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Ricliavd jVugeiii, Editor
TnE WHOLE ART OP GOVERNMENT CONSISTS' IN" THE ART Or BEING HONEST. JefFerSOn.
.$!. W. o Witty Vu'ollsliex
MILFORD, PIKE COUNTY, PA., SATURDAY, MARCH 28 1840.
JEFrJIvbUiVlAiN REPUBLICAN, wo may know whether there is an excess, and"scc
TERMS. Two dollars pcrannum in advance Two dollars oiid, docs paper necessarily create an expansion
and a Quarter, half yearly, and if not paid before the end of nr nnnoMecnrv onlnranmoni rvf tt.
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THE QUAKERESS BRIDE.
BY MRS. E. C. STEDMAN.
O not in the balls of the noble and proui,
Where fash km asf omUes her glittering crowd,
Where all is in beauty and splendor arrayed,
Were the nuptwb performed of the meek Quaker maid.
Nor yet m the temple those rites which she took,
By the altar, the initer-crovm'd bishop and book,
Where oft m her jewels doth stand tlie fairbiWe
To wispcr those rows that through life must abide.
The building was humble, yet sacred to IIIM
Itefore whom the pomp of religion is dim,'
Whose preeeacc h not to the temple confined,
But dw eils with the contrite and lowly of mind.
T was there, all unraitod, save by modesty, stood
The Quakeress bndc, in her pure satin hood.
Her charms unadorned by the garland or gem, -
Yet fair as the lily jest plucked from the stem, -
A tear glistened bright in her dark-shaded eye
And her bosom half uttered a tremulouslsfgh,
As the hand she had pledged was confidlnglyjgivcn,
And the low.murmured accents recorded 'fn Ifeaven.
I've been at the bridal where wealth spread the board,
Where the sparkling red wine in rich gqblets were poured,
Where the priest in his surplice fn o ritual read,
Aad the 'solemn response was impressively said ; S$r
I've seen the foad sire, in his thin locks of gray,
Give the pride of his heart to the bridegroom away,
"While he brushM the big tear from his deep furro w'd cheek,
A nd bow ed the assent which his lips might not speak :
Rut in all the array of the costlier scene,
Naught seemed to my eye so sincere in its mien,
To language so ftilJy the ncart to resign,
" As the Quakeress bnde's "UNTIL DEATH I AM THINE ! "
Cedar Brook, riainfield, N. J
this country no cheaper. Ifjjthen, the laborer goes
into the market with his money, as his wages are,
he will have twenty dollars to expend in tea, coffee,
sugar, and the thousand necessaries which come
from foreign countries ; but if he goes into it as
they will be ten dollars under the operation of
the new theory it is plain, therefore, that with the
same amount of labor ho can purchase but half as
much foreign merchandize : in other words, it will
in effect, be doubled in price, where it is apparent
ly the same. .
But the Senator did not stop here, for he aliened
that, while the laborer would' be in a better condi
tion, the exporter of product that is cotton, &c,
would derive a greater profit, the measure of which
would be the amount of reduction of wages and of
property, as he would be abie to produce so much
choaper. To make myself understood, I will pro
ceed with the same si'pr. option, that wages and
property are to be reduced one-half. Then his
theory is, that the cotton planter, for example.would
produce his crop at half the present cost, by the sa
ving in labor and the support of it, and consequent
ly derive double profit. That he would produce
cheaper is undeniably true ; and if he snould sell
for the same price he now does, and bring" home
specie he would realize double profits provided his
laborers are supported wholly on the products of
the United States. Tins, however, is not the course
of trade or of business. Hut from
that paper becomes redcudant, excessive, inflated.
