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it out. FTom Its appearance it looked I
to me as if some one had used some
kind of .bar to prize it loose. The work
had the appearance of being well done.
I remain, Yours, very truly.
Columbia Plumbing and Cornice
H. B. Chapman. Manager.
Columbia. S. C.. Feb. 1S.1904.
A. C. Dover. Ocala. Fla.
Did the State house roof show flash
ings were torn out when you examined
tSigned) Frank P. Milburn.
Ocala. Fla.. Feb. 18.1904.
Frank P. Milburn. Architevt.
Yes. some half dozen pa);z.es absolute
ly pulled away froim wall.
(Signed) A. C. Dover.
Columbia. S . C.. Feb. G.. 1904.
Mr. Frank P. ]%ilburn.
Dear Sir: I am a native of Georgia.
but now a resident of Charlotte. N. C.
I am a practical cornice and metal and
sheet worker. with 22 years actual ex
I did a g:cat deal of work 'on the
State capitol at Columbia: had charge
of the sheet metal work of the innet
dome and the outer dome. and also
the guttering. anid the same was put i.n
according to the polans and details for
the sme. by experienced workmen. in
a good, workmanlike manner. I have
read the published testimony of .r.
Hunt retating to my work. and the
same is in the main not true.
I fiave this day been on the roof and
examine-I the dome and gutters. The.
floor of the lantern of the dome has
been badly abused since the work was
completed and accepted. There have
beeti hvles made in the copper. which
cause leaks in the inner dome. There
i. now a piece of timber there with
nails in it, which might cause some of
the holes noted.
As to. the guttering, the statement of
Mr. Hunt is generally not true. They
are made of Merchant's old method IX
tin, which is the standard of America,
and proper material for that particular
work. It rests on a granite foundation
and has all the protection. necessary.;
After three years use it is in perfect
I have had large experience with
roofs. and have been fan:iliar with this
roof. off and on. since it was put on.
In this matter, again the testimony of
Nir. Hunt is largely untrue. It is as
lh:tlt and gravel, and iot tar and
gravel. Xone of the stone used in its
tonstruction were one and a half or
tv. .; inches. and the little slipping noted
is only some slight excess of material,
as is common to such roofs.
The cost of metal ceilings in 1901 and
1902 w-%as very much less than it was
in 1,S9, because of progressive ideas,
and methods in this kind of business
and -prices of material. Al*hough I had
no interest 'in the ceiling of the main
lobby or elsewhere. my work was near
it, and I had conversation with }Ir.
Unkefer about same, and I know that
the new ceiling cost more than it w-ould
have cost to repaIr the old one, but to
fix the old one would require the im
portation of special expert metal work
ers, and a great deal of time, which
would have resulted in inconvenience
to the legislature.
(S;gned) G. G. Ray.
To Whom it May Conce.rn:
Gentlemen: I have read with sur
price Capt. Hunt's. testimony in re-,
gard to the roofing' applied to the State
house, and have the following to sub
The roofing on this building is what
Is -known-as "Warren's Anchor Brand,
Natural Asphalt Roofing," and was ap
plied by the "Charlotte Roof and Pav
ing company" of Charlotte. N. C., ac
4Zording to the' plans and specifications
'adopted 'by the Warren Chemical a J
Manufacturing company of New York:
city. This roof is what is known as
our "Standard Anchor Brand Asphalt
Roofifig," and has 1,-'n applied accord
ing to our plans and specifications. It
contains no coal tar, or coal tar prod
uets. and is composed out of asphalt
thrughut.In- reereceto Capt.
H~unt's assertion that the roof is of lit
tie or no value, I might st:.te that~
* while there are some leaks in the roof.
these leaks are oepasioned, not through
the fault of the roofing, but for other,
reasons not in the roofing contract.:
Now, the pitch of this roof, as nearly~
as I cao' ascertain, is about four inches
to -the foot, and the roofing is well
*adapted to this class of construction:
'n fact we do not hesitate to advocate.
