES & SON.
: DEALER IN:
Medicines and Chemicals,
Fancy and Toilet Articles,
SPONGES, BRUSHES, PERFUMERY,
WINES AND LIQUORS
FOR MEDICAL USE.
Soath Sid Public Sqaar. Colai
ibla, T tintas,
And Dealer In all kinds of
corm'S, Ejniit cases d usms,
Will attend to all calls, day or night.
with flrst-claw Hearses, gentle horses and
careful drivers. 8W Special attention giv
en to the re-Interment of bodies, and will su
perintend, batislaction guaranteed.
I have recently bad maaea handsoaie and
convenient furniture wagoa, and am pre
pared at all times to move furniture, pianos,
etc., without injury. Offlcs at Lamb Boyd's.
Nov. 20, 187o.-tf. A. BAKR.
! J. P. HERNDON.
rsam Diue rauac oqare,
Celotabls, ... X
PromDt attention paid to Dentistry and
Hsbiancbea. and satisfaction guaranteed.
Vm ee in Seavy uaiiery. luai4-7o-ly
Havlna this day Haeeested the Insolvency
(II Ultr er.ube ifl TT 0. iUi;J mc. uct, iw t,u7
Clerk of the County Court of Maury county
Tennenoee. notice ia hereby given to all per
sons having claims against said out ate to
file them duly authenticated -with said cleric
on or before the 21st day ot June, 187(1, for
...... 1 f u lnD.l,ln .1 ..... 1 .n
prorata distribution, or tne same win lie
torever barred. W. K. .McKO.NON,
Jan. 21st, l7ti. Administrator.
Nelson House, and will keep on hand
with their patronage.. We will also
s&- Please give us a call and satisfy
0T1UE TO STOCKHOLDERS.
runmant to adjournment, there will be a
meeting of the stockholders of Maury
County Agricultural Society, on th 1st
Monday iu February cext, for the purpose
of electing a Hoard of Directors. It Ik much
to be hoped that a reasonable interest nmy
b manifested by every member, so that the
attendance may be full and said electieu
sure. very Kespectrully,
Jan. 14-td. UFO. CHILDRESS.
Jaa. T. Akin, A. Craft, W. H. Farls,
Akin, Craft & Co.,
We are prepared to furnish all kinds of
V 1 . r M 1 Jl Ul lA L VIMH) ..III. II I I
class Hearses, gentle horses and careful
drivers. We are also prepared to furnish
Carriages and Hacks for funeral occasions.
All calLs will be attended promptly day or
night, by Mr. A. Craft, who has an experi
ence of many years as aa undertaker, and
we gnarantee satisfaction.
-fcSpecial attention given to re-Interment
Ollice one door above the Guest House
and at W. H. Farls' Carriage Factory, South
Main street. orders leu at eitner place
will meet with prompt attention.
Eugene R. Smith, M. D.,
Office and residence High Street, two doors
Office Hours: From 8 to 9 a. m.; and from
to 3 p . m., and at 7 p. in. dec21-75-'3m.
TO THE TAX-PAYERS
OF MAURY COUNTY
Tne-Tnx Books ror the year lK7o are now
in my hands. The taxes for said year are
due. I will be in Columbia every day until
me oin oi r eDruary, prepared to receive anu
receipt lor tne same.
A. A. LIPSCOMB,
Jan. II, 1876.-td. Tax-Collector,
lacks nut! Jennets
37" or sale.
I have Ursra stock of lank
or sale, from rood Conraon
Stock un to
i borouuh-breds. 1 can vuif anybody in color,
die, blood or price. Address me at Santa Ye
Maury county, l enneseee.
May 7-75-1. WM. YOUNGER.
TAX - PAYEES
OF MAURY COTNTY.
times designated, where I will be nreoariMl
i ooiirei lueoiaw ana county tax ior tne
year 1875. I will be at Columbia every
2 District. Love's. Tuesday. February 8th
15 and 16 Dls., Hampshire, Wednesday Feb ft,
12 and 18 pis., Mt. Pleasant,Thnrsday, Feb. 10.
ii inn. rew iora, r rmav, t ea. 11.