But they do not attempt to cstaohsh tho fact bv anv
proof. Since the first of January, 1838, our circu
lation'has not much exceeded one hundred millions;
it may, at some periods, have reached one hundred
and twenty, inclusive of metal and paper. Is this
excessive ? Has it reached a point above the ur
gent necessities of business for two vears oast If
it has, how much is enough ? Some davs aero I
put this enquiry distinctly to the Senate, and it re
mains and will remain unanswered. If it can be
proved that we havo too much, it is not difficult to
ascertain, with sufficient exactness, what amount
is neccssarv. I desire collators to make known
the process by which they arrive at their conclu
sions in so vitally an important matter. They seem
to take it for granted that there is no evil but ex
pansion to fear, while nothing is more certain than
that too small a circulating medium works out as
great it not greater injuries than one too large.
We have heard much declamation about bloated
credit, gambling and speculation, but if the exist
ence of all these were established at this moment
by unquestionabie proof, it would have little ten
dency to establish the fact that excessive circula
tion, for they have no necessary connexion, but
each nuy exist independent of the other.
Win the fccnator maintain the proposition that
paper cannot ami has not circulated without inlla
tion or excessive credits in trade cenerallv ? 1 20
further, and ask him If excess is any more than an
occasional occurrence, growing out of markets
quickened into activity by events rather casual than
permanent Is there anv excess of paper in the
usual course of business from sound banks, who
redeem ami are aoie to redeem their paper at sicht, spnnpntlv. nil the. nrnlna rm?n f tKo ..i.:,.. ;
1 ll , u - 1 T - J" . y -is w. tuijuui, 1111;- OUU CLl IS.
"""" . a cnunic. manuiaciurer, ana laoorer, will be but ha f I What motive sir can we have to reduce
how excess ever exists under such circumstances, what thev now are in nominal amount wbiV ir. ' , I , ; ?, reu"?
1 can rrn to ,'av into anv hnnk in Tinston nr v Vnrt "M ?.-a,mo,r?t' w,ul? value of wages and property I When d d
. j VH.U( w. ijiinr 11 auL 1 imju i 1 1 r : 1 . 1 1 1 . . j ' 1 1 ir nrnnrtri t. n ) . -
and that dollar is as good and wi;l buy as much m the mos
r ranee and uormany as any doilar there.
neatly if not quitqequal to the value of property
in that country, whether it berich or poor, pros
porous or unprosperous, and you cannot change
to the extent gentlemen have supposed, the re
lation of debtor and creditor, or thus diminish
the resources of tho debtors without a crash, a
waste and desolation, such as never have been
experienced. Suppose a man has purchased
10,000 dollars wortli of property at present
prices, and given his bond for it ; you reduce
its value one-half, and its worth 5,000 dollars.
How is it possible that with resourees thus re
duced, most debtors can ever pay ?
But sir you cannot mantain such a state of
tilings as lias been supposed. You may embar
rass and distress 11s as you have done ; but this
bill will in the end work out no such advanta
ges as are anticipated for the planter. The
theory contains in itself a principal that will
defeat the end in view. Go on sir, and if you
please legislate soaa to bring to the cotton plan
ter the extraordinary profits anticipated, at. the
expense of other branches of industry ; how
long will it bo before that pursuit will bo over
loaded with competitors till tho market will bo
inundated with cotton and its price fall just in
J the ratio you have stimulated its production ?
tries, for no channels to occur thfirn. hut i"mm
pockets of every consumer of foreign goods in this i it Jo'11 " mus como y tne 'aws
country, for the change is wholly in the wages and of trade, come to a level with the fall of other
property sink together onc-hlf, the relative positions ; productions. And what will be attained by the
of the laborer and the owner of property arc the whole process ? Nothing? absolutely nothing
u r t. i,uubo us mucn wiia but that it will take more of our labor and more
one-halt the money, and the same amount of Dron r 1 .! u j-
. ,,,;n ,.i, ' ' ,u .!i, "'"""' u Pll'P of our productions to buy foreign merchandize ;
erty will purchase as much labor as before. But -1 ... . 0 1 m
in regard to foreign merchandize this is not so- for 0,,r aln Wl11 turn Iltcral,y lf,t0 a Ioss- 1 1,13 15
the laborer will, at tho end of any given period, capaple I think of demonstration, if it does not
have but half as muchmoncy, andthesame amount already sufficiently appear ; bi.tl have no time
of property will be worth but half as much ; con-. to enlarge, interesting and all important as the
most that could be said of our rnnrlirinn ia that
1 tie it 155 no worsfi. fur it is nhvmticlr nn lmtt.
