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USES FOR COMPRESSED AIR.
Its Espec. al Advantage DotcribeVl by tut
"What are some of the uses of com
pressed sir as a motor?" asked a re
porter of a leading dealer in rook-drills
and compressed air machinery recently.
"It is especially well adapted," was
the reply ''for rock-drills, pumps, hoist
ing engines, and other machines used in
.mines, shafts, tunnels, and underground
work in general, where the direct use
of steam .would be very inconvenient,
and in most cases entirely impractica
ble. The fact is that the compressed air
is a motor for all the essential purposes
of steam, without the loss of power due
to condensation and without the heat
and many other inconveniences attend
ing the u;e of steam as a motive power,
especially in confined places and at a dis
tance fron the source of supply. It is,
therefore, applicable to all engines that
can be operated by the expansive power
of steam, sither at high or low pressures,
and one o>? its principal advantages over
rteam is fcaat it can be stored and trans
mitted through pipe to any distance
without :naterial loss .of pressure or
dirninutioa of volume, the only requis
ites being' pipe and ample area, with
tight joints and laid with the least pos
sible number of sharp turns. In min
ing work particularly it has the addi
tional advantage that, upon exhausting
from the drills or other machines used,
it furnishes to the workmen a constant
and abundant supply of pure, fresh, and
cool air, thus in many cases obviating
the necessity of providing other and ex
pensive means of ventilation."
"Is it applied to other kinds of work
? "Quite so. For instance, in sinking
bridge caissons; driving tunnels through
soft material by the pneumatic process;
for refrigerating and ventilating pur
poses; transmitting messages, packages
and passenger cars in pneumatic tubes;
vulcanizing wood; in the manufacture c?
rubber goods and nitro-glyoerine explo
sives; for elevating liquids, purifying
water for city and town use, driving
street care, mine locomotives, and for
supplying a very convenient and per
fectly sof<? motor for running elevators
and factory and shop machinery, The
feasibility of compressing air either by
steam or water power, at any conven
ient point for economical production,and
then conveying it by iron pipes along
the streets; (exactly as gas or water is
carried), to bo tapped and used wherever
required, furnishing power for use in
towns and cities, has already been prac
tically demonstrated, and it is only a
question of time when this plan wiU be
extensively adopted, owing to its econ
omy and iiafety. By this system power
may be transmitted to a great distance at
a comparative small expense.
"At the tunnel being driven for the
Washington, D. C, aqueduct, the com
pressor plant - is located at a central
point for economical operarioa, and the
air distributed over a distance of five
miles over ground, through ten, twelve
and. six-inch pipe, to the four shafts
where it is received by four-inch pipe
and supplied to the drills, hoisting en
gines, and pumps. When the tunnel is
completed the air will liave been con
veyed through ten miles of pipe. This is
die longest distance air has been con
ducted, and the loss by friction and radi
ation does not exceed 2 per cent. It can
just as -readily be conducted amuoh
longer distance without a higher per
centage of loss.?New York Mail and Ex
OH Produced from the Peanut.
The immense quantity of peanuts
grown in Africa, South America, and in
cur own southern states afford not onh
a pleasant article of food, but a ven
large source of oil production. The seed
contains from 45 to 50 per cent, of a
nearly colorless, bland, fixed oil, not un
like olive oil, :uid used for similar pur
poses; it is a non-drying oil, which
changes but little by exposure lo the air.
and remains fluid even at several de
grees colder than 512 degrees Fahrenheit.
A very great quantity of soap is manu
factured from this kind of oil; indeed,
some o'. the finest toilet soaps imported
from France are of tide material.?Chi
Sold for a Hundred Cabbage Plants.
The last sale of a slave in Virginia took
place in the spring of 1865. The facts
were the following: The confederacy
was on its very last legs, and the owner
of a negro woman in Augusta, knowing
that slavery would be ended In a few
days, sold her for w&at he could gev.
As there was no circulating modium of
any tort then?for nobody would take
Confederate money at any value?the
woman's master bartered her off for 100
cabbage plants.?Chioogo Times.
Statue of tho Fainouc Pharaoh.
A great red granite statue has been
discovered ten miles awr.y in the deeert
near Alexandria, in Egypt. It represents
fiie famous Pharaoh, who was responsi
ble for all the Egyptian plagues, and on
one side of it is a statue of a little baby,
6aid to be that of the next Pharaoh, who
perished in hL$ rash attempt to drive
through the Red sea. It has been lying
there 3.000 years.?Chicago Journal.
The'lmraence Slie of Sun Spots.