*and furthermore to apply this roof
ing on buildings whose roofs hav.e a
pitch of (6) six inches and upwards to
the foot. tEhe crushed quartz used for'
the. graveling surface is1 such as will
pass -through a mesh fromn 5-16 inch to~
*1-2 inch in size, and I am at a loss to:
understand ho"' Capt. Huint can say
Sthat he was able to find stones as big.
as pigeon's eggs. or the size of a man's
band. I submit the 'above testimbny in
defense of the Anchor Bryand Roofing.
'hich has been attacked, by Capt.:
Hunt, and trust it wvill be accepted as.
(Signed) WVa'ter B. Harris,
Rtepresenting Warren Chemical . and
Manufacturing company, 1- Battery
Place. New. York city.
I .notified the Charlotte Roof and
* Paving company repeatedly to send
men to repair this roof. They sent
inen more than once. but finally Mr.'
Dover. the manager. told me that some
one was tampering with the roof and~
that he thought that water was run
ning thr.ough the copper w.ork and.
around the windows. It is a fact that
some of the frames and sash w.ere
blow..n in during a severe w.indstorm
last summer. and more than likely this
acounts for some of the leaking com
plained of. Mr. Ray informed me that
boles had been punched in the copper
dome. I cannot say as to this. but
I 'do know that people were permitted
to go and come at w..ill.
On two or more occasions I sent m.y
men to inspect the roof after it was
reported to me that it had leaked. They
reported that a scuttle. Av.hicha is about
th.ree or four feet square, was left off;
and <ne time both scuttles were off.
I required that the roofing contract
ors give a guarantee for 10 years.
which fully protected the State's in
The committee say that a fine slate'
roof wa.'s torn off wvhich cost the State
a great amioun.t of money. arad they'
further say that it afforded perfect pr:o-.
tection. But the.y dlid not produce a
sIngle witr.ess to p.rove these assertions.
'Who told them? The absurdity of the
state'ment is proved by the fact that'
the principal argument used in get
ting the appropriation for - r e
-- mnes was thzat "the r . .
:holes and leaked like a seige." B~esides
being old and worthless as a roof, t here
was a very small portion?of the s,ate
on the roof, only that "rtt that could
be seen from the ground-r-that is. the
steep mansard-the rest was of copper
and was sold fe.r .iunk..
Eighth. Numerous objections to the
dome whichn are co d.iscoimrtedn as to
It sh'ould b" 1 !"'r' undersine't'~d that
I ori in:!y i*:me for. 0 the constu'
tion' 'f thi.',oe' of cast ste. just lik'e
* ith., v'r:' Iis'-''for th' dome of the~
ca t a: Washingt'n. I(l. Marshal!
as' I 1.''i'.:'. larel Iminen.c'd b)'y it5
(1*sir'' .. sat isf'y hi'. 1ir" ted the.'
c'harha' to granit" This chlan ae n
- sitati a a.:T't vly inceas'"d load, and I
no't ',! a' '''1 ity~ c"n-id-red."' the
atr.-nath of! the air! tui'lin t 1" up-.~
nor t" : r at my. 'wna lxnense. ht
xamixinn :::-1 a:r u.io of the "
pa,..o..s .a. i. The1w pro~'p.'.d
. o su.yr ia"'e dome'a onI twoV
sie.-l ...m s. as1;ir d th:n d. I
m.e of all that metal, The expert.;
referred to said. "We are satisfied that
there is no rluestion as to the strength
of this revised design." With this
charge it became necessary to give:
greater pitch to the .roof than origi
nally kitended. and to make numerous.
modifications and chhaies in the spec
ifications and detail'drawings for the
Work. For instance. th- change in
Pitch of the :oof obviaited'the nc1essio
for the ventilators showii iii the orig
in,al plans. which would hae betn t)I
sightly thero ". ITh moditi-4d and14 re
vised d1awimItigs fl this pti0lion fir the
work ar st".i on til in ly otlite arni
coulil h%ve h.-:1 st.n by 1 th invtSi.
gating comitzee and their "expot'
IIZt' theyl Ss4~ k'i,Aiv.