.1 - 1 . .. ' . . .. . v . ' ' j
paper, men is cieany worm as mucn as the silver,
for it buys it. If the paper of banks is maintained
at this value and so redeemed at all times, it is not
essy to comprehend how it 15 innatcd, cr that more
? When did the
countries should defend in the same ratio, J sa" cv?r ui,,,n aoonngpeopie so mess-
jjut ! have they ever been able by industry to feed,
is in circulation than is needed for use. The idea
of of inflation pre-supposes some unsoundness.
All money, metallic as well as paper, does and will
fluctuate to value, and if this be inflation, then gold
and silver is no more exempt from it than paper.
It is by no means easy to determine which liuctu
ates often times money or property. Qbtton is
forty dollars a bale to-day, to-morrow it is thirty
five, and next day forty-five ; it does not- follow
that the cotton alone has fluctuited. or that it has
' .'3... ....I 11 . . ij 1 .
uutiuiiiuu ui an , iur uum uiui suver may ue to
1 if we descend while they remain stationary, and a ! clothe and educu 1 themselves so well? The
j profit is then gained to the exporter, nothing is more (history of the world proves nothing more cer
plainer that such profit is drawn from the consumer tainly nothing with clearer demonstration,
of foreign mercnanaise. as it will take twice as h..-T. ..,. .1 .1 '
I mull Hint tTiiuic tiuiruo nib iu 11 uicic ia mi;
much of our labor or products to buy it as is now
required. If the theory establishes the fact that
the exporter is to reap double profits for cotton, it
establishes beyond controversy the fact also that
that piofit will be a tax upon every man that con
sumes a foreign article .amlxbat it will be wholly
drawn FronftheTr Tfodk&s'. 'i'tie SelTatorT'iatrred
himself into an error by
greatest poverty and suffering ; there the con
diiioa of the laborer is most forlorn and wretch
ed there is the least moral & intellectual culture
and there our race is sunk into the depths of po
litical deo-redation, incapable of raising itself to
scarce as to depress it. It is every day s occur-1 mUst perceive that the lew and depressed state of
icm iu .i.m Pwvi a.ra am:i iiuciurtung in vaiuc, . me worJcin? classes in Jiuroue is nroof enoilfrh thnt
i,u,iiuia.n.1U8 a.i F, iin, .iiHi limn jiuno; no exccsiive prdfu is obtained hern upon r0ds
nay, under some circumstances, falling below good 0ne that can bear essential reduction ; arid that
paper. No matter what we have for currency, whilo raw cotton maintains it price, foreimi roods
there will be flttctuatiom in its value srrHtIr afltic- i
U4viw uuim.&II illbllO lit UILi UlUtU UUIIIIitZLl""
Speccli of Ittr. Iaxis,
ON THE SUB-TREASURY BILL.
I- Senate, January 23.
.- j, Concluded.
But, sir, I fear I have dwelt too long on these
matloM? ir.l tx-.ll li - of jrn tn ntlrt tl.nt frr- ttl.i.l. T . I . . J . : 1 r " . r I
uiani.10, uuu ii iu iuuH.il v ...uw iui i...... cutinj( irauc, s a uit mniiii iiteiiiwiii Of unuorm
claeflyrose. Much has been said of labor, and j amount cannot be maintained any more thttn cu
what is ail I may say, without offence, it is a ( can limit business to an exact araaunt.