A sun spot measuring one second of
distance is 450 miles in eise. No teles
cope can deal with a smaller spot. A
spot large enough to be seen with the
naked eye must measure 250,000 square
A Diamond Belt In Goorjjla.
Diamonds in plenty, a geologist who
has studied the subject says, will yet be
found in Georgia, in a belt that he lo
cates between Atlanta and the Savdhnah
river, a distance of about 100 miles from
ten to thirty in breadth.?Chicago Her
Most Permanent of Vegetable Odors.
Parchouly is supposed to be the most
permanent of all vegetable odors. The
plant resembles mint, and is a native of
various parts of India.
Ventilation m the Mont Cards tunnel H
so defective that trainmen occasional^
fall insensible (baring trip*.
Blemishes Which 2Xar Our Books.
Recent book-making has developed
many innovations in taste that are ques
tionable. One of these is the unpunctu
ated title-page. Tb.e latest English and
American publications now display title
pages guiltless of punctuation of any
sort, save that which is incidental to
abbreviations. There is no justification
whatever for this, more than* there would
be for a continuation of this state of af
fairs all the way through the. book. A
common blemish of English books is the
lack of dates indicating the year in
which the book was published. This
fashion has only obtained within the last
twenty or thirty years. The reason
given is that booksellers do not wish pur
ohashera to know the age of the books
they buy. Luckily in this country books
can not bo copyrighted unless they are
dated. It is absolutely impossible to
learn without writing to the publishers
what year certain English magazines rep
resent, the month and the volume being
Another fault is the. omission of the
folio upon which a new article begins.
This is done to save "underlaying.? Cata
loguers find many euch obstacles in Eng
lish books and magazines. Another snag
they strike is the English habit of using
a man's title or office instead of his given
name, as Principal Shairp, Canon Farrar,
Prebendary Reynolds, etc. Until recently
few EngBsh magazines attached the
names of authors to the articles, and this
has been the cause of no end of mystery
and confusion. Harper's Magazine did t he
same until about ten years ago. Authors
of historical books often write the chap
ters ruH of references to months and
days, but to discover the year one has to
read- sometimes a g jo<1 share of the book.
These are but & few of the blemishes
which keep our books from mechanical
and artistic perfection.?Cor. Chicago
Cariosities of an Antiseptic Climate.
One of the most curious results of my
ibservations is that the climate of
Damaraland possesses what we might
call an antiseptic character fer several
months of eaeh year. The quality is an
attendant of the long annual drought.
Every living thing suffers during that
period from the excessive heat, and
much comfort is impossible, even in the
shade, while ' in places exposed to the
warm winds the thermometer has risen
to 128 degrees; and the sand, unmoistened
for six months, becomes so hot that I
have seen eggs hardened in it. Tin's
arid heat is opposed to the propagation
of ferment, for it dries up everything
that is exposed to the wind before it has
time to sour. 'No manifestation of tuber
culosis are known!"
W. ands of every kind heal remarkably
quickly and well, without enough sup
puration taking place to make the ban
dages stick. The manner in which large,
neglected wounds heal themselves would
form an interesting study for a profes
sional surgeon. I observed a case of a
Eferero whose right lower arm had been
shattered in battle by a musket-ball.
The healing process had worked itself
out in such a way that the whole lower
arm with all its muscles .had become
withered and useless, wldlo the upper-arm
bone was whole and covered at its lower
end only with the brown skin. AU the
^muscles and ligaments of the elbow
joint had vanished, while the shoulder
muscles remained, so that the unpleasant
spectacle was presented of the man ap
pearing to gesticulate with his bmes.?
Popular Science Monthly.
Co-Operative Establishment? in France.
Paris has seventy-fonr co-operative
establishments, with 5,0* 9 members
printers being the most largely rep
resented?and furniture makers, builders,
carpenters and jewelers also having their j
co-operative concerns. Their combined
capital is a little over ?5,000,000, but 1
this, as well as their number, can not I
make much of an impression in a great
center of industry like Paris. . The most
successful of them are managed by men
of shrewdness, on strict business princi
ples, and not as philanthropic schemes,
and they employ outside labor, getting
the f uAl amount of work or wages with
out giving these recruits any participa
tion in the profits.
There are only tlurty-nine co operative
gtores in Paris, with 10,000 members,
and in all France not over 150, as nguinst
the 2,000 and more in England. Never
theless, the system of participation in the
profits is a f avorite panacea in France,
and it is proposed that in Paris and else
where all public contracts should be
awarded only to those employers who
are willing to adopt this as part of their
method, of dealing with their workmen.
