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Richard Nugent, Editor
The whole art of Government consists in toe art of being honest. Jefferson.
STRDUDSBURG, MONROE. COUNTY, PA., FRIDAY, DECEMBER 11, 1840,
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Tip and Tyler.
Tune Green grow the Rushes 0.
The " Cabin" boys required a song
And so I've come to bring it, 0;
And if you'ffbear with me so long,
I'll stay and try to .sing it, too.
Then here's to each faithful Whig;
And every lovely Smiler, too;
For honest Lads and Lasses fair,
Are all for " Tip and Tyler, too?
T6o long our land has been the sport
Of Hickory poles and knavery:
And thoughtful men began to fear
Our certain doom was slavery. ,
But here's to, &c.
The' Hero qf the Hermitage
Had gull'd the folks so gloriously,
That all he did, and all he said,
Was greeted most uproariously.
But here's to, &c.
And when his crew had fobbed our gold
And nought -was left but dross for us
He marches off, and tells the world,
" I leave this people prosperous?
But here's to, &c.
The "little Fox" then seized the " Spoils?
And did himself congratulate ;
But Whigs detected all his wiles,
And'warn'd him to absquatulate!
So here's to, &c
He tried to make his Treasury Notes
The offices of Specie do:
He plann'd a Standing Army next,' -v
And call'd it all Militia, too J
But here's to, &c.
And then, as if to make our Tars
All d-mn his eyes, and winkers, too
His Secretary taunts the Brave, '-
As " Cobblers? u Louts," and "Tinkers? 0!
But here's to, &c.
But why prolong the hateful tale
Of knaves, and deeds, so scurvy, 01
The.People, in their wrath, have" sent .
The Spoilers topsy turvy, 0. ' '. "
So here's to, &c.
Their doom, long since, was thus declar'd
By one who is no novice, 0: -
" The Penitentiary will reclaim J '
"Itsfugitivet in Office? 0! 1 ' . -So
here's to, &c. ,
Then let Columbia's sons rejoice, ? -From
Kennebec to Iowa; . . -1
. And let their notes of gladness far'
Mid Rocky Mountains die away.'
' So here's to, &c
The'U say the Whigs are noisy Blades
At timss, we own, it may be so:
We've holed the Fox of Kinderhook
And waken'd Kendall's Babies, 0! -So
here's to, &c.
For noise, and Foxhunts, such as this,
We think we have our reasons, 0:
But now we'll settle down in peace, t,
And hope for better seasons, O, , -So
here's to, &c.
May every Lass throughout the land,
Make up her mind, and marry soon;
And he to whom she gives her hand,
Support the Patriot Harrison!
Then here's to each faithful Whig3
And every lovely Smiler, too:
fror honest Lads, and Lasses fair,
Are ali for " Tip and Tyler, too?
f M.I. II.. .J I. J ...
"You're a fool," said a coxcomb, one. day ,to a,
And the answer lie got was a-queer one;
"Why, dang it! you partly sayrtrue, I. must owni
'If I ben't quite a fool, I be near one,"
AN ELOQUENT ADDRESS,
JSY HJLCJBLOJLAS SJI5iE,13, Esq.
At tiie PIfiiladolpisia Agricultural
tjentlemen we are assembled to witness
our first exhibition since the recent donation by
the State. Our society, while engaged with all
its own resources m improving our agriculture,
appealed to the .Legislature, as consisting main
ly of farmers, and asked, that wliile so many
millions were expended in the transportation of
our prouueuons, someinmg snouid be given lo
assist in rendering those productions themselves
more abundant and more valuable. According
ly a law was passed, placing, every year, at the
disposal of the Society a sum of fifty dollars
for each member of the Legislature for the city
and county of Philadelphia, to be paid out of
tne taxes to be raised within the city and coun
ty. 1 his, though small in amount, is impor
tanl from its examplo; nor in entering upon the
tirst enjoyment ol it, should we omit our thank
to the Legislature for this mark of regard for the-
farming interest, to the members from the city
and county who liberally supported it, and more
especially to those members of this society to
whose exertions we owe the success of this ap
plication among whom it would be great injus
tice not to name George W. Roberts, R. T.