commodity bought and sold like merchandize in I Thii nil proves what seems to be not well un
the market. A man has his skill and service toiderstood; or Senators wy!d reason differently
sell to whomsoever will buy them, and his anxious ' that there is be: ono war to determine how much
dpsires is to obtain thr most Kbaral rnmiinHrnt ion. nimiUiinn in iuur Tf ia imnna?;u
j ijivumuvii ID 4frV.?C& J A iniuv3ijm iu tJ3
The Senator sap the value of it is regulated by certain how much money may be nocessarv for
bank paper. ISot so, Mr. President, not so; but each member of Ukj Senate for the current year,
V - ..j j uiiu it- i- iiuani ifuiivsaiuio w ts ii vi ii aiu tilt i .11 113
that elevation aftiiTiied bv n free piilialitcnr'd
sunnasinir that foruirrn I u 1.. i.i. "
oroductions are to romo to 'nl,mn0 -..l 1 vui'1" l""w ill curenilll UWIT O WU .aiiairs.
exports are to keep up where they are.' He thinks lt t0m lo lh? OPP05'10 01 everything dearest
a-1 tlie imnorter sells in a mark-nt inn:,tpfi i, I to us, lor the descent will carry with it not on-
bundant as to raiso the value of property, or so and realizes and extraordinary profit. Bus ; hoi hT tIlR "ages hut all the higher qualities which
winch oxists for it. currency may, however, at 0f the great public. The question is left, therefore,
mrws nave lis innuence. 11 me suppiy is groi to be settled by inlaws et tnitfe, as an other matters
and the demand small, then wages are necessarily , of business. We learn 1kw much llour and corn
law; but if the supply be smalt and the demand are required annually by the demand for them.
great, they are high. When business is flourish-; Just bo wa learn how much money is required to
ing, the demand is urjrent, and wages rise; wheh ' carrv forward business, by the ability, of men to
it.is depressed, tiie demand diminishes, and wages ' buy it. So much is necessary, be the amount great
fail. lLmce, too. in countries densely populated, ; or small ; and, in a growing country, it would be
the suppiy is necessarily greater, in proportion to just as wise to limit the amount of produce as the
the business, than in countries thinly peopled. j amount of monetary capital, Surely nothing can
Thus we see why wages in a great country, new j be more absurd than to attempt to determine the
and fuii of resources, like ours, are in quick de-' amount, wiihout reference to the exigencies of the
mand. while in China, wh.ere.the re is a vast surplus j country to say that eighty millions or any other
population, the market is overstocked and they are ' arbitrary amomit is enough. There is no advan
iow. Hence, too, it is, that in such conditions of J tage to be goined by lowering the value of proper
society we always find the greatest povert v, suffer- ty, unless the same amount of labor, or the same
mg, and degradation. Bank paper is obviously j amount of property, enables us to obtain more of j
tion of trade, this idea of excessive profit to the im
porter is fallacious; and as the notion of p. reduc
tion in the price of goods is founded on it, that
To follow out the case I have supposed
The income of every man, except the exporter
is to be reduced m tho value o: wages and
property one half, while all foreign merchan
dize will cost the same, which will obviously,
in effect, double the price, as it will lake twice
the amount of labor, or twice the amount of the
products of labor, to purchase it.
I do not describe this power to the bill, but'
it is enough for me that iriends do. hat res
ponse will the fanners, mechanics, manufactur
ers, and laborers make to such a flagicious pro
position ? Can they be reconciled to such a
measure of oppression ? one that extorts from
them the fruitsof their indusly to professedly
enrich the planter who now enjoys a prospertty
uuequalled in the rest of tho country ? No, sir,
such plans of sectional aggrandizement, and
such a disregard of the interests of the great-
estand most powerful people of our country, . of sustaining if.
and for the same causes which raduccs them to
hopeless penury will produce like results here,
if a few pence a day will n at support men there
it will fail to do it here. The intelligent wor
king man of the United Suites will pause
ii i " . . .... .
oeiore ne precipitates Inmsrlt into such irre
trievable wretchedness to cheapen the product
of labor. He will enquire whether it tends to
elevate or depress his race whether the priv
ileges and hopes of a freemen are utterly de
lusive, and end in retracing his steps to the de
graded condition from which wc all believe he
had escaped. In his descent from his preset,
commanding position, he may well carrv wi;
him these reflections, sit down in despai
and spurn all the delusive hope of self-goven.
meut as illusory, if they leave him to subsist on
the humble diet, and to grapple with the suffer
ings' of the most desolate portion of mankind.