The greatest of the French insurance
companies and the largest French print
ing establishment have tried it for many
years, with fair success; but the employes
in both cases are very different from
those employed in ordinary work, shift
ing and changing as work and wages
vary.?San Francisco Chronicle.
English Sheriff's' and Judges' Hobes.
Between the sheriff's and the judge's
costume there is not much to choose, so
far as grotesquenuss goes. If anything,
the judge's is rather the more absurd.
But then his lordship carries it off bet
ter, partly, no doubt, because he is more
accustomed to it, and partly because he
is paid for wearing it. I know, of course,
the stock argument in favor of these
disguises?the majesty of the law must
be maintained. But why, I wonder,
does the law (like the African chieftain
in the red waistcoat) only care to be ma
jestic by his clothing? A plainly-dressed
policeman captures the criminal, a
plainly-dressed magistrate sends him for
trial, and a plainly-dressed hangman
But at his trial he must have a sheriff
with sword and ruffles, and a judge in
red cloth, rabbit skin, horsehair, and
black cap. Surely it would be better to
divide those "properties" among the vari
ous c^icers of the law employed in the
transaction. Let the policeman (so much
exposed to the weather) have the rabbit
skin, and the magistrate the red cloth.
The wig alone would be sufficient to
maintain the dignity of the judge, and
the black cap obviously belongs to thj
THE POOR JINRIKISHA MEN.
A Pathetic Gl?sa of Japanoso Whose va
cation Soon Causes Death.
The jinrikisha men of Japan are a pa
thetic class. Their lives are limited to a
few years after they begin the business,
and yet their ranks are constantly kept
full by new recruits. They Uterally
swarm on the streets. If a lady starts
out for a walk she is repeatedly offered
"a man carriage." These men are never
importunate like the hackmen in New
York. They keep at a respectful dis
tance and make their offer in low, gentle
tones that.a stranger might not hear and
no one could be disturbed by them. One
refusal is accepted as a final answer.
They are an intelligent class of coolies
?many of them can read. Their queer
little ways is a constant source of amuse
ment and surprise to the new-comer.
When A. had been here only a few
weeks she called a jinrikisha one morn
ing as she wanted to go to the opposite
side of the bluff, more than a mile off.
Previously she bad made the same trip
in a brougham on fine mornings.. She
was no sooner seated in the Jinrikisha
and well tuckod up in her lap-robe, than
the Little Jap was off like a shot without
asking or being told where he should
take her. A. said to herself, "Well, now,
this is mighty queer! I wonder if you
know where I want to go! Very well,
you can go ahead and I'll see?I shall not i
volunteer any unasked information now!" i
The little man apparently needed none, I
for he continued on a fast trot, now
winding to the right, now turning tp the j
left, never once hesitating, on and on,
past the public gardens, past the ceme- j
tery; Boon he had left the Russian, the
American and the British flags in the
distance, floating from the consulates
of these respective countries. A.'s won
der increased momentarily?the fun be
came exciting?she laughed quietly to
herself and wished some one else could
enjoy it too. Jinrikisha travel is not so
cial in the least.
At last he stopped, dropped the thills
and relieved her of the lap-robe with an
air of absolute assurance that she was
where she had planned to go?and she
was. Not a word had passed between
thorn. Words seemed a superfluity.
When her call was ended she was re
turned home in the same silent and mag
ical manner. One man who waits at
our gate for a chance passenger is no
longer able to run?he can only walk1,
and no one wants his services. His lungs
are nearly gone. The rapid, long-con
tinued running causes heart and lung
diseases. The jinrikisha man often has to
wait in the cold, damp, night air, poorly J
protected when he is in an overheated
state from long nmning.-?Yokohama
Cor. New York Tribune.
Capacity of the Krupp Works.
In the Essen works there are 1,638 big
ovens, 439 steam boilers, 450 steam en
gines (representing together 18,000 horse
power), 1,622 machine tools, 82 Bteam
hammers, 21 rolling trains?involving a
daily consumption of 8,100 tons of coal
and coke by the 1,648 furnaces, wliggo.
draught is through chimneys of which
one is 280 feet high, with a diameter of
80 feet at the bottom. The daily con
sumption of water?brought from the
Ruhr by an aqueduct?is 24,700 cubic
meters. TJjere 1,778 steel lamps and
7 1-4 cubic meters of gas have been used
annually, though this quantity has just
been diminished by the introduction of
electric lights. The work ceases only on
Sunday and on two or three holidays.