Potts, and Captain Thomas Hayes: but in an
especial manner are the acknowledgements of
all farmers due to Mr. James Gowen, who is
always in the front rank where public spirit or
private liberality is needed.
Ihe Society have thought that no employ
ment of the additional means confided to them,
would be so useful as to bring the farmers to
gether, exhibit tho best specimens of their in
dustry; and by small but honorable premiums
to encourage a generous competition in every
branch of farming productions. The prizes for
i ..... .
tne best crops must be decided at a later part
of the season. But the exhibition of farming
stock, and. farming implements, is now before
you; and it is made my duty to add something
appropriate to the decision. This I do cheer
fully and what I shall say will be very plain,
very practical, and, as you will learn with pleas
ure, very short. My purpose is to say a few
words about the real condition of farming in
Pennsylvania its natural advantanges its ac
quired means; and then suggest such improve
ments as may make our farms more productive.
There are perhaps few portions of the earth
more favored by nature than Pennsylvania.
Her soil is excellent and various; while even
the parts least adapted in themselves for agri-
culture, airman tne best encouragement to it,
for the hills which reject the plough, are filled
with coal and iron, which collect large masses
of people to be fed by the farmers. Her cli
mate is a happ)' medium between the long win
ters of northern regions, which close the earth
for so many months against farm labour, and
consume so much of its produce in carrying the
farm stock over long months of idleness, and,
on the other side, the unvarying heat of south
ern latitudes, often unhealthy and unproductive,
where both man and cattle, degenerate. In this
climate almost every production may be natural
ized, so that in point of soil and season, arid va
riety of productiveness, Pennsylvania is distin
guished. These natural advantages she has also' the
means ofimproving by artificial means; for the
limestone, so great -an element in farming, is
found everywhere, in great abundance. Plaster
of Paris is obtained easily and at low prices,
from her neighbor New York: the large cities
furnish vast supplies of animal manure; while,
on the other side of tho Delaware, lies a great
belt of green sand, erroneously called marl, an
original deposit of the ocean, where, among
bones of extinguished races of animals, and rel
ics of a submerged world, there is brought up
this sand, highly useful even in its natural state,
and if mixed with lime, as it should be, of great
The tmpleincnts of husbandry come next in
order, and these we have of the very best kind,
much belter than similar implements in Europe
lighter; more easily handled; and there are
one or two m common use with us, such for in
stance as the horse-rake, and that giant instru
ment the cradle, which are unknown or unused
abroad. In truth, our people have had so much
to do. with comparatively small means that their
ingenuity has been tasked to invent the mdst
efficient instrument, and to make the most ac
tive use of them. Thus there are two words
in almost all languages, and well defined in
most dictionaries, but of which Europeans have
scarcely an idea, and these are the axe and the
plough. To cut down a tree, the great business
of America settlers, is a strange event to a Eu
ropean farmer. And then it may make us smile
to see, as we may on the continent of Europe,
at the present time, a whole drove of horses
I. have myself actually seen eight in a single
plough; and sometimes the whole" quadruped
force of the farm, three or four cows, and per
haps a bull or two, with the aid of several hor
ses, toiling slowly through tho great work of
turning up the sod nay, even in some parts of
England, at this moment, may be seen six large
horses, with two fullgroyvn men, returning from
the field after having ploughed duiing the day,
three-quarters of an. acre where one of our
ploughmen, with a pair of horses, would have
got through an acre or an acre and a half.
From the implements let us turn to our stock
of animals. v
And first of our Horses:
Beginning .with the highest blooded stock, I
think it probable that the United Stales possess
quite as good a race as there is in Europe.
The prevailing opinion is, that the Arabian
Horse is the original of that, animal. I doubt
the historical fact; but if it be so, ho is the pa
rent stock of the horse, just as the father of all
apples is the. Crab, which has been sweetened
by cultivation into the Bell-flour. Undoubted
ly, the Arabian has improved the English
Horse; has given him finer sinews, more com
pact bones, and greater intelligence, till the cross,
has become avowedly the first of his kind. The
truth is, that a race is but a quick -succession
of long jumps, and the little light Arab is out
jumped by the gigantic stride of the stronger,
larger, longer-legged English Horse, who has
beaten him on.Iiis own sands in the East, and
would distance him on any course in Europe.