Wages in France. Calais common laborer!
7 1-2 per day with board and without dwellin.
Boulogne 5s. per day do; do; Nantes 8d. d..
without board and without dwelliag; Marseille
ld. per day, with board andwithout dwelling.
The food in some districts " consists in "rye
bread, soup made of millet, cakes made lof In
dian corn, now and then some salt provisiohs and
vegitables, rarely if ever butcher's meat." In
others, " wheatcn bread, soup made with vegi
tables, and a little grease or lard twice a day,
potatoes or other vegitables but seldom butch
er s meat.
Sweden. "The daily wages of a skillful ag
riculturalist are 7d. to 8d. while the unskilled
obtain no more than 3 1-2 or 4d. per day and
boarded themselves. Agriculturalists in' the
southern provinces live upon sait fish and po
tatoes ; in the northern provinces porridge and
rye bread form their food." '
Bavaria. "Laborers are paid at the rate ol
8d. per day in the country," without board. '
Belgium. " A skilled artizan may earn in
summer Is 2d to Is 5d, in winter lOd to Is 2d ;
unskilled half as much, without board live, on
rye bread, potatoes and milk." Agricultural la
borers have less.
Germany "Dantzig laborers 4 3-4d to 7d per
day without board ; Mulhburgh, 7d per day do.
Holstien, 8d. per day, with board."
Neifierlands.Soulh Holland laborers 3 to 4d
per day with board. ;North Holland 20d ' per
day without board ; Antwerp, 5d per day do.
West Flanders, 9Cs to 104s per year with
Italy. Trieste laborers 12d per day without
board ; do 6dper day without board : lstria Sd
to lOd per day, without board; do 4d to 5d per
day with board; Lombardy 4 to Sd.per day do
Genoa 5 to 8d per day without lodgings; Tus
cany Gd per day without either.
Saxony. In 1836 a man employed in his own
loom, working from Monday morning to Satur
day night, from 5 o'clock in the morning until
dusk and even then could not nossiblv earn
fit us to be what we are free and independent.
This is a sufficient answer to all that can be
said upon the subject.
Such is the remedy for tho disease that af
flicts our counfrj' ; and while it3 advocates
shadow forth its evils beyond any conception
of mine, if the bill be carried into effect, as has
been proposed here, I must confess I see noth- more than 20 groshen (about 60 cents) perweek
ing in it to soothe & relieve the Public noth- Nor could one who had three children aged 12
ing to restore confidence which is the great and years and upwards, all working at the loom, as
desirable end, nothing to avert future panics well as himself, with his wife employed doing
nothing to stop this scramble after gold and sil- up the work, earn in the whole more than SI
ver going on between us and other countries--- weekly.
nothing lhat has healing power enough to re- Navigation. Between us and England this is
vivo and mantain prosperity. placed upon afooting of equality, all advantages
But sir, much as remains to be said, I must 10 navigators being abrogated. If any in-
draw to a close, as rav object was to notice lea- terest can hore direct competition this is one.
it j ding remarks of Senators who havo developed but let us see the results as set down by Mr.