It i! harged that the window franlos
of the -onle do nti tit. This appear
antr is no dou,t caus- b thb\ f:at
that some of them wt-re blown in dur
inga severe storm last summer.
Again. that there arv kinks and
-rims in the galvanlizeI iron of ,the
inn1I'r dome. Bit these ae to doubt
due to na1tiral expansion and contrt.
Ag:iin that some stones 4n the out
si.de of the dome are too short. and the
contractors tilled up the tees. Now.
zhe fact is. you cannot keep the water
out (bf a close joint of stones: there
must be space enough to calk and t
nent. and it is necessary at that point.
It must be understood that the littie
water oozing past the cement swells
the oakuni and thi makes the joint
Ilut the great bulk of eriticism
of the 'work on the dome is that
it is not according to plans and
spekitleations. and that the rians
actually used are tnt What thty
should be. It is true that much of it
is not according to the drawings :n
spcifications seen by the colittt't
and their expe.rt. but are a substantial
voiplance with the modified dra wins
and detailed working pl-s. As to the
criticism by Mr. Hunt and the commit
tee of the plans as changed and actu
lly carried out. I insist that neither
this contractor nor this committee are
competent judges. Surely the members
of the committee ark no better able tol
judge of the work, at this time, than
were the members of the capitol com
mission, who sawithe work as it pro
:ressed and when it was compland and
Ninth. That the wood truss ander
the portico roof. called for hy the iraw
ings. is absent.
A'ter the commission decided to
omit the two columns before referred
to. the wood truss was no longer prop
er. the drawings were changed and
steel trussed perlins substituted. sPan
ning the portico the shortest way.
And here again the committee under
takes to criticise the use of built up
sections, as called for by th" drawings.
instead of expensive solid stones. In
deed, they criticise everything except
the contract price, which every body
knows was very low.
Tenth. That a sheet of. galvanized
iron 1-32 of an inch thick is all there.
is between the interior of the building
and the "wide. wide world."
These gutters are not galvanized iron.
but the best quality of IX tin. which is
the best gutter lining that can be used.
Copper lasts longer, but the expansion
is too gre*t. These gutters. which are
of the usual thickness for this class of
work. are painted on the under side.
aulked with lead in the stone and the'
gutter bed lays flat on the stone cor
Eleventh. That one of the large in
tel stones in the rear portico is cracked,
this being the last of the specific
charges which is numbered.
This stone showed no defect when
the work was accepted. but has .ro
ken since then. I do not believe it is
likely to "give away." Apparently per
rect stones will sometimes crack in a
building and cannot be guarded
against. The committee could have
easily found evidence if this fact, had
they desired it, in several large stones.
on the east side of the building. which.
are cracketd %nd broken, as is also a
very large stone on the south side
near the west cornetr.
Next: That the contr'actors did nlot
protect the interior of the builditng dur
ing the work.
It is almost impossible to fully pr'o-.
tt a building during repairs and
changes and let the o(cupants remamn
inside-it is not like an unoccu-pied
building. I could not, and did not.'
tndertake to prescribe just how the:
contr.ctors should ptrotect the old
work. antd they claimed to the commis
sion that they had done all they could
do to that end.
In tG c'onnectiloln it must be r'emem
bered that many of the stains from
leaks in different parts of the building
were there before the work under in
Next: As to the cement nloors and:
water leaking from abov'e.
Only onte day last month I was sin'
prised to see so much wrater in the
p)assageway under the f,ront portico.
as it had not rained for several days,
and I called the atter.tion of' 1r. WVil
lam Batnks of The State to the cond'
tions. Careful examination showed
that the walls of the building wer
sweating all around. but wvhere the dit
was against the building it absorbed
the waater, while it was not so absorbed
where the cement ikors joined the
walls. The walls sweat regularly
This would not have been the case haud
they beetn built hollow in the' outset
they had enough thickness for air'
space in the centre, This is one of the
most se9ious defects in any part of the
State house. I had nothing to do wvith
Next: As to the defective water clos
ets aind plumbing.
