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The news and herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1876-1881, May 11, 1881, Image 1

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MV. 5. NO, .19.
WEEKLY EDITION. WINNSBORO, S. C., WEDNESDAY MO(IG A 1 81.. VL5 O 9
[Foiu THE NEWS AND HERALD. ]
W1OUtJITJS 'OIt: 11ARMLRS,
MIorace Greeley in the Country to Itoraco
Greeley in Town--Sonie Capital Ideas and
Suggestions.
Geo. HI. MlcMaster', Esq.:
" DEAR Sin: During hours of idleness
I have addressed you several letters on
ugricultural subject s-appropriately I
think addressed to you as the city
vountet'part of my non de plamc,
Horace Greeley, for, my friend, 1
opine we both are better faurmiers in
theory than In practice, and perhaps
we can, when in the mood, rival
; Greeley In theorizing. Yet, hoping
some practical farmers inay tako at
hint occasIonally, and profit by the
unme, I write again ; and the burden
of ny tong is
IRItG ATFION.
'he very limited rainfall for several
years past, and the increased aridness
of our acreage soils, should admonish
is that we lmust 14)ok to some source
of supply other thnua descending rain
water ior all, and especially summer
crops, to increase the productiveness
of our soils.
Such a supply can come only from
reserve reservoirs or runilttg streams
by means of irrigations, or in plain
English, watering crops. With a sut
ficient water supply all crops can be
doubled and even tripled on the same
soil.
.This is no new humbug, no patent
idea of the present day, and we may
be excused in refei-ring to what is and
has been done by irrigation in other
countries. The average rainfall of
Japan is greater than it is in our own
State, and yet in this highly civilized
and best of cultivated countries, irri
gation has been practised for a thou
sand or two years past.
in that country the land is the prop
erty of the Crown, so also is tIhe right
to all water; and while all of the
Japanese farmers are tenants at will of''
the Crown, yet they are not the serf;,
rag-tag-and-bolh-tail and to-be-looked
lovn-on, as in our own enlightened
land, but rank high in caste, and con
prise one of the three castes which can,
in English language, be styled gen
teel. What a commentary on our own
civilization. where scai'celv anivone
will tim that. can help it. ''he guv
ertmnettt of Japan sees that the fitriner
does his whole duty andi makes the
idmost olehis land ly. If energetic and
skilled, he is Speedily promoted to bet
ter lanis. If slothiin and unskilted,;
his promotion ldowIn hill to a poureir
farm. In this kingdom all water is
utilized for the general benefit. Not
depending alone ou the daily supply
from running streatus, iunmmeitse reset'
voirs are constructed in higher places
-' to supply the defitienhcy ill tlites of
di'ought at lower grades. ''hie water
of every available atream is utilized;
and while these sl reatns gen';rally
reach the sea by their ma ural otllets,
yet they travel the rieater port ion of'
the way in artifit"iaI chaumels cu'it for
the purpose oi' irrigatioin. The Japai
esr prodie two 1unt even three crops
in the samle vear" on the salmie land,
and an estinate of the autiunit of these
crops is fabulous. Their rice lanuds of
sutuiiner produce wheat as a wiliter
crop; and so expert are they as faum
.cr's that t.hey' have succeeded ini d wart
lng the wheat, stalk to suchb an extent.
that it never oince reaches eighit to
- ' fourteen inches in height. Th'ley iam.
for' grainl andi niot thr stra w. 'Somie
what of the smenfi sy'stemn is in vogue in
China. So much ter the pro(gress of
aigriculture by means of~ irr&gationm in
the East, thle cradile of' nat ions, and
we might add thue origin of muany ohf
the arts and sciences and of impr'eved
nErcletitre.
I' llIRRIGATION IN OT1IPR LANIDS.
The richu vall1ey or a!lluviadl)bott.omf
of' the Nile lhas b'een irrigatedl since thme
dlays of' Joseph and his brethre.n, and
b)ut for such app)licationi of water to
the soil It could not sup)port its in:
habitants. Irrigation is prmactised in
italy, France, Germany, and even in
lidolenit Spain.
On onur Westernt contlient. if we
* credit, the hiistorian, the Peruviansa, at
the time of the conquest. had umalle
great progress In irrigation. hndeed
- If we take all accounts as true (vide
* ~ Prescott?s conuquest of' Peru and Mexi..
a ~co) they had at mlore aLdvanced sysatem
* of' agriculture in mmany respects than
-was to be seen on our continent at the
beginning of the pJresenlt cenutnr'.
v Like Japan the soil was the p)rop.riv
of' the Crown'm, but was anniualhy divid
.ed and allotted-the otne part' ihr the
use of thme gods and their otliciatinag
prIiests; (itoo second part for thle utse of'
the Inca ar' d his noble kindred, and
the other par't f'or the working-bees.
the people1, by w om all three pats
were cultivatedh. Tihe linca race claimW
anud seprat rce, addutes e
descendntsfo soeJpnsad
ventnu'er wuho had crossed the Pac ile
andI brought withI him the polity o,f his
own government anud itroduted the
4 ~system of amgricult.ure f'romn the East
wvith such mnodi fiettions ais adaptedi it
-to the diffeorent chime aund face of' the
cotutry. Waiter in Pert, was the
proert ofthe Crown, and was coni
voe nconduits of stone unmder
ground. Thus large areas oh !anid, oni
which rain never fell, wereo nuaule
frultful. To what amount ohf prtodet
lvenmess 1)01 acre these lands had attain
ed we are untable to say. Th'Iey nmust,
* ~however, have beenm ext remelhv fertile,
us umore than t wo year's' s'upply o'
1 grain was found in the public SIOre-:
* I mhouses at the time of' thet conquest.