10 " Poplar Top, Baturday, Feb. 12.
M " Wisener's Sitore, Tuesdav, Feb. 1
19 " 4ravel Hill, WedneMlav, Feb. 10
18 " Hanta Fe, Thursday, Feb. 17.
1 " Kinderhook, Fribay, Feb. IS.
17 Hpencer's Old Mill, Katurdav Feb. la. -J
3 " Fox's, Tuesday, February 22d.
4 " Parks' Store, Wednesday, Feb. 21.
5 " Hurrlcane8tatioii,Thurslav, Feb. 21.
B " Culleoka, Frulay, Feb. 25th.
78 " BiBbyville, Saturday, Feb. atl.
22 " HpriiiR Hill, Tueaday, February, 31,
23 " Handers' Htore, Weduesday, March 1
1 " Rally Hill, Thursday, March 2.
24 " Rock Springs, Friday, March 3.
21 " Bear Creek, Haturdav, March 4.
14 " Wllliamsport, Tuesday, March 7.
A. A. LIPSCOMB,
Jan. 14. 1K76 tf. Tax-Collector
Pure Bred Poultry.
Light Brahma", (of Williams and Sharpies
strains.) Dark Brahmas, (of Williams and
Todd strains.) Warranted to be pure bred,
and as Rood as the best. My Fowls need on
ly io ne seen to oe appreciated. satlsic
tion guaranteed. Egt?s for sale now, and
cmcaens in me f ail. iiress,
JOSH. O. BAILKY,
Jan. 21-76-ly. Columbia, Tenu.
Having qualified as Administrator af Mid
aieion Mill, uec u., 1 Hereby notify all per-
sons inaeoiexi ro me estate to come forward
and make settlement, and those having
claims against It to file them within tho
time prescribed by law.
Jan. 11-tw. Administrator.
0TJE NEW STOCK OF
"We are offering very low
WARRANTED TO PERFORM WELL AND i
Also, our entire itock of Jewelry itnd
I ver Wir at atlonin'iioi law oriso' .
jan21-79-3m. J.H.James A. So
We are State Agents for Deavenport's Dia
mond Dressing Machine, and are selling
Mac hi nee lo Millers. Will dress Mills on
application to me at Carter's Creek. It is
something no Miiler can afford to do with
out We guarantee satisfaction in every
Instance. The Machine, with one point, is
Sixty Dollars. Address or apply t us. Car- I
ter's creea station, Maury county, renn.
Jan7-3m. JOHN HUNTER 4 BRO.
BRICKS for SALE!
We keep constantly on hand, at Columbia
ana mi. rieamni, wen ourni DriCKs ior sale.
commoia vara near tne Depot, we are al
so prepared to do all kinds of Brick Work,
at me nnortesi notice and on tne uioti uoer-
Jan. aa-W-tf, WEAVER BROS
Onardlana who have failed to make annu
al settlement and renew their txinda bi
ennially, and Administrators who have
rauea to mate aetnements aa required by
A. N. AKIN,
Jan. 28, 1875. Clerk.
I have removed from Chaffin's shop to the
old Jsmnoa Nlaad. on Month Main 8t.,
where 1 can be fop nd at all times rendy to
nnoe xiortm, nriwiiuuin anu uo ail other
worn in my line,
Jan. M-7tt-!y. AU ADCOCK.
E. KUHN. L
H i--- f' - 1
D AE&miAbrS: at rJT !
To enable us to keop oar hand employed dn rinse the Winter. We positively oirr lit
the actual cost of manufacture, forn short time, onr elegant aHsortment of
Buggies, Jenny Linds, Dixies, Park Phaetons, Panelled
Rockaways, Brets, Sulkeys, Skeleton Wagons, Etc. '
GROG E RI B Si!
NEW lOUSE !
TilE LARGEST STUCK IN THE CITY OF
STAPLE and PAWCY GROCERIES
Old Domestic Whiskiee, French RrandieH, and Imported Wins iinJ I.i-iuoi-f.