Indeed, the very first Arabian imported into
England two centuries ago, called the Markman
Arabian, was constantly beaten; and my im
pression ia, that no Arabian. horse ever did win
a race in England. The belief of our breeders
is, that whatever good there may be in the Ara
bian is exceedingly slow in-showing itself; that
he has already given to the English horse all
he can give,, and that it is on tlie whole safer to
adhere to the highest bred English stock., rather
lhan risk lis degeneracy by any inferior mix
ture. Our blood horses, therefore, come direct
ly from England; and it is rather odd that the
ivinsr ot Jimgiand s stables, winle mere was a
king and he had stables, furnished the highest
priced horses for republican America. Of the
comparative estimation of the English and Ara
bian Horse, we have lately seen a striking ex
ample. The Imaum of Muscat sent to the Pres
ident of the United Stales two Arabian Horses,
which, from the character of the giver, we are
bound to presume were of the highest class.
These horses were sold at public auction; and
no one could be found to give more for them
than six hundred and fifty dollars for one, and
six hundred and seventy-five for the other.
Now, in the same neighborhood where these
were sold, are very spirited breeders, who would
not buy these Arabians at even so low a rate,
but who had actually bought from the stables
of tho King of England, at the price of twenty
five thousand dollars, a favorite horse, Priam,
one of whose colts is in the exhibition here.
Even as between the English breed and our
own, the impression on this side of the water
is, that for some time past the tendency of Eng
lish breeding is rather to encourage speed than
bottom; that their horses are becoming leggy,
and that the descendants of the English stock,
in this country, hate more endurance, more bot
tom for long heats, than their English ancestors.
The question, whenever it is tested, will be de
cided perhaps by a few seconds. This style of
horses, although the use to which he is gene
rally applied, is out of the way of the farmer, is
yet very interesting lo us; for his good qualities
all come down through the inferior races; and
the Godolphin Arabian, to which the English
Horse owes much of his superiority was actu
ally a cart horse m Pans.
Our ordinary race of farm horses is extreme
ly good. The warmth and variableness of the
climate have settled down the stiff and heavy
frame of the European Horse, and given us a
race of quick, alert animals, admirably fitted to
second the activity of the farmer, himself.
So with respect to Cattle, we have almost
every variety, and the best of all the varieties.
The emigrants often bring their best and favor
ite animal, the passenger vessels bring cows to
give milk, during their voyages, and be then
profitably sold here; and these are generally of
the highest kind; commerce imports, from eve
ry quarter, the animals which will pay best, and
are therefore the beat at home; and, spirited
breeders have gone into the English market and
brought over some of the highest priced animals.
Tho result is, that we have a great accumula
tion of stock of every description. There am
the Alderneys, with their rich milk, itself a
cream. Tho Ayrshires, copious givers of milk
strongly inclined to butter, with forms fitted for
the butcher. The devons, an ancient race,
brought by the first settlers of New England,
and indicating their descent by their strong re
semblance to the improved Devons, with which
our stock has been of late years abundantly re
cruited. Fitted, by their milkiness, for the dai
ry, by their delicate flush for the knife, by their
quickness for the plough, they claim to be sec
ond to no other race: and if second to any, on
ly to the Short horned Durham, which is so fa
miliar to us all as to require no description,
which undoubtedly now unites the greatest
mass of suffrages in iis favor, as combining the
qualities of abundant milk, of easy fattening, of
early maturity, and of excellent food, more than
any other race of horned cattle.
Of Sheep, too, we have all the varieties.
1 he Leicester, with their early fitness for the
knife, and their large, carcases and large wool
-the Merino, for. its t mailer yiell of rich
wool ihe Southdown, excellent for both wool
and carcass and, finally, wc have a less
known breed cojning into reputation ; it is the
Tunisian, or broad-tailed sheep; originally
sought mainly for the carcase, bin, having
proved itself very hardy, well acclimated vhen
crossed by other breeds, so as to acquire a finer
wool, it may become a standard stock among
us. Nor are we less favoured in
Sici7ie. : -
We have all the breeds;; among others pe
culiarly our own is what is called the Chester
county breed, and the Berkshire breed, just
coming into great and deserved estimation
among us. Even the common breeds that run
about without knowing their extraction,- are
often admirable. I remember well that Penn
sylvania Quaker farmer, Jacob Brown, comr
mander-in-chief of the American Army during
the last war, told me how much he was struck
by the beauty of the hogs which he saw run
ning about Philadelphia ; and I have since of
ten had, occasion to admire them.