(TIhe greatest crop over grownu in the
lUinitedt States would not atibrd over
fouri to six moniths extra supptlv-hence
thme average Peruvian crop must have
been1 fltty 1)er cent, greater than ours.)
o~ great was this reserve utur'e, that. it
toomte prodigal SpanIaurds, who were
all consumers and not pr'oduieris, sev
-eral years to dissIpate. iu limited
sections ral fell andl less attention
property of the Crown, and certain
beds %ere allotted to the use of the
farmers of particular localities. This
country was cultivated by hand-labQr
--having no draft animals. Its iml
tense productive powers were due to
irrigation, good cultivation and fertili
zation.
On our part of the continent the
civilized Aztecs had made considera.
ble progress in the science of irriga
tion, and the ruins of their canals and
ditches nay be traced id Mexico,
Lower Calitornia and Texas. These
have been incorrectly referred to, as
the more modern work of the Jesuits,
perhaps ftlow the fiact that they, dur
Ing their" suorenacy, encouraged the
use of the d eveloped resources they
found existing on their first entrance
into the counitrv.
The mtuclh-ab'used Mormons, banish
ed from the Western States, sought
refuge in the arid and rainless Salt
Lake valley ; and, using a small
amnunt of engineering brains, coin
Strncted cals and ditches, and con
verted I his desert. into a fruitful gardcn,
yiebling iiiniense crops of gr.un and
covered wit Ii a rich sward of t"-rass
Ihat su.ttains imlnmense herds of the
linest cattle. We can but look on their
lgricullu'iral succq:ss wit h amazement.
BIy nwu;.. of l-rigationl alone they can
live and support their rapidly increas
illg.populatmun.
''hc people of some of the adjoining
States have taken pattern after the
Moruons, and alrcady thousands of
neces im some of those States, once
barren from want of rainfall, have
been inade fertile by means of irritra
tion. (See recent. Reports of the De
pat meats of Agriculture.) In several
of the reports referred to, are graphic
decriptions of canals cut for the purpose
of conveying water ilfteen to twenty
five miles in length. Some of these
convey creeks and are the property of
incorporated water colpanties, who
sell the water to the farmers on their
linies at, so much per foot of vent open
ings.
Streams of water have in those same
States been conveyed a similar dis
tanlce over hills and ravines for sluice
mining, that is to be used in \washing
down'bills to obtain gold. Now, were
equivalent alnounts of water conveyed
and used for farming purposes, the
profits arising therefrom would far
exceed the returns from the gold I
washinfs. When the gold is waselid
out and the hill washed down, the
work is (one. But the stream, 'nice
conducted for farn purposes, will pay
its dividend till the endl of.time.
" In our own State little has been done
in the way ot irrigation. except oni the
rice lands pwincipally of the tide belt.
These are flowed by the rise and fall
of the tide, regulated by trunks, and
tie writer has otui been surprised
that tiese lands were not winter crop
tied with oats, sown as Soon as the
rice crop was removed. By the free
Use of tertilizers and water these wii
ter crops would be as profitable as the
rice crop.
Fine natural advantages exist to
irrirmte mnu:h of the Count.ry from the
tide belt to the foot oftle ftlle; and
MANY $'rn.AMS IN 'ilits Itsi:r
aflord a never-tiailing supply of water.
The cost of' constructing water mainls
would be comparatively little in this
rer.ion.
rroml the foot of the falls to the foot,
of the mhountains there are tliousanids
of' acres that can be overflowed. The
coinstruct(ionI of mains is here more
cost ly. and requires more engineering.
skill. From the turbid streams of the
high lahds we would not oly get wa
ter to increase production but this
waler woulid hold in solution, mineral
aund1 vdu((etale mat1I er, ScIryintg to eni
rich thle lands. Then water of this belt
w<miId ts be miore vaulu:able thaun that
of' the maiddle, but perhaps not more
valuable than that, of tihe tide region.
To take upl a streamni aind di'vert It
fromin its chnaninel on an extensive senale
is tihe work of tihe enIginleer. But there
is one0 miethiod that does no.t requir'e a
vas:tiamuniit of engimneestiIar skin. We
knuow tIromi praictical experieince thnat,
the minis should( Inot havei' a fall of
over onec to touir inches per' mile. At
thme hieml of such hmain should( be a
carefully constructed lock or gate to
regulate thne amiotunit of water flowling
into it. Suchn inins should be wvide
rat her thann (tech). IInuve over-iaink
wvastes of' rock or wood1 to thrIow off'
accumiulating surpluhIs rain: water at,
proper (list ances.
Fr~iom Ih mac in* s, b)ranuch mnai ns and1(
service ditches must be constructed,
and1( the latter arr'annged to throw out
th.e water as desirett.
'Tie water' can be supplied ini two
wayls, eit tber b)y b)roadcast flooding-~
whiich if dlone should be0 expedmitioutsly
executed and over at olnc-oirb'
slu:icinhg or' nruninig I brough f'urrow s.
Them latter lan wiouild perhapws be time
chneaiest and best for' miost purl1poses.