IPST" tfnerfal inducements oflVrtnl to Mer-hnts in want of hnp)li. s .
I have afull stock of lluist's liriRi?" Bro., aud femes' cw (janioa i-i.e.H,
which will be furnished to the trade at WhoJeule Utte.s. K& Call au.l ex
amine Stock and prices.
This day received a full stuck of FKRSII CJAHDEX SEED, inclntlin-
a few new and choice varieties.
TO SECURE A FULL ASSORTMENT SEXD JX
YOUR ORDERS IMMEDIATELY.
Will furnish to onr friends free of cost, Buii-t's Garden Manual, continu
ing instructions for cultivating the (iarden. ('all and get one.
Jamiiiry 14th, lKO.-ly.
L. W. BLACK. W. J. mooki:.
(M'GAWS OLD STAND,)
First Class Turn
Horsos and Mules Bought
fiST UXCLE TOMMY UOl'CJLAHS, with liii "OLD JIKLI AHL-H" O.M
NIT.rs, will always l e found at the D.'iot lo wuit upon his ti it-ii'ls and Hi
Puhlic. Jnny'- 7t-ly.
D. 'T. CHAITELL.
Opposite tlo Guest
HORSES BOUGHT AND
-Vehicles oMIt kinds for hire. Mr.
"Old U"-llble'inriit)us' to and from all
II AK.K. hukm:m.
la: kh Wonder of tbe Age .
SIX FOR $7.50.. BOY'S
Only On Quality
NOTHING BUT THE BEST
Can bu fiiiLihel !jy any one coiupjtdiit
essary to put in tlio 6lcee.s .oil suw up tlie si lu 8':a:m. ilei.-viii
turuidiioj. We l'uruiaa aix ot tlio anno slurti ooMt'i.tTE lor ilO.
SMITH & METCALFE,
WOXUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES,
AU of tho bout Italian Marble,
Also, I lve tbe .latent utylas of Poeius.
ttST All work as cheat) an ea i,n dona Blue-
where. MaunfactorT on WoHt Main streat.'
uear me iiiaiuuin. maiyt
Soiitli .Mnln Street,
Board, w sr Dy.
Crrlff. bnrtrlx or sxdit'e borsea fornlahMl cm
Plilimbon to lk pruprictor,
JA2IE3 U. QVB8T.
Oolanibia. Jan. 1 1873.
T. W. TUUPIN
and, Retail !
NEW GOODS !
cor. .nmu anu iieuij.-iiii:
Outs of All Kinds
and Sold on Commission !
AND FEED STAB
House, South ITala
SOLD ON COMMISSION !
Wrlifhf will lw oti Iimti'I ( drlvofh"
srriiMr-tLANO N.trii.K am
m 1 1-7 -!-.
SIZE, SIX FOR $6.00,
! The Very Best I
WAMS LTTTA MUSLIN AN ')
LilNEIN USED! -
ta so a straiif'it houui, us
it m only in-!
First Natonial Bank
T. W. Kw, J. B. Chlldrefc, T. B. Ha int.
J. M. Towlcr. 1 Krlersoii, J. il.
ThomartJohu Ki lei sou
Receive, denoslts, deal In foreiRii
(lomesllo . KhaiiKi-, (old, silver and
Cm Illnii 1. tin. ill iLUn.
Collectloiui made and remitted for on day
of payment at current rat- of exchange.
Keveuue btampa for sale.
J. li. t'HILDKKHM,
Lvt ius FaiunsoN, Cashier.
W. 0. yneppard,
...ri7r?rF,-rn,.,."B'? ""W hlork' 0r,len trL
oerly m-miI Ihe ITe.l,ytorin rliurcn.
1 k ennMantly on hand full .took of t,..,lh.
laule-ji, ..ape tua lotion. fr t m,lth ,rt rn :
I recuniuit-nJi-d by tlm Uaited BlU du( aw
-Utiou, cU aud o un.