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WATER FOR DAIRY COWS.
Milk Cattle Require Large Supply.
Warm the Drink In Winter.
Has proper provision been made for
supplying water for tlie dairy herdV
Is the water supply convenient and
within easy reach of the cows?
Professor Eckles gives in his book.
"Dairy Cattle and Milk Production.'
some very interesting examples of the
water requirements for cows in milk.
A record of the water drunk by Mis
Hour! Chief Josephine for a seven day
period one month after calving shows
that the average daily milk production
was 102 pounds and the average daily
water drunk was 250 pounds. A ten
day average for two Jerseys was milk
28.8 pounds daily, water drunk 77.3
pounds for one and milk 13.3 pounds
and a water requirement of 40.3
In color Dutch Belted cattle are
invariably black, with a white band
of varying width about the "body
in front of the hips, rarely reach
ing the shoulders. Sometimes this
band narrows to even a foot in
width or less, and again other
specimens have it as a wide blank
et The fore part of the udder of
the cow is also often white. In
udder conformation and develop
ment these cows are rather infe
rior, the size being comparatively
small, the fore udder abbreviated
and the' teats placed too closely to
gether. The dairy importance of
Dutch Belted cattle is its principal
value, aside from the ornamental.
pounds for the other. An animal on
maintenance would not require any
thing like this amount of water.
The cause of so large a water con
sumption is the amount of water nec
essary for the milk itself and the large
quantities of dry teed eaten, much of
which is hay, fodder or other dry
If the water supply is not easily ac
cessible or if it requires a large amount
of labor to furnish it each day, the
tendency will be to give the cows less
than their work demands. There is
probably no better water supply than
a good deep well. Freshly pumped
water will come nearer fulfilling the
Ideal requirements than any other
This is not always practicable, and it
becomes necessary to use a tank.
In cold climates tank water should
be heated to at least somewhat above
freezing50 to GO degrees would prob
ably be bestbefore the cows are al
lowed to drink.
It will pay to keep sharp watch over
this water question au see that the
cows are not allowed to be neglected
In this important item.-Hoard's Dairy
KEEP THE OLD COWS.
Good Dairy Animals Valuable For the
Calves They Produce.
There is a tremendous loss to the
dairy industry in this state as in other
states, we think, because of the sale of
eight or nine year old cows, says the
Kansas Farmer. These are sold because
they are considered as having arrived
at an age when they are no longer use
ful in the dairy. A ten or twelve year
Jd cow which has not been overfed
should be a profitable producer of milk
If she has ever been profitable.
It Is to be recalled that Maid Henry,
the famous Holstein of the Kansas Ag
ricultural college, established a world's
record in her thirteenth year. Cows of
good breeding at this age are worth
keeping for their offspring even though
they are not profitable producers of
The old cow is frequently sold at a
low price and at a real sacrifice. The
owuer will the next day pay two or
three times as much money for a
younger cow of no better breeding. To
make an exchange of this sort is fool
hardy. A cow of good breeding and a
liberal producer is worth keeping as
long as she can eat well After she
passes this age. when it becomes nec
essary to sell her, she will bring as
much money without teeth as with
them, because she goes to the cannery
Sweet and Sour Cream.
There are many people who believe
that sour cream tests less than sweet
cream. If more people held this belief
the probabilities are that less sour
cream would be marketed than at pres
ent. The only correct method of test
ing cream is to arrive at the sample to
be tested by weight. If this method is
employed then' a sample of the cream
taken when sweet will test identical
with that taken when the cream has
become sour. It is a fact that it re
quires slightly more sour cream to
weigh a given quantity than it does of
sweet cream of the same density In
the Old days, when the sample for test
ing was determined by measurement.
then the man who sold sour cream re
oelved a little lower test than was
coming to him In these days all np
to date creameries and cream receiving
stations weigh the sample preparatory
Mr. and Mrs. W. Helmer of Deer
Lake were in the city today between
trains. Their son, Earl Helmer, who
Jias been very ill for the past several
weeks, suffering with an abscess on
the Tungs, is much improved.
European scientists are trying to
determine and establish an interna
tional standard of health and purity
A Problem of Great Conse
quence For Municipal Health.
BASED ON CIVIC SCIENCE.
A Comprehensive and Official Drainage
System Should Be the First Work of
the City Planner, and Due Allowance
Must Be Made For Increasing Fa
cilities With Increased Population.