T1hec mtainms antd seirvice dlitchnes, on1Ce
conist rcted. the levels of' the launds to
be flowed canl he0 deterined, stanked
and mairked, and once (101e prlopertly
it. is arrranmged foreveri, antd iIthotut
them'inr cost. Such 'would be the
'pocess of'a geneirai system of irriga
tion whlich nreachned beyonid te lanids
at' a single l)'prpietor-whichi Is not
likely soon, if ever', to lie priactised
Everiy tarmn, thiottgh, of a few hiuni
dred acrecs lias on it a limited amuntn
oh' handC, perhnaps f'rom 2 to 10 11er cent.,
that can be irr'iga ted, tand such11 cain 1)0
done by lie prmoprietori at 110 gr'eat
outlay of' money or labom'. B~y the use0
of' a smatllI stn'eam of wauter antd good
imanum'ing, Drm. Pmarker made in thme
smuu'bs of' Columnbia 212 bushmels of
corni on otne acre. Many of oumr readers
have seen this land.
Now, ever'y onme-hior'se farm in our
cou,ntrv ought to prlodumce at least 150
bushlels of com'n. Suypiose by tine use
of' a little brains, a little manium'e
AND A LITTlLE nuIANCH,
this canm lhe (1one onl two acres of land.
Sulppose it cani be (done, wvould it mnot
be wvell to try it? Suppose the sanme
smaiill tuuoiint of h)ra1ins, Ilnalnur amud
branch wounld pr'oduce two bales of'
clottoni oi 0one acere. it cain be (done
why not try it? Or if' the same stmall
quaintity ol' the same things would
pr'oduice 100 bushels of. oats on 0one
acre, which they will, why not tryv it?
In other words a fall water Supply
will double and treble your bestof'ona.
TIhe cash paid for commeircial tor*JJa
m(.'y I: u'j o:'e county in~ a yar or t.w9,
w',uh! dcv If'n and tn(niL a ftc.r w,e
ter supply the county contains. The
cash paid fo1' brendstufls front abroad
would each year irrigate land enough
to produce your breudstufti forever.
So would the money you send to the
Northwest for bacon do the same
thing. Good cultivation, fertilization,
and where nature has riven it, a
water supply, would make an acre
not worth $10, but $300 to $500.
This country of ours, as regards
climate, healtfh and natural fertility, is
one of the most favored on the fhce of
the earth. It has been dreadfully
abused and much worn. Even now it
is easier to go to work and improve it
and enrich it than it. is to emigrate in
quest of the rich virgin and sickly soils
of the Southwest with their precarious
crops. it is trute our tarming has been
haphazard, but we are over, we hope,
with the chaotic period of experiment,
reconstruction and readjustment. The
mass of our people must subsist by
agriculture. And more, all iiprove
nents must be made by the white race;
and the whit.e man, who cultivates his
owln lands with his own hands aided
by his children, had best contract his
operations, improve his lands, use his
brains aid convert his small ttrm int.o
a productive . paraidise: leaving t he
negro, with his little bull or old mule,
to browse on the broom sedge ridges,
the skinner and the curse as he is to
any country.
SUPERVISION BY THE STATE ICDIIA
TION COMMI1SSIONE.1
TIn conclusion, we have an Agricul
tural Bureau, and should have under
it a State engineer, whose peculiar
province should be to supervise, under
suitable statutes, enacted for the pur
pose, the development of streams into'1
water powers, and see that such de
velopment is not a perpetual barrier to
the passage of fish in all cases, and
that it does not ba' improved naviga
tion. Indeed all the powers on the
large streams should, by statute, be so
developed that the canals or water
ways constructed to convey water to
propel machinery, should at the slme
time admit the passage of boats around
the rapids-of course, such boats pay
ing suitable tolls. And it is to be
hoped that. under the present impul
sive idea of rushing into the iatu
fteturing business, the Legislature
will not recklessly grant. charters to
such incorporations unless it be under
some restrictions looking to the future
development of such streams as public
water ways. Such engineer should
also have chilarge, in a general way, oc
all minor streams, so as to protect the
general interest of a community ill
these water ways, and such will espe
cially be the case should these minor
streams become valuable for the pur
poSCS of irrigation.
Water amid water wa.ys will in fit
ture be valuable:
1st. For purposes of vavigation.
2nd. To propel machinerv.
3rd. And the most important of all,
for purposes of irrigation, and if the
sovereign, the State, has not already
grante( to individuals and lost con
trol of the same, s onic general statutes
should be eiaeted dellning the rquita
ble rights of il citizens, aid laving
down general rules for the use of the
same.
We quit by asking, Why could not
the State Agricultural Society offer a
premium of
One hundred dollars for greatest
number of acres irrigated and planted
in grain of any kind, other than rice,
in 1882.
Fifty dollars for the best acre of
corn produced by imcans of irrigation
in 1882.
Twenty-five dollars for" the best acre
of oats produced in the same' waty ill
1882.
Contestants for p)riz.es to sub)mit
dliagramus from actuatl sur'Vv of the
landst irr'igatedl, wvith the nziethod of
suipplyinig water, &c.
Re~spectfully,
hhin.ce GRIEE,EY.
BnIowN's GEolunes.-Thle ininiIgs
to-day weriie decidedly 0on the side of'
Mr. Brown. 'fhe debate Is getting to
be known ats "Briowni's Geor*gics,'- for
the piolitics of' his State anmd tile
limnitatio loll OtMassachusetts polities are
tile chief topics of' his frequent speechl
es. lie cer'talinly had the best of thle
debate to-day. and11 worried tile Rep)ub
licans by causing to be read for thirl
benefit sharp citicismns inade by Re
puIblicani papers onl tile presen)t contest.