The production is enormous. When
the Emperor Williaiu visited the place
in 1877, Mr. Krupp caused to be set be
fore him the productions of a single day:
1,800 rails, 160 wheel tires, 120 axles, 160
railway wheels, 430 railway wedges,
1,000 bomb shells. The daily capacity of
the works is much more: 2,700 rails (two
and a half miles), 850 tires, 150 axles, 180
wheels, 1,000 wedges, 1,500 bomb shells.
In a month they can produce 250 field
pieces, thirty 5.7 in cannon, fifteen 9.33 ?
inch cannon, eight 11 inch cannon, one 14
inch gun?the weight of the last being 57
short tons, its length 28 feet 7 inches. It is
one tlung to read these figures on paper,
decidedly another to travel among the
objects they represent, and witness tlieir
extent, their vomitings, of flamo, their
harnessed immensity and to hear their
The Business of Street-Peddling.
Tiiere is not the money in this business
that there used to be. I well recollect
the time when a man with a stock of
imitation, gold rings, sleeve buttons,
collar buttons, etc., valued at $8 to $10,
could be easily make his ?5 and $6 a
day. Country people are not the only
ones who buy, either. Those of the city
who do buy, though, belong to the
working classes. Occasionally a well
dressed, stylish young fellow inveets in a
"snide" diamond from us, paying $1 for
it and is as much satisfied as'if it was a
genuine stone. But seldom does he
come along. If we make our dollar a
day we consider ourselves lucky. Some
days we make more than others, but,
taken on an average, $1 is a fair estimate
of our daily earnings.?Globe-Democrat.
The Ventilation of a Bed-Boom.
It is sometimes a difficult matter to
ventilate bed-rooms properly. Opening
a window often causes a draught that
may be more injurious than air less
pure. A very simple ventilator, which
allows a free current of air without pro
ducing a draught, may be made by any
one. Have apiece of inch board, four
inches or more in width, cut to fit the
window casing. It should be long enough
to preclude any draught entering on
either side. Raise the window and rest
it on the top of the board so that no air
may pass between the sash and the
board. A free current of air will then
pass between the upper and lower sash
to comfortably ventilate the room.?
The Tuberose as a Field Plant.
The tuberose is now cultivated exten
sively as a field plant in Natal, South
Africa, and so favorable is the climate
that flowers in open air may be had
every month in the year.?Arkansaw
NEWLY FITTED UP
OPPOSITE THE TENT.
We Jo uot propose to undersell
everyone else, but we are ready to
meet fair competition. Our Stock is
now complete: give us a call
. Mr. L S. CUM MINGS is with us,
and will be glad to see his old friends
We sell the. ROYAL ?ST. JOHN
Machines of all mnkoe repaired.
Large Wogoa Yard in rear of I
VOSE & SALLEY.
Dress and business suits for Men, Youths
and Boys. This is the largest stock ever
brought to this city. I particularly ask an
'inspection of these goods now, In order that
1 may have your verdict of approval. And
after vou have seen this display of Tailor
Made Clothing, Gents' Furnishing Goods,
Fine Shoes, Hats and Neckwear, I feel as
snred that you will be pleased not only with
the goods but the low prices 1 am selling
them at. I desire you to handle them, to
bring all your experience to bear in judging
them; critically examine their make, fabric
and trimmings, test the sewing, try them
on; in fact make a study of them as well as
the prices, then go to other houses and make
the comparison. I am satisfied that yon
will return and make your selection out ?f
this beautiful stock and to find the goods as
I represent them to be, and give you full
satisfaction in every instance, as my goods
are made by fust-class workmen. All or
ders sent to my care will receive prompt
Mi L. KINlftD, Columbia, S. C.
Twenty-five Years Experience.
Watch Makku and Jeweler,
And dealer In Watches, Clocks, Jewelry
Spectacles, Silver and Plated Ware and
Musical Instruments. All work warranted
for one year. Orangeburg. . C.
INSURE YOUR PROPERTY
KIRK ROBINSON, AGENT.
COMPANIES ALL FIST-CLASS AND
LOSSES PROMPTLY ADJUSTED AND
COLLECTIONS PROMPTLY ATTEND
I mn still selling Brick, Lime, Laths,
Hair and other Building Material.
1 am now prepared to furnish Coal and
Wood in any quantity. All orders left
with me shall" have prompt attention. No
dravace charged. Give me a trial.
July 23- KIRK R(?BINSON
ABIAIi I.ATHJtOF. K. M. WAXXAMAKKK,
Orangeburg, S. C. St. Matthews, s. C.
f ATHROP & WANNAMAKEH.