- the new and extraordinary doctrines ol this Ad- Porter." In 182 1 " says this writer, "the pro-
ministration. I was anxious to vindicate the
right3 of the great mass of the People, who ac
portion of British vessels which entered the
ports of the United States was 7 1-5 per
not tie sole or chief cause whichfixcs the value of. the necessaries of life. This fact should, there- j can oniy exc5tc their disgust and indignation, j powerful enlightened class of mv fellow-citi
Wanes. Ifr.ro ho first clo.nrlr pstrimisnpfL for thfi tironnss is I mi - t . i .1 , ,-. , ..... 1 , . ..,,
rinire their sunnort bv labor, and whose inter- cent., compared with American tonnaire em-
ests, as laying at the basis of all prosperity, 1 ployed in the foreign trade of the United States
have at all times and on all fitting occasions os- while in 1835 that proportion was increased to
poused and maintained with whatever ability 1 30 per cent. The at
possess. In this, sir I have taken great and sin- years from 1821 to
cere satisfaction, behcvingit to be the great end tows.
of our free government, and the only sure means
I f !. T .1. I L-l-lf-f.!...
in me name anu ueiiau oi mat
39 per cent. The actual number in each of tho
1835 have been as fol
But, sir, let us pursue this subject a little further,
as it is capable of further illustration.
There are throe great classes of laborers: those
who produce from the earth are agriculturists, those
who convert the products of the earth into useful
forms are manufacturers ; and those who are enga-
ced in transporting and exchanging the products, i to believe that our relations in foreign trade will be
oi uie other classes are commercial. 1 liese great improved, but 1 shall show him his error, and that
fore, be first clearly established, for the process is
necessarily attended with great sacrifices. The
Senator from Pennsyh'ania seems to understand
that reducing the circulation will reduce property
and wages in the same ratio, if it does, in what
is our condition bettered, even if we could recon
cile debtors to it, who would be ruined 1 He seems
divisions of mankind are founded' on no law but
tliat of civilized, social existence. In our country
at least, each and every person may pursue any or
aii kinds vl business. But experience teaches us
he ought to arrive at exactly the opposite conclu
sion; for this theory, if carried into execution,
would inflict upon the laborers as well as the own
er of property the most injurious and oppressive
Jhus, sir, I have traced tho benefits of this bill, f zens of Massachusetts, whom I have the honor
if it have any as interpreted by its friends to the to represent, I enter my solemn protest against
tue necessity of these divisions, for wool, cotton, consequences. He solemnly affirms, and I give
and flas are of little value until turned into cloth, J him all credit for sincerity, that he believe a reduc
i'ut the farmer would find it difficult to run a mill tion in waes and property would be beneficial
Let us see
to m ike cloths, or to build and sail a ship to take
; : pro Jucc lo market, l'rom this division, too,
c un our markets. We must lmvj food and cloth
arid we must obtain them by an exchange of
t'jf- pri'lucis of Jaboi, hut we cannot exchange a ,
''')re or a watch for a joint of meat or for a pair
u' saocs; such property must first be broken into
pjnb. ana this is the peculiar office una almost the
' use of money. It measures the value of pro-
f?r:y. and brings it into a ibrm suited to our conve
ne me. I his is the relation winch it beaJs to bus
iness, and no other; and, while I admit iU great
iirnortanr-e, fdeny tliat it lies at the foundation.and
as t ie great regulator of the affairs of men, as
seens here to 1 supposed. The friends of this
'-'-Ii, I know, assume that we have an inflation, and
wnt tnouey, rule guides and regulates business ;
wlien.Mi truth, Oie inquiries' ought Jo he. first, hojiv
much is fHsco&saiy as a cir,cukiirjgyJinedjpin, that
Suppose that wages and properly will be redu
ced, one-half bv the bill that is, if wages are now
a dollar a duy.'they will be half a dollar ; and if
beef and mutton are now eight cents a pound, tney
will be four ; and so of all the productions of the
United States, and of all property created here.
Upon this state of facts, as things are, the laborer
would have, at the'expiration of twenty days' labor,
twenty dollars, to provide supplies for himself and
family. As they will be, he will have ten dollars.