General Hawley did a clever thing
from his point (If view ill readling and
cotnmteniting on Mr. Browvn's specech at.
the Ch'icago Conventlion of 1868, but
the Georgia Seniator respIondedl in the
best efTirt hie huis yet made. lie show
edl that he p)art.ed comlpany' with thle
Demnocratic party of' hlis Statte because
upl to 1872 it hi irtuamlly refused to
accept the r'esults of the war'. lie rec
turned to it when It hadc (done4 so inl
goodl faith. lIe dedned himiseif as a
"natural Demlocrat," and not as ai
'Boturbon," such as TIoambs could
be considered. Tihe Democrae.v he
rep)resenitedl accep)ted thle nelw condi
tionis and( moved with them. It would
resist, however, atll attempts to a rain
ator Br'own made(1 Is own pr al Ion
both elear' and1( conisitent, anid he es
tablished himself still more as ii r
lina Centary leader.-Bioston Globe Cor
recspondulec, Atpril 23.
A Dna,MM31's FIRS'T Tr.-A
Cleveland mncehanlt deter'minedl to sen1d
his soil foi' a tr'ip Onl tile r'oad ini the ini
terest of tile house. Thle y oung nmn
was rather averse to going. b it his
father's persuasonus were allI-powernul
and( he went.. lie wvas out some ten
days, and 01n1118 ret urn his5 father' anx
lotusly inIqired, "Well, my boy, did
youl get many or'ders?" "Yes, father,"
answered tihe new-fledged dlrulmmer;
'J got quite a nmuinber.' ''Good I" oX
clained te (elIghted fatheor, "I knew
y'ou wvouild stucceedh." 'The y'ounIg man
grinined and answered: '"Well[, the
fIrst order I got was in Squlashbog. 1
went ito a main's stor'e there andI he
said 'git out?' hIn Bungviill I got my
se onOrder. This time It was 'skip!j'
My third order was 'chase yotuself
'r'ound.' My next order was 'scoot,'
and-' But the old gentleman hastily
arose aind, kickinig hisa hopeftal's sam
plo-ease across the office, sternly com
OIanlded the 'oung man~ to go out sad
help Jhn:joe. tlub truck.
--rG*v~"~eda s tb rea
e n s
1 STORYI OF ZT'lE lR 1.LATOlB.
flow They Checked the Flood of Crime
thutt wasOverwheltning South Carolia
in Colonial Tines -A Leaf from the ills- I
tory of Old Fairfeld.
( rom tho Carolna Times, Oct.. 1, 1857.1
.lJfe8r8. .Editors: Fromi a mann=
script history of Fairfleld District (the
work of the'late Philip Edward Peiar
son of Matagorda, Texas,) I tale the
liberty of sendling you the aicuunt,
w hich will be found below, of the Reg
ulation, one of the most important
events of the colonial history of South
Carolina-an event which caused much
bloodshed at the Lime, and came near
producing civil war, but which uiti- I
mately resulted in rreat good to the
settlers of the Interior, inasmuch, as
it led to the establishment of courts of
justice, the restoration of peace and
quiet., and the pr,UteCtionl of private
property. Mr. 'earson was a native
of Fairileld Distriot, an eminent law
yer, anl for many years Solicitor of
the \lidd.le Circuit.' le took great in
terest in evervthing connected withi
the colonial and revolutiontary history I
of South Carolina, and his memory
was a perfect storehouse of facts, inci
dents and anecdotes, relating to thosei
periods, as well as the earl adminis
itration of justice and the practice of
his profession. With the history ofhis
own district, even to the ninutest par
tictlar, he was perfectly familiar;
hcnce, no mnan was better qualified to
write the record he has left behind him
thall himself. Of the "Regulation,"
he says:
syThis capital event in the colonial
history of South Carolina, originated
in Fai'tield. 'The causes and impor
tant result will app ar in the sequel. A
fellow by the name of Brown was ar
rested on a stolen horse neart the mouth
of Little River. How. he should be
disposed of was a question. 'I homiiat
Woodward, Barnaby Pope and Vil
liani McGraw, were sent for to settle
the dificulty. They arrived in ,'ood
time-there was the stolen horse, there
the shrinking of'ender. These most
worthy citizens appeared slow in their
resoltes. At length Billy McGraw,
wearied with delay,. arose and address
ed the bystanders, '' We are," said he,
"ii a fix, with ; majorit.y of' the white
population in the colony, and a great
deal of property inl hilan(, and that fast
and11 accunular ing, we have no courts
with jurisdiction to hear - and punish
the graver oftiences. Evil doers are
taking advantage of our awkward sit- I
cation and swarming in the country,
and so it is, that 10 citizen can call his
life or his property his own. Depre
dations are daily atnd nightly commlit
ted. The thieves are bande'd together.
If a thief is -arrested and forwarded
unler guard to Charleston, 140 miles
distance, they waylay the guard, kill
oil' several anld ar"'est the priSonler.
Shoul<( the guard 'arrive in Charleston
with the prisoner, the witnesses have
to utinti court at. great inlconv'%elience
-they, too, are often waylaid and shot
by the thieves-.so that a conviction of
oue of the gang lnev((r hals anid nlever
will be eflected. -My 'voice is for a
preseniwt and immiedjite remledy. I pro
pose as ia ptnishinent for the man
Brown, 75 lashes, on the bare back,
well laid on. McGraw's speech, de
livered with his peculiar warmth, and
emphasis, and his motion prevailed
1om. con. Brown wts forthwith taik
en up aind received the keen reward of
his iniquity.