Of all these various animals we have spe
cimens now before us which we may all ex
amine, and if wo desire to obtain them at rea
sonable rates ; and no one can doubt the real
economy to a farmer of possessing these im
proved breeds. An inferior animal lake's as
much trouble and as much food as a good one,
and then the care and the exnense are often
thrown away upon cattle that will give neither
milk nor beef. How many stunted milk cows
do we see who may be said to go dry all the
year round how many steers who, after em-
tying a whole corn crib, at last, in the spring
look like the crib itself, all ribs without, and all
hollow inside! But crossing and training have
created animals who turn at once into milk or
beef every thing we put into them who give
plenty of milk, if you want milk, and plenty of
fat, if you desire beef, and who, coming earli
er into the dairy or the market, save a whole
year's expense of feeding. I hope, therefore,
that we may profit by the present opportunity
of improving our slock, and encourage the spir
ited .breeders who place the means of doing it
in our power.
Nor are the productions of Pennsylvania les3
numerous than iis animals. The great staples
are wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat and
above all; Indian com, a plant not estimated in
Europe, but one of the most valuable presents
which the new world has made to thu old
worth almost all others in the extent of its
yield and the variety of its uses: with a stalk
ten or fifteen feet high, every inch of which
is useful in the barn-yard, and a grain which
to men supplies a variety of healthful and de
licious dishes, and to cattle is ihe quickest Tat
tener while it gives the last exquisite flavor to
Having thus spoken of ihd advantages which
we Pennsylvania farmers enjoy, proceed to the
less agreeable, but more profitable inquiry why
our farms are not productive as they ought to
be and I make ihe comparison between Penn
sylvania and England, on the whole, the best
farming country in Europe ; and our English
friends must understand, that while we amuse
ourselves occasionally with some of their pe
culiarities, we pay them the - highest compli
ment we can, by proposing them as the con
stant models of our farming. Now why is it
with all the natural advantages in our lavor,
the English farmers beat us? I will tell you.
what 1 think of it.
In the first place We do riot do justice to our
own profession. Farming is not liked, either
among the young people because it is consid
ered a lonely exile from gaiety or among the
calculating, because it is thought unproductive.
This last, is I think a total misapprehension ;
and, as I regard its correction as essential to
our success, I venture to say that farming ought
to be more profitable in Pennsylvania than in
England. The common notion is that the high
price of- labor in Pennsylvania makes farming
unproductive, and the opinion is repeated with
out examination, till at last it is generally be
lieved. Now tho. productiveness of farming,
like the productiveness of every other occupa
tion, depends on ihe expense of raising an ar
ticle and tho price you can get for it when it
is raised. These expenses are the rent of the
land, the taxes, the manure, the prices of labor
tng cattle, of laboring implements, and of labor-
Tho land which can be rented in America
for two or threo dollars, could not be rented in
England under 10 or 12 dollars an ac,ro so
that already the land itself cost throe or four
times as much. When you have got posses
sion of-the land, tho tax gatherer, and the tithe
man soon make their appearance, and take from
tho farmer fifty three' per cent, on his rent. -Here
there are no tithes, and the tax out of the
immediate' vicinity of the city improvements,
would scarcely be one-tenth of the English tax.
so that while on an English farm of two
hundred acres' the rent and charges, would be
The same rent and charges would here be 700
Making at, once a' difference of $2,300
Next, nllmandres are.cheapar in Pennsylva-
cheaper In themselves, and rendered more
cheap by the facilities of transportation.
Laboring horses are about one-fourth cheaper
in Pennsylvania; and moreover, the work which
two horses do in England is generally done
here by one. Cows, too are much cheaper
Laboring implements are cheaper and better,
the wood being so much lower priced and dur
able. Of ail these elements of work, there re
mains only laboring men who are cheaper in
England; they are cheaper by about 30 or 33
per cent.; but even say that wages are 50 per
cent, higher in Pennsylvania than hi England.