This work wvas all (lone before the
city had plumbing rules. otr an inspec
tr of sewers antd plumbing. tor event a
sewerage system. These rules vary in
dife rent cities, antd in the absen'xce of
any prescribed ru'les each :.rehitect
tses such phlins andl methods as seem
best, tonsidlerintg locaition andt surt
roundings. generai appearatn'e and
sanitary rttie. In all these matters
there is constaat improvemnent. just as
we have gr.'atly nI ipoved otn oltd clos
ets inth- ibasotement ..which wecre in
stalledl when (Col. Marshalil wav:s on thte
ommission in charge th La tato
house improvements. I u~tst thait the
State is able to get even more vent! -
lation. by electric fans, as sug.gested. or'
othewise, as the present location was
not built for this putrpose. or there
would have been mor:e ventilation. I
think the following letter will e_nable
the public to form a correct estimate
of the inclination of this investigatiog
commit tee to condenan everything in
ma..fA. W. Edeus. C.. .. Inttpecto~
Not. S. (City Hall.
441 miat. 8. <'*.. Feb. . 1P4.
.'i Frank P. .lilburnt.
Dear Sirt: At .t4our re..uesCt I takv
i:l'asur , i n statin.- a th .'itith Wnin in
: ''rith to portwo.iof th t
tpt"mbing ttht It ucom:ae und, r.e my a
sevaioi ahscty wich wt' .tin-it
et-ndoh r him 4 ts re o t o t ti a
.tul 2ic T-ritiid deft' foundtt was
it is chl a.L'td i-idt l th ota t trs,
would get all the old material, except
the marble: that the contraelvrs I
lowed for the valu- of this old imaterial
in their bid: thlt the conmissiolinuty
investigated the niatter: that the z;t
torney general gave his offikla opiniloin
that the general opinioni h1, 6en that
tie Contraltor's OWnedI the 41bl t
I ial. nd ' In" commis sion coi'id ,n
jaim i t : titt: . h:y a of tif l'"tt -
t:scy ishra was al".t .'vd yt*cln
ission, eX-al i.zy:&ny Mr. .:Irshall:
And th- etolnistion refI4 .ur tat
i.~ttiI tid h~let si Lc' it I. t i.1!ail i
itunkei' s primtiotton tl~ 1: t* bus e
l.flan t('riall- fvoill I:-. u tytto s
I -n e tw tati i t-1mt h)il* . , That
this inlvest ig ting v tin i:t1-* s Son li
titk th P f'r"ot, 1 knew of t1wSt l.os.
If th y t id. I thiik a i iin at
,tubltitct etn the thatcsj he 1aY iI1etomme
Lh:ttd m u lt* :11" a l w t
zo up"IhIold Col. C0.ral:it y r. -
POrt,Aeven ifa supp.~aich of ld
As ani ovidenlce that I .lv! The. Stalte
"tI -idand honest serbvic,r in It :Nd111
iture of its mne1:1 onl otht, Su 2 !'ous".
."i i ii reuLt..at io il if i Ina 1 vila rgvs
Iidtit in alt c lmni . I det 11Csir it -
mi.th fosta:lltw' itatements of bun
(Signed) ~-i NihoasItitr
rabl, wideiy known cknitrav*ors. not
withstandig th hali. of Ilitti
.om it otee on the t at oVU e.f the w
wl-rne e was .crk on rkhy, ti
Skenle to the tActies o trying to be
minitd Zad imurtai anly of n all wit
nesswho diored to spzik th,- truth,
if not inl support of his retport:
Nicttholas litne. CAntractor. P. Q. Box
etk t;' Atlanta. a.
Atlanta, Ga.. Mlarvhil.%l
M Ir. Frank P-. .\ilburn. C-dunnbia. S. C.