''his event was a signal for the fel
ons to consolidate and concert their
military movements. They were d
termined to vindicate the ri'ght to plitu.
der at the rifle's mouth. They took
the nane ofX Moderators and f'ormed
under' the comm3Iandl of' John Muts
grove. Tihe frieeholders, and1 hQnest
por'tionl of' the comntlity, were not1
behind themi in preparatrtiohn.Te
f'ormned undera a numbner of' mlilitair'
leaders, and1( took the aprIopriate nam'eil
ofRegulator's, TJhe following extract
is f'rom tihe Newherry Sentine/:
"Johlm Muisgrove (Col. A lisgr-ove, as
lie as well as his brother Edwvard was
called,) lived on the Sahida. Of him
I have no0 personal knowledge, nor (do
I know the pr'ecise sp)ot where hie liv
ed1. At his place the Regulators anid
8eofilites, in 1704, met. In battle ar'ruv.
H appily, however, no battle occurredl,
WVhen, however, all expected a bloody
contest, Generaal Alatt hew Rlichardsoni,
of' tihe iigh 111i1l<. commtiisslined by~ the
governior' to l)re~vnt extremhuitles, r'ode
uip. Hie was a man11 bJorn for' authoity,
and3( was thme uniiven-ailly beloved of the
mliddle and1( up1 coutrtiy. What a bless
ling to a1 peopile is such a personii ge,
endo,wedl withI something like (didmie
aulthIority, w'hose pre%seceiC can stifke
mtultituides with awe,C and1( whose voice
can the raiginag t.umiult, of human pas1
sions. Ati his suggestilo i, flags wIiere
exchngedl, and they agreed to separ'ate
andh petitionh he Governior tfor' re'
dIress of givances. T1his was done,
anhd after thle great delay of
live year's, the Circuit Courit A ct
of 17619 waIs passed, brhlaging just ice
hona e o the people. 'J his quieted a I
dlomiestmc dlibsensions. AltLnough nto
actuiah ba1tle was foug ht between the
Reoguilator's anid Sotfi lites, I have al
ways understood ther-e was soe
lirinig. Tfhe fbolng amiteing antce
dote shows that mnust have been the
ea-ge. A r-ather0 indy genithemnan who
lived onl the Beaveram, jolined thme
1tegulators, and talked a graeat deal
about the fighting lhe would (10. As
t 3e parties were ne0arinlg one anotheri,
guns wer-e fired. Hie took the alairm,
fled, auid weaing a hong-tailed coat,
with a 1lead inkstand in the sklirt pock
et, as he jumpihed a gulley it flew np
and( struck him on the back of time
head1( ; lie fell forwvard, exclaiming: "I
am shot, I am a dead1( man, quarters
gentlemen, qur-ter's, gentlemen I'"
The man Seofil, who wasV9 made a colo
nelh by Lor-d Chiarles Giremnville Mon-.
tague. Governor of' tile province, and(
Is calledl Scoveil in Ramuioey's history,
inust' have been a grecat scounidrel, fit
only to commnand thieves and disorder
ly persons, wihth which, as might be
expected, theo upper counitr ' without
any coutnere than arleston,
abounded, and to suphpress which the
r-egultiitoni was instl utedi. For I have
heard it irelated b 'one (whose memory
I t)OeOer foun34ti fut.) thast 9
atter the.'Ciricuit Court Act #er i'
u,'Moi wus trg tNnet -; f r
a in chckene ' WhL t stae
wandered ofi, to give some particularf
of the Regulation or matters growinu
out of it, was a tory colonel in the
Revolution. The otil yknown act o1
his cominand, was the encampment of
his forces on a knoll beyond the saw.
mill at lobo's mills on Buchriver, and
his precipitate flight thence, on hear.
lug a falso report, that the Whigs nn.
der Casey were about attacking. Ile
intist have been a man of considerable
substance. For many years after the
Revolution, a large number of horses
called "Iieretics," were wild in the
stone-hills, and were said to be of his
stock turned loose in the range.
At the pacific termination of the
neetin fat Musgrove's, Gen. Itiehard
son ordorcd, in nalnuce of his in
structions, that the ringleaders of the
Regulators should be arrested and put
in irons. The order was obeyed.
Joseph Kirkland, Thomas Woodwardl,
Barnabr Pope, William McGraw,
Moses kirkland, William Kirkland,
Philip Pearson and many others. Were
immediately taken into custody and
handcuffed. The prisanera were Fair
field men, and as soon as they were
marched east of Broad River, all were
released unconditionally but Wood.
ward, .Pope and McGraw. Wood
ward, Pope and McGraw, the chief
sinners, were conveyed under a strong
guard to Charleston. On ah riving at
the city, ther were conducted to the
office of Sir 1~gerton Leigh, the Attor
nev General of the province. The
prisoners were no sooner in his pres
ence than he began to pitch like a mad.
man. "flow dare you follows to take
the law into your own hands, and con
trary to all law, to whip his Majesty's
subjects?--a stop must be put to these
vile proceedings." Woodward said
McGraw looked like a chafed -lion
Pope like a philosopher, and "I," saii
be, "felt as if I were in a very bad
scrape." After Sir Egerton had fhm
ed off his wrath, he directed his clerk
to take the recognizances of the pris
oners, to appear at the court in Char
leston at the next term, but - without
security. On the council books, it
appears, that next year an apnlication
was made by the persons concernel in
the arrest and conveyance of these per
sons to town, but. the application was
rejected on the ground that Wood
ward, Pope and McGraw were very
well able to pay their own costs. Thus
ended the Regulation, which once
threatened all the horrors of a civil
contest.
Thus ends Mr. Pearson's account of
the Regulation. Dr. Ramsey in his
history of South Carolina, Vol. 1, page
211, 212, 213, 214, gives substantially,
the same account, though not so full
or minute.