But then, although the nominal rate of waes
is, higher, yet you actually get more work done
for the money. The climate gives you more
long working days than can be relied upon in
the climate of England, where om-door work
is necessarily much suspended,' and the Amer
ican laborer works better, for the very reason
that he i3 paid better. And the proof, which
seems decisive is that although mouey wages
are higher here, piece-work, contract-work
whether to dig a canal or to reap a field, is done
cheaper in America. And, accordingly, one of
our most intelligent Philadelphia county far
mers, Mr. Walker an Englishman, always' de
clared that his farm work was done twenty per
cent, cheaper in Pennsylvania, than in England.
But supposing it to be higher labor is only
one of the elements for we have seen that
the rents are three or four times as hiph
taxes ten times as high manures, implements,
cattle, all dearer and far overbalancing any
difference of wages, were it even real.
Let us now see what arc the prices obtained
for what Is raised. "Wheat ia higher in Enafajid
flesh markets are higher. But wheat forma
only one-forth of the crop; and on the otfier
hand, the great staple, wool, is dearer here;;
potatoes ate twice or thrice as high here; and,
therefore, the English compete with us in our
own market ; turnips, cabbages, all vegetables
generally dearer; so that, after all, taking tha
average, farm produce ia not higher, or very
little higher, in England, while all the materi
als of raising it arc much higher there so thaS
on the whole, farming ought to be as lucrative
in Pennsylvania, as in England.
With regard to wages it may sound strange
ly, yet I believe it to be true, that the real in
terest of all farmers is, that wages should be
high, and for this reason. A laboring man is
not a mere machine;-a human poor-box, into
whose mouth is put a daily number of cents
never to re-appear, but a living being with
wants and desires, which he will not fail to
gratify the moment he possesses the means. If
he can earn only a scanty pittance, just enough
to keep him alive, he starves on accordingly
his food, bread and water, a half-fed, halfclad,
wholly untaught animal, with a useless mouth
full of carnivorous teeth. But if his wages in
crease, he instantly enjoys them in comforts ;
in clothes for himself and family; and as he ri
ses in the scale, ventures on the taste of meat.
He employs a shoe-maker; a tailor; a hatter; a
butcher; and these in turn, purchase the mate
rials of their trade from the farmer himself.
The laborer becomes thus a customer of him
self, and the prayer of other customers and the
farmer receives back with abundant interest
the .difference which he advances in the first
instance between high wages and low wages.
It is for this reason that one of our shre.wdst
farmers used to ssy, yes,. give our labourers
good wages, and they will buy our beef. Thu3,
too, tho bounties of Providence go round, a be
neficent circle and, after making the labourer
better fed, better clad, better taught in short,
a better man, the farmer himself is richer for
the very benefits he dispenses. Depend upon
it, there is no surer sign o national prosperi
ty than high wages and God grant that for
many a long year it may be the lot of otic
countrymen, who subsist by the labour of their
hands, to work well and to live well.
And now we come to the real reason whjr
our crops do not equal those of England. It
is, that our farms are all too large; too large for
iho means we employ in farming them, Agri
culture is the only pursuit I know, where the
owner does not employ his capital in his bust-,
noss. He rents or buys a large farm, and then
has nothing left to stock it with. He might as
well rent a large store without goods enough
to fill a single corner of it. In England, itls
supposed necessary, before renting land, that
the teuant should have a working capital, of
thirty or forty dollars an acre, to employ. It
is calculated thai, besides lime and otlmr en
riching suhstaiu-es, the cost of the mere animal
manures applied to the soil of England, amoums.
to three hundred millions of dvlhj -Deing moro
than the rnlue of the vvnole of its foreig.t com
morco. 1 et n6 grateful soil yields back wiih
interest -SJ1 that is thus lavished upon it. And,
sq it would do here, if we would only trust the
earth with any portion of our capital. But this
we rare-do. A farmer who has made any money'
spends it not in his business, but in some oth--er
occupation. He buys more land when ua,
ought to buy more manure; or he puts out his
money in some joint stock company, to convert
sunshine into moonshine; or else he buys shares
in some gold mine or lead mine. Rely upon.