-ar Sir: Your avor of the 'ot to
Ia di "- 'ent f I heil m t:i: a -II
dit cathit cotato lding at"i
find it a firs. class job. I consider it s
good. ulistantial ,ie of work.
(Signed) Niclaq Ittner,
Savannah. Ga.. Aug. 17. 1903.
.Mr. Frank P. Milburn. Columbia. S.
Dear Sir: In reply to your inquiry
A ug.ut 70t in regard to thnt wnorm r
ovntly dont on the Stat inou:, I will
su r that I have ha tensidtfrable ex
y gritnce ini lare work, anii hiane had
quiteta nd umb of contracis froi the
onited Sitas govdranm ant. I was ose
of the irm of a Steir n Con.racting
toany. wmiio bar or the contract in
("Iulum ia. I wa.' i: C"11umbhi; A.\i:
14tii, and whilte thk-e eInspeictted thet
Statte house work. As a wh-bolv. I think
the work very satisfacory. There may
bcu some miner things that I would have
dontt difft-rent if I had been award
e the contract. Anyone looking to
find fault canr always lind it. There is
mne thing certain, the State of South
Carolina, in my estimationo has re
pivedv full value for Ite mater vx
pended, and now has a capil that
any State might werit be proud of.
This is my hnest and unprejudiced
opinion. Yours truly.
J. E. Brgless. Managier.
Savannah Contracting Company.
Mae.ar. Burges remodeled interior
of pustoice building- in Columbia. in
Augusta, Ga., Sept.2. 1903.
.Mr. Frank P. Milburn. Columbia. S.
Dear Sir: In reply to your favor of
Aug. 5th. wanting an opinion from.us
on the new State Capitol Jinl your city.
we beg to say the writer has frequent
ly gone over this buiAding during con
struction and sine it was finished, and
consider it as good a job as it is pos
sible to make out of a remodeHing job,
and beong famillar with the price paid
for the work. I consider the State se
wured a. regular excursion piiee on-that
saWe hav had considerable experience
in remodeling work. and know how
ditficult it Is to inake everything per
feetly saisfctory. as there is sone
thingc always i the way that cannot
be movedi. You would have no trouble
to prove up v:lues if the matter was
:ivestigated. as you know from ex
i,rienct that it is mnuch easie to crt
riseg tohadite s tuhexecute
wtw. 'e:i'elYout:rs' tvery thatin
(Iigopnidn, tHat MtKze &or Scenst
h:te ben erGernerl in'tatis.
3iit.utrink P. . 3Ilu. Cmia
Deatr Sit: Replinit toi your inquir
ofiiiAug..5th..ai asking my oioo the'
hein State' hos,t isa thath w on
ieredh the amewel' executed an fuil
iyfu t he tandard fio s wor.s
thae his expetrice in remdeingl
atlso,~~tt and havesfund it ad to
ideeevey ne. aps t o not un
dertnd t upn tbe thcat"w
haveto Icon tn with . i am isririse
gardto te jo. asIthugh t' i tual
quantity, was wellwot th pic
thed for t''I houl t hi i old tbe
am work no ude thepreti' . g'in
ous' t"rnly. a
C'ntraei 'oi tone uir tyncbuig
is vompleted.1 and to cover this
guarant4le is given for one year.
Tife copper and tile roof on the goV
ornntnt buildi-tg in Augusta leaked
from, inl, to tine and g.-Ove the o11ieer
(Sige) T. l.rown & Soin.
Per '1 C. Bro%n.
G Inr, -)':II m!' kc-?I-. A u u a. !,;:
TH : < r\'EftN.\lENT FNPEfRT.