While upon the subject of the Regu
lation, the writer will remark, that
when a boy at school in Winnsboro,
he well remembers a noble old oak,
that stood on the public square, just in
front of the elegant mansion of David
Aiken, Esq., called the Liberty tree.
To this tree, it was said, the Itegulators
and Whigs ->f the Revolution, for they
were the same party, were in the hab
it of binding the horse thieves and
Tories, and inflicting the sentence of
their courts. This tree blew down In
a storm about 1828 or '29, and was a
subject of as n'uch regret to the citi
zens of the District, as was the loss of
the charter oak of Connecticut a few
years ago. As Mr. Woodward was
one of the chief actors in, if not the
very soul of the Regulation, I will
close by furnishing his biography, as
given by Mr. Pearson, in the manu
script referred to. He says:
Thomas Woodward removed with a
large family~ from Virginia and settled
iln Faii1ek about the year Sixty-flye.
With a fund of common sense rar'elv
equaled, indomitable energy andl
means abuIndant to make his way in
the world, lhe was not long in Iturning
his wild lodge into a iinost comfortable
residence. lHe was going on to ac
quire real estate rapllidly when the
Rtevolittionary storm was ready to
burst upon our shoros. Carolina, oven
in those early times, had provided an
organization adapted t.o the exigency
of thle occasRion. Th le State deterineid,
without loss of time, to raise three
reghnents, to meet the enemy at the
water's edge, one of which was a Regd
ment of Rangers to be0 conmmanded by
Col. William ThomTpson, commonly
called ol dainger, and1( Mr. Wood
ward, comml)issionIed as cap)taini, was
authorized to enilist a company for this
serv'ice. WVar was not yet openly pro
claimed, bitt there wvas as hard fight
ing as If every ceremony had beenm
p)unictillousNly tone through with, and
mnore inight he exp)ected speedlly.
Thompson's corps wvas fill and when
Sir Peter Parker made his attack ufpon
Charleston, lhe wvas ordered with his
regiment amnd all other tm'oops about
the city. to guard and defenid that shail'
low strait which separa'os lSullivani's
Island from Long Island. Tlhe artil
lery was nmounted on sand heaps, and
ourm troops wer'e as well p)t'Otected as5
circministancees wotild allow) by hastily
constructed field works.
The object of the British General
was to pass5 over to Sulllvani's Island,
and fall with his whole strength upon
the rear of F~ort Moultrie, but, lie had
no taste for the Anmerican pieces, nor
the discilined and determi ned troop)s
under Thompson--anct as lie had no
notonm to advance at such hazard. lie
remained where he wvas until Sir Peter
Parker received his discomifltue. M r.
Woodward was now near sixty years
of age, and as cam p exposure wvas too
severe for him at that time of life, lie
reluctantly reaignied lisa captaIncy, and
retired to his reAidence in Falirnold,
intending, wvith others hearty in the
cause, to preserve order and keep the
Tories ini check, In this servIce hie
was o)f great use. IIls name was a
terror to all evil doers, and the dry
bones of the Trories shook at the ver'y
name of Woodward. Mr. Woodivard,
thouigh niot a scholar, was a highly
gifted and even ettlghtened man on all
public "hir. iIe wvas the only moan
P iair'dthat took a newspaper in
say. lie Was one of' the earliest
digo plmteri, and otto of the most
** flI. fb iwd him. quietly
nhis p4 (tUE, ~e ateiv
itsope ww his acoutomno
nto ht34 srwards, jmo
.4. Q #P0On
neighbors he went in pursuit, found 1<
them and commenced an attack upon 1
them. A smart skirmish ensued, the (I
honest party rushed ahead ; the thieves t
stood their ground with desperate re-1|
olution. In the melee Woodward fell r
mortally wounde-. He had lived long c
enough'tbr a right honorable taime and I
the porformance of the mostimportant a
dutis of life; but the regret was, that h
such a uitun should faull by the bandit's q
hand. Ills death, and especially by t
such moans, was a sadness to h1i' d
friends and family for years. t
A Suhscituina. (
8OUT11 CAJOL.XN4 COLE.b (3I Il
0
Organi$atIon--Th~ Facul/y--Ariculi,re and , n
TMechaulce. i
The lon. Win. Porcher Milek, Presi- y
dent of the State College has -trnished i
by request a full description of the in- o
titution with its faculties and its aims. v
The faculty conesits- of himself as g
roaident and, toessor of English
terature, Dr. Woodrow (leidol- I
org) of Geology, liineralogy, "oolo, o
gv and Botany. Major Bonj. Sloan e
(West Point) Mathematics and Natur- o
al Philosophy, and Prof. Wm. Burnoy a
(Heidelberg) Chomistry and Expert. b
mental Agriculture. Foretmat of the fa
farms, G. W. Connors; of the shops, g
Jesse Jones.
Instruction is given in the Ancient g
and Modern Languages by licensed o
instructors. tI
Ancient Languages-Professor Von g
Fingerlin. Modern Languages-Prof. u
J. C. Faber M. )., (Tubin en.) I
Practical Instruction will be given in 0
the Departments of Agriculture and al
Mechanics under the supervision of the., t
Foremen of the Farm and Shops. 6
Tuition i'ee, except in the Depart- u
ment of Languages, where students
pay such fees as may be agreed on tl
with the Instructors. v
Each student is required to pay an
annual fee to the college of $10, to be'
expended on repairs. Good, cheerful 0:
and well ventilated bedrooms will be ci
furnished free of rent to such students
as desire to reside in the college build- t
ings,
Board can be had at. excellent licens" c
ed1 boarding houses for from $12 to L
$15 per month. In messes from $8 to l
$9.