Now, sir, be it remembered that we buy and sell
in foreign markets by their standard of currency,
and that lowering wages and property hero is to
have no effect there, according to the reasoning of
the Senator, as their currency must regulate the
price of their wases and products ; bnt cotton is to
sell, and goods afe to be bought as if no change
had taken place. Goods, therefore, will come into.
ncn and powerful. I have, ii I mistake net,
demonstrated they are to be made richer by tax
upon their less fortunate, but more industrious
and more necessitous lellow citizens a tax
they never can and never will submit to so long
as their power can be felt through the ballot
But sir this is not all. While we arc thus to
hare intolerable burdens loaded upon us, to add
to tne weight of our embarrassments, and to
increase our sufferings ; and while the debt
or portion of the community are to bo crushed
and ground to dust between the upper & nether
millstone of this process, the man of money is
only to escape unharmed but to have his mon
ey doubled. lie who holds, cash or its equiv
alent in bonds, notes, or stocks, will be able to
buy double the amount of propeuy with it, and
will therefore have Us value doubled on his
hands ; for while wages and property are to
go down, money is to go up in the same ratio.
If the friends of this bill have given it to a
true construction, it is a bill of privilege to the
rjch, but a scourge to all others;
What is tho debtor portion of the public ? Is
it so insignificant as notto be disregarded? Sir,
I will venture to assert that the amount of exis
ting indebtedness in any commercial country is
the doctrines here advanced ; and ii my voice
could reach them in their dwellings, their shops
or on the decks of their vessels, 1 would exhort
them not to be deluded by tho false theories
leading them to ruin, hut to rouse up their ener
gies at the ballot-box and manifest their indigna
tion at all attempts to oppress them by dimin
ishing their business and taxing their labor to
enrich others. I wonld entreat them not to sit
still and be made such as they soe the distres
sed and impoverished laborers of liUropo and
Year. Tons. Tons.
1R21 55,188 765,008
1822 70.GGS 987,961
1823 . , 89,553 775,271
181 57,351 850,033
! 1825 68,036 880,754
1826 69,295 912,206
1827 99,114 918,361
1828 101,167 "868,301
1629 86,336 872,949
1830 - 87,231 867,227 fJ-
1831 215.887 992,952 '
1832 288,841 gjO.eSS.)?
1833 f 363,487 1,111,441
1834 453,192 1,074,670 ,-
1835 529,922 1,372,353 ,
" The British increaso is 860, per cent. 4
This is the result of treaties arid conventioi:-
I called reciprocal.
Tho RtSiffsf!p.R rnferrnd rn in tlm. rpmnrvJ We chronicle to-day an exploit of rare occur-
" - - rnr. .l.;,.l, .o nrn nrn-l,IJ ;.,rU 1
r at- n-.,.;D .,-.! p,.,,'.. vm I . -,uu""j iiimiuiou was per-
ress of the Nations, and Wade's History of the for,ned nJ ther wn of ?a",dor' ?n lhe neighbor
Middle and Working Classes, two reasonable jng county of flop, a few.wecka ago. A doer
and resnectab e authorities, re v nr for the cor- , .." " . T J - uuoa wuoua,
i ' J o
rcctness of the facts chiefly contained in
following extracts upon the statistics collected
by the British Government
These developments show the farmer and all
other working men the condition of the wor-
o . .....
king classes in Europe, and upon what limited
means they subsist. It is this class of whom
they are to run the race of cheap production, &
consequently of coarsoixnd wretched existence
the a,ld bel" cIosel' pursued, approached within a
snon uistance 01 a nouse in which there was
a woman about 80 years of age, employed in her
domestic duties. She saw the deer approach
ing, seized a knife, and ran out to meet itand
beforo tho dogs came up succeeded in despatch
i'nn If Tim 1,1 1.!..'. - r.i
"6 isum luujr o iiuuiu ja VJUtJ. Xll',
Avarice is the chastisement of tho rich.