N q. *: th.- Ilpuibll 4 (urious t
knip\t -.h e thig ni of , tl f -\'. 1iunt.
u~ pon w tIm: I 1. 1,mi tos s zon
f--.nt IiII i l st is . In
un-rous irni 'e'Ims: o digns'or.' dlans and
work. whith.' the ciaxedon ni. of 'il thic
:m!cii 1.n)m,-,Iu i*'l il#t ho.uosl- anit I
Wcumb iting. .m sttlin.
s il.. Im -rt . u nfst :,:.t t we k
I ! i. I a -1 tin 1.11c . piO -'rh S'i.
h:n ie z o this .i:s wa \I
rit. int, a that h-r:
'Ill Architet. asz % 'ityhrt m to P.
:,oil:- stt.tIi i -hit. mtintie Itts alcotr WOl'.
Ten ann.mwe in te hou1'z and01
sh th: liym;tr imie ast mi dishsa
kit i rk i.0sitit .i ., o i t' t' t S. S.
Itily shlw i'itif.'4lt ih ile ofit,
-u -in ntnretn-- in th fpiol:o ig i
64orm as: Cztin:
ahul: s.z*in to Washingtn. . Hun
no 1.Hunt . en syd teriptitutiont of b,ig
ti' ilirNahit t her4tly fstI
.7nt K.nTanslhii.m aso s aiis conatr
The'i'i oral dnowie-to s nt
Il an t ': oin ntv ;(l hwg''e i thrr i,.I h o
tail J. I of c ai shi.t . h-e Unt Sat
mIiit Oirto hwchtdt b(n Oil oinenl\i
euit.Th lYaiy. hcos ha in di
h*,i In - tih rS S u t
otor cahawity. hormwoud whte ktn-wn
'Will South Carolinians endorse th
liti-as''. rep4ort of this invcstigatin.
tuinit-t-n conf lsdy dase on tho
'pinion of this w-itness. in the fae of
tile opinions tif Nicholas ittner of At
ita. J. F. Bueh : ot Savannah
Charles .- McKenzie of Augusta. J. E
Parris. of Lynchburs. G. H. Hadlo
of Jac.*sonvlle. and 'P. C. Brown o:
Tht- following- Pxtraorcts from the ree
"'ds of the Capitol colinlissioll w.ill tic,
doubt prove interesting to the public:
m'p.nnotiin or \Ir. Derham:
resolved. That when the work or
the State house is finished, prior tc
acepting the same. the architect shal
notify the governr. who rshall & t
the commission together. aho witb
the architect shall inspect the work
and if the same is satisfactory the cer
tificate shall issue."
Columbia. S. C.. May 22. 1902.
ion. 'M. 13. Y.Sweeney. Chairma
St-te 1House vommission:
Dear Sir-I wish to report that Me
Tivain. Unkefer Cil.r contractors. harvl
oanpleted the work as outlined by mi
on the State house. That is. the spin
:it. initt?nt and mnning of the plans.
spieiivationis and modifications of the
ail% and a entitled to the final pay
Frar,'-- P. 'Milburn.
P. I. This report to ben filed whet
tie commission are satisfid aith thf
work as one.
-lZesolved. That it appears to t E
clata. J. for threscmpet o f avnnh.i
Chareshous thatnzhe ork isgutsa.