The climate of Columbia is unsur
passed for healthfulness and iumuni- A<
ty fromi-epidenic diseases.
Of Mr. Miles we will say what, he
could not say of himself, that he is a C
gentleman of ability and far more than
ordinary. culture, Before the war he
made one of the best mayors the city b
of Charleston ever had. and he repre'- b
sented with honor the Charleston Dis- c
trict in the Federal and Confederate el
Congresses. ie is fully master of his o
department, and his executive ability i
has already been proven.
lie thus speaks of the qualifications &
of his associates:
- Of Prof. Woodrow it would be 8
enough that Prof. Joseph LeConte g
pronounced him "quite as comtpetbut a
to fill his chair as he (Prof. LeConte)
was.?' (This was when Prot', L..
after holding the matter under advise- l
mont for some time, declined to leave a
his high and liberally remunerated po- n
sition inl the University of California, eo
and comne to us-uncertain as to whoth- p
er our State really was in earnest, as ti
are all her.Southern sisters, in the do- 0
sire and intention to build up the State si
institution ofelearning.) Prof. Wood- v
row has enjoyed all the advantages of g
the best German Universities, is an eu- tf
thusiastic student of scieinc'e, and wide- si
ly known for his extensive acquire- o
ments In those special branches 1upon1 ei
which he leetures.
Prof. Sloan Is a distinguished gradu- h~
ate of WVest Point, where lie took veryv i
hligh rank--among the first in his class ei
-and has heeni a successful pro fessor n:
in one of our sister colleges. hi
Piof, Buirney, with uncomnmon zeal F
in the proscention of' chemical research- a;
es, has had the fullest training uinder a1
the most celebrated German pr'ofes- 1,1
8sors, and has been (in Itself a high n
testimoniial) a Fellow of the Johns i
Hopkins University, n.,
Of Pr~of. Faber, as anm Instructor ini n
mioderni languages, it would lbe super- b
filuous for me to speak, so wiely and ei
favorably is lie known as an adniirable sl
and sulccessfIuh teachecr-piarticularly of e
German and Fr.ench. L
P'rif. Fingerlhin, a graduate of a Rb- M
man college, has the hIghest endorse- 1
ments as a competent instruictor, in
both ancient and modern languages,"
and testimonials from many of our 0
best eitIens, in wvhose finmilies he hius ti
given insti'uetiomh , l
For enabling our stildonts to acqir
practic~al acquiintanice w ith 1)1andn
anid faraming, and the mlethlods of cult 1
v'ating our staple crops, we have ani
aumple ar'ea of land, where Mr. Con-h
nors-ottr fi'mner, an experienced as
anid skilled agihultuist.-gives his !'
uitiivided attention to field amnd gar
den~i operatins. ilere the lectures 01)O
Agrionitural Chenuistry ar'e supp)le- "'
mented and silluistrated by (lie test and
comIpar'ison) of variotus 'fertilizers onm
growving erops. Wei do niot propolse li
to rmake ouri Ifarm ani "'experimlenitalh
farm," as that tefmin Is usualy t der'- E'
stood, I. e., its a collectlon of' little
minute squaires of ground, whore eni
rious8 and( faneiiful Xexperimnents are* to
be made ; such as Liebitt might have
made in pots of earthm in his laboi'atory. PU
We will, rather, aim to teach ot'rL
young men0), who pr'opose to follow v
p)lantolg or farming as a meana of' liv'e- h
lihood, the most approved anid success
full methods of raising remm)unrative fl
er6ps~as well hi the pre par'ation of'
the soil (oftenm half1 the bath) and best.
usne of farmning imnplemenitm hn all stages di
of lihe crops (f'ronm seediug to harvest- tl1
lng and ~,repariung for market)-as In lit
the eupplyling of all the requisites of thi
platit daod.
TIhere is a dawn of a v
N~EW Eu.A ?8 TLU AtcCUt-TWII: t
of our 8tate. Ouir gifted and dlist in- m
ynse flo eitizeni, Dri. St. Jumloin n m
R vel,hasdemionstr'ated by r'ei ait* is
ed triajs, that sixty or s.evemvr hu,shus <
of Oata--unmI other -grat priopmortlin- a
ately-..and fromi tour to five tomns of i
hav inay bo raised on one acre of landti
(by ~noper tratumnt an ani apphlca- tAt
I ) tiWi"o meBa)s expenive furtil' is
wh) er without such tres tnmnt cie
A pplicaton, hardly a tenth of aueli w
V1eldce1'ld be had, "*Iermuda f.Waa' qi
of be d,Wined to wr a rvohu.. 5
te in . wetmnrel 542 it .
ughly accliuated, indestructible b%
vintetr frosts .or summer sttus nstl
roughts, requiring but moderate caro
> nurse it into a hxuriantgrowth, wit'h
tliich "Timothy" cawmot colpar. 'The
lnrked success which has attended its
ulturo, on a large scale, by Governor
ligood-one of out most enlightenet
nd educated and, at the sate, time,
ractical farmors--has long taken thuis
nestion of Bermnda Grass hay out of
to hands of the experiunenter and the
otnain of theory. And in this cotn-e
on 1 may be permitted to add that
overnor IIigood as chairman ex
icio of our Boar( of Trustee,, takes
ot only a deep interest in our tiartisns
lporations, but kindly aids the fare
tin of the trin with contiunal' prac
cal advice and suggestions. I trust.
ot will pardon me for dwelling at
Ach length on afrrieultural feature in
nr institution, butt it seerms to mhe
'orthv of the extended notice I aivo
ivelt it.