ATTORNEYS AT LAW,
Orakgebubg, s. C.
Office Up. Stairs Over the Postoffice.
CHARLESTON, S. C.
WE INVITE SCRUTINY OF THE ANALYSES OF OUR SOjLX'IILI? GUA.M?
by the department oe agriculture. they will
be found above their guarantee.
A BLIZZARD. A BLIZZARD,
A NOTHER BLIZZARD IS COMING. BUT IT-WILL BE A COLD DAY"
JTX when PRESCOTT fails to sell vou CHOICE GROCERIES, CROCKERY, GLASS?
and TINWARE.eheaper than any other house in the city.
I have also just received a choice Stock of
FRESH GARDEN SEED, SEED POTATOES, &e.
FRESH AND CHOICE GROCERIES
Received Every Week at the Cheap Cash Store.
CHARLES W. PRESCOTT, Proprietor.
157"I am prepared to manufacture TOMBSTONES, &c, at shortest notice and in the
most artistic style. .? < , Jan 2*-3m
James Van Tassel,
CHOICE FAMILY GROCERIES,
Wines, Liquors and Segars.
A T MY ESTABLISHMENT CAN BE FOUND ALL THE STANDARD
1- V arrlclcs of GROCERIES at Rock Bottom Prices, as well as purest and best
WINES, LIQUORS. &c, sold anywhere. Also the choicest SEGARS AND TOBACCV*
to be found in the market.
tVIIHA' I.OOKIiV? AKOlTiB) GIVK .HE A CAUL
JAMES VAN TASSEL.
OLD VELVET RYE
"TZT TP. ""ST" T
EIGHT YEARS OLD.
Guaranteed Pare and Wholesome for Me?iciaal er Otaer Uses.
FOR SALE ONLY BY
W. T. LIG-HTFOOT.
HAMILTON'S INSURANCE AGENCY
CoLUMlUA, S. C, April 1. 1SK.'..
Icertify that Mr. John A. Hamilton, of
Orangcburg, S. C, Agent of the NORTH
BRITISH and MEUCANTILE. QUEEN.
WES'l'ERN ASSURANCE, ROCHESTER
GERMAN. Insurance Companies of North
America, HOME INSURANCE of New
York. CRESCENT, and FACTOR'S and J
TRADER'S of New Orleans, has complied !
with the reipiistitions of the Act of the j
General Assembly entitled All Act to regll
late the Agencies'of Insurance Companies
not incorporated in the State of South (,'aro
I linn, and I hereby license the said JOHN
A. HAMILTON Agent aforesaid, to take
I risks and transact nil business of insurance
! in this State in the County of Orangeburg'
for and in behalf of said Comoaidcs. Kx-;
piresMarch31st, \m\. W. E STONEY. ,
Comptroller General. ?
HORSE AND CATTLE. PCWDEITS
>o !ln?t trill ilh ??! i.v. VUvn t.r J.Cii Ik ?
l tri:. Ii Kiuitz'ii I'Awilet* are Intime.
I ?wir."? I'.uniiT- irlllrnr?' ein*l nrri eni lion i ioi.kka ..
prn;t;?? IVtwiier* ?p|i| pri ?. .?nr o.wf> in Pawta.
I I"<-iiUV IWalrr? will liMTiit-o Ihr quantify ?if mill.
I nnl rtvam iweiity |mt cent., aih! umkcHie Iwtlernmn
' inJ ?wert.
i Ki'Miz'- l\>w?!er* will eure or prevent aliiinM rvkeT"
Dim \?> nrlilt-ii Morse* :iit'l i nttle an*; uhjeri.
KolTZV Pott In V.h WIM. u! > f SATtfetr'AlSTIOX.
eav1d r. I OUTH, Trrjirictor.
For sale by DIL J. G. WANN AM A K
? T A K E PL E A SUIS K I X AX-I
1 nouncilig that I will run the lee Busi-1
ness from May 1st, 1881). Customers please
reserve your orders and oblige.
Jal ... CHARLES 1*. BRUNSON.
Celebrated Faabion Catalntnxo
CCMT EDCC -*ur Spring and Sum-.
OCn I rnCCmcr. ri-aUr3?ircb
10th, to any addresa. LUustratcJ and ltJts
every thing for Ladle*'. Gent?', Children*'
and Infanta' wear and Houtekeejrtnir
Good*, at prices lower than Unite of any
bouse in the United State?. Complete
?allafactloB guaranteed, or ino?cj re
funded. H. C. F. KOCH A; fc^OX,.
6tb Ave. ?Je SOt? tiu, tu V. Cfcu.