Of the indispensable elements in the
planning of a city sewers are among the
most important, says Frank Koester,
author of "Modern City Planning and
Maintenance.'' Baumeister in estab
lishing the theory of city planning
gave them an equal value with streets
A comprehensive and efficient sew
age drainage system must therefore be
the first work of the city planner, and
due allowance and provision must be
made for increasing such facilities as
the city grows in population. It is, in
deed, scarcely possible for any one who
has not lived through a serious strike
of garbage removal employees to un
derstand what the immediate removal
of waste material means to a city and
scarcely possible for one who has to
overestimate its importance.
The character and size of the sewage
system adopt 1 depends on the loca
tion of the city and the natural condi
tions and methods to be adopted in dis
posal of the sewage.
The proper disposal of the sewage la
of great consequence, since epi-
BEWAGE PLANT AT PHILADELPHIA.
demies are frequently caused by im
proper disposal, especially in the case
of discharge into rivers or lowlands.
It is impossible to lay down any hard
and fast rules as to which system of
sewage disposal is the best, since a
system suitable for one city will not
answer the requirements of another.
The commerce and industries of a city,
the nature of its streets and traffic and
other factors make the problem one
which requires the most careful con
sideration and one in the solution of
which only the most experienced engi
neers, acquainted with the progress of
the science of waste disposal in the
most progressive countries, should be
Sewage disposal is in reality a new
science, and great advancement has
been made in the last few decades,
principally abroad, so that every ad
vantage should be taken of modern
developments in the planning of a
city's sewer system.
Cities which are located on a large
and swift flowing river may without
risk discharge their sewage directly
into the stream if proper precautions
The self purifying power of water
is usually underestimated, especially
that of rivers. The presence in river
water of a certain amount of oxygen,
necessary for saturation, will effect
the mineralization and gasification of
considerable quantities of putrescible
substances, by means of biological
processes which rapidly develop when
such substances are present. These
operations precipitate a sludge on the
bottom of the river which is as barm
less as silt, while the gases are emit
ted at the surface. If too large a
quantity of sewage, however, is emp
tied into a river, the odor emitted
will make the river banks uninhabita
ble, while the sludge will accumulate
and clog the channel of the river and
the process of the self purification of
the water will not be completed be
fore it reaches a lower city and causes
contamination at that point.
Depending on the nature of the city's
streets and the nature of the sewage
to be removed, a single or a double
sewage system may be adopted. In
the latter form one sewer is for rain
water and the other for strong sewage.
The rain water sewer Is for carrying
off rain water from the buildings and
streets, while the other is for toilets,
factory waste, etc.
By Hal Sheridan
NeW York, Jan. 9.Jess Willard,
the big Kansan scheduled to mingle
with John Arthur Johnson at Juarez,
Mexico, in a battle for the heavy
weight championship of the world,
may be no match for. the black man
but he at least is the best white
prospect in sight.
The "White "Hope" crop still looks
like it has for several years past
decidedly poorbut the big Wester
ner appears to have a good edge over
any of the rest of the white fighters
as an opponent for Johnson. If the
champion beats Willard the hunt for
a man to whip the" negro might as
well stop. Or at least a new crop will
have to come up for inspection.
Prank Morgan, the Pittsburgh
fighter who went against the black
man in Paris, never was conceded a
chance with Johnson. He was simpjy
"picked" by the black and forced
down the throat of the sporting pub
Looking back over the crop of
"Hopes" of the past few years Wil
lard looms up rather well. Carl
Morris, Jim Stewart, Al Palzer, Luth
er McCarty, Arthur Pelky and Gun
boat Smith form about the most for
midable of them, Morris never did
approach a serious stage, Stewart
soon blew up. Palzer fell before Mc
Carty who was later killed in a bout
with Pelky. McCarty was about the
best of the bunch and the critics
wouldn't even concede him an out
side chance with Johnson. Pelky
was a dismal failure and Gunboat
Smith has recently taken several
All in all, Willard looks like a long
hope, and it is pretty certain that
few fortunes will be waged on his
chances of winning. He is big and
probably will stack up well against
Johnson in size. He has a "punch"
too but there is considerable doubt
as to whether he has enough ability
to land it on the negro. Many critics
declare that Johnson will simply toy
SUNDAY IN TH CHURCHES
/Continued on last pas*).
the series on the Kingdom of God.
Senior B. Y. P. TJ. at 6:30 p. m. Sub-
jectOur Denominational Boards and
Our Relation to Them. Leader, H.
E. Rice. Gospel service at 7:30 p..
m. The BY. P. U. business meet
ing will be held at the home of H.
W. VanDervort next Tuesday evening
at 7:30. Election of officers will
take place at this meeting. The an7
nual roll call and banquet of the
church will be held next Thursday
evening at the church. Banquet at
7:30, followed by roll call and pro
gram. A cordial invitation is ex
tended to everyone to attend the ser
vices. I. D. Alvord, pastor.
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