Whet I tell you that Mr. Jesse Jotnes
our nestet mechanie, and haa ebargo
f the work shop, where. under hi+
ro, the student learns the use of alt
rdinary tools and how to hsandle then
ud how to plan and construct farm
utildings and to make alit rep:air
ining implements &c., and where
radttady, a practical acqusitttanlre
ith engines, mills. and , machinery,
nerally, may be acquired; from your
ivn knowledge of Mr. Jones, as a
loroughly skilled and unusually int
nious mechanic and macltinit, you
ust be convinced that, in this depart
ent, not loss than in thte agricultural,
tt young men have exceHent advant
es extended to them, especially to
oso who desire to master so much of
mnechanies as may prove practically
ieful to them as plasters or farmeri.
When outr people shall have become
orougbly awakened to the necessity
providing
THE MEANS OF EDUCATION
'the highest grade to the poorest
assers ot her citizens---free of expense
so thalt there can never more he even
we excuse for the cry that the
cllego at Columbia is "an atristo
'atic insitution," "the rich man's col
ge," &c., &c., then we may see our
ogislature, in imitation of the Legij.
tures of our sister States of the South,
aking provision herself, in addition
the Congressional aid by which we
e at present solely supported, for eu
ging the scope of instruction il) our
ails, and mtaking the College of South
irolina an instittitton of .high and
beral culture, of which her peoplo
ty justly by proud, and ft" which un
>rn generations of her aons will be
-ateiul. Perhaps I on-Aht not to con
tdo this conmunicationt without
ame allusion to what, I am told, is an
istacle in our way. i refer to what
considered the hostility, or at least
tposition, to "a State' College," od
e part (if the local colleges of ott
Late. I trust, that thim,Is,'if not alto
3tbor an et"roneous.at any rato an ex
rgerated view. Why should any it.
tintion oftsound learning
i.0K wlt"rI JEALOCSY
Don any new sister coming to her side
a coadjutor in the great task of pop
iLl'r enli"htennent? Is there not room
inugh tor us all to work in our al
ropricte spheres? indeed, I think
ere is room enough and to spare,
nr young men are strowIng sp in aI
dy detelont state of intellhstual d
lopment and tmental training for tlo
reat ditties of life. The proporotin o
tem who go to colleges at all is very
nall. I repeat, there is room for all
u colleges. Let there be only a gen.
ous rivalry amtong us to) Fee hme
uob each of tus can do towards stimtu
tinig the yotth of' ir State to the de-.
re for, and the pursuit of, that"'hiarh
'euations," wiuthout wvhich a people
ust Inevitab)ly retrograde, not only
or' if there be one thing in the preFent
to of the wvorld more certain thatn
other, it is that mind ritlex ntot only
o forces of the social and politicl
orld, but, to ani even greaiter e'xtent,
0 forces of Nature. Show mse the~
tulon where the intelligenen ('h the
ass of the p.eole is most4 deveo(peid
'training, i. C., wvhere thsoroutgh edu.1
Ltion is mrost dliffusted, and I will
o0w youI a nation mno't adlvan.'cd in
ren miaterial wealth and parosperite,.
etus
UJLTIPLY OUR SolIKOLS IAND COLL.E(ts,
on, say I. Wn cannot have t.oo
any of theni. In edhuentionu the aph
'ismn of "T1oo much of a goodl thiing"
'es1 not~ holdb Who would oppose
se building ot'a newv chuteuh on thec
Lea that thereo wero ''churches enioug".
ready"? is the plea anty stronger~ it
e catse of coleges-espeelally int a
ate whtere the young men are*a grow.
g up int so genteral a st-ate oaf Illter.
~y? Noa I let us edtu'ate-edalte~-v..
coltmmon schoiol, it pri vaite schloolt'.
high schools, in normal schools, in
sllege.s, ian tuiversitieA- every w her,
Incatte I Anad especially let our~
othier, the State, extenad to the psoas
t haoy on her soil such advantage..
the way of edtucatlon its mar emnabin
m) to comtlle( inti a profslo:cut. or
thhic career, ini anty lurtslt. ad inm
eryv way, with thme richsest ands rsoutd- .'
t in thte latnd I
And now,.if I have trespaissed tun.
thy upont yotur patliece, I crave your1 '
trdotn and 1indulgence, far Ihn sak~e caf
o great cause of' "Staie Edlucatiou by
e St ate,"~ which I have so muh at
Iiart.
I amn, with hight regaird, veryv faith.
113' yours, W. PouucaEu lItLE..
A StuaNc;l. Monrc.40r.- A stane
oed of mnotgage was put caa rcecord ins
e regisatcr's 011icc att Charslotte, N. (..,
st week. A.ccorcinug to the term.n' ot'
is mor*tgage Chas'. I)idenoveri, atc in.
VSy hinself and ail tight aned ti he to
tmself to another, to h'av.e andc to h'.ld
rever, to secure a debhie Issna es the
ortgageo. VTe deed wa, duly ' i
used, sign ted ansd seahedi. Dadenover'
a maaried mait, ad, tiva'rfoare, tun
r the lawst' of Northt CaMroli, ibfor
tman entn conuvey any real estate
s wife huas to give tier signaiture
ereto, anowledging bteficre a no
ary puiblic or aga 1atrate, althoutgh it
doub4hif ItheI obuject n* ,it fl uc has
araer of'. prop,erty. IUldenuove'na
ify wvaiyes all of herrightA, t ithes antd
dtts to himt ns tatvor, , ' t' " g
~A antI signed the d.eed of contev
1'.: aund acknaowledge'ri the~ sam" n itli
l ' 1 rmc hein-ei b.ais um,t w.

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