oy Jand.thatihe onTraCt haow bof
Augstat -il eromd
Whereuollwng ractsal frmathe tee
folloin motion of ar subsitut:
"Resolved. That in the. or ofni
them State hue wis finederir tc
acocepatn th comete the archtec hoall
nhtif nthen governor, wo b.shel canl
theacommising toether wholns spec1
atarchic ('allinpect ndtherefork,
and if the same isn satisfactory tce
H oll c:.l h.aingweene. Cairmanup
S'rtate Hjos te Commis ion o M
Dea Sir-I.t stitutepo thttict
Urain .nefeMrsh .cntratos, av
'rmpleted "then wokas outlned y Jen
'n the tat.e. hoson.ha Wisn their
ite intet anie- ig fth .a
speietiedts e and calmaios if h
Samei. taenubreeiclt the fiscnnecta
P.it (.O Thisreor to atn fihead whea1
th commis (sire tcisfied; withith
wor as'i tdone.i adI ant h fl
"Retsolvedo. Thatlit apears aoim
comiss'.ion fato r the cruelio o t
a tat house tht fre tois sti. a
Wherupo 31r aFra P.mideurn
TResRlv. That inuhe6piio of Te ti
commisio t:he woark one under th
contrai:t to cophleStte.teSat os
tactors acyordn thett ilnths spcii
.ienin :'and ta coret Nrtheref:iorn
the workalas don i notsaisfactor te
A~X ral al'' hang been. demanded upii'C
nth Iutino the'" aotaion of 4:r
alrshlt's subsno'titto the timetitue
he.as Loi ree t"emyavtef o 1.sf
Those L voting norheswe ne Jen
tnips. lowrth ono.Wisn e
ligr. Derham-7. ha anonc
isw ah uicnidaelo the offifatsceet
'.a wihth Snta.te ousessrk atith
same reotingce tor.n Davnpchet cilla
fromte pumbi onfIcr the fH~un
invetigtion felingsur ofae com
'ietei vini.tion\ from thesti aruel all
iharicr for art firs time.cia" u
-.. '' oe'Fank Pi'. 31llb'cun.
TI:e Revii. Johnw Rippe of G-at eaH:
T 'lhied' 43'tr itrimn itath Kots.r ci
Npeial tos The Staten. frnthi
'n.atfnaiy.i Feb.h 1.;.-Re. Jr'on Rupe
who -'Iii hasposiblyt thred mrei at'ou
l!-ii h:t: ayt othr anw i thi.ctun
t'' m a rid I wao. maore';a Noth' tearol in
Vi'u'hles lathe,undat..u Tin' wele jaI
A t]. I'or an lisd . Ft. cSettleve i
tird .liss Haitie lsni, f oln
GIRLS WHO LEAVE f10%.
'Writften for The State h.
Thei readrs of The Sttiv ; :I'l
that portionl of th."n Who 1 I'ii,
hi i the compliment L nns
his artic.s. which have app. fron0
t !. If it. in its colti nee
"inNy I- r'.in1ded of his )1. nie
I nt' subj-ct -tf ducation. is
w )lie thing in conne wv; tI,
tiie que , lit)o which he t .I
l prt-st allthoigh it is to -'
con"i I.P.' d.'nre' of r'luet ,
It is posiiIi. fi cous, t.ti
evil. and the n r is used nrdly
mi ,1 nt owi its rigiln to O. "t4
il duilitcatin. i.it to a c ang' 1.h
1: eniunl.lwhichhasn fon eitt
'Ihein. tow. !te lt*t muAst be si:ioniz.
h.1L h:-t all human affaire .'1mat
ter. nt hI% goditI the gen- to
denev is. there must be some :
-hi- giVing full acknowled;., to
this truth. ioven-ry 4fTfoort should lt:::ol
it) keept he. li-ovil incident th' i,
ti let- "-t possiblio point.
'phe tevil to which allusion is
eraze that has found lod.
Liui mind of almost every 5.
just as soon as she leaves the
or high school she must 1i
kintd 4if tmpiloyment. despite
that in the large majority of..
i:..tilves leaving her home a
thrown w%*ith strangers. An
of educatin or (if public SE
tt instills a feeling of this k
li- mind if a girr. that she ilu.q
<t-lor-miltTt andi make her own ,
the world. is radically and ine.
There are. of course. inan
where this seeking for employ
painfully necessary. and whN,r4
the case a girl should he enc4
In tendrid overy assistlan
where this condition does no
sit- is both 1.1njust to herself
: pins we she voluntarily?
. themn int a l the time w hi t"l
ierie Cc on :nuch pleasure fr'4
r)rese--n1- in tht- house. Sie ha
sirltly mllissf-d diing the four ye.
has S)ent at college. but this sep;
was cheitrfully borne by her p
for they coubl look forward to t
w-.hen she wititld finish heri ed
and onite nq-re Ip% with them to
'n their home. Independence a
dtesire to make one's own way
world. is both natural and com
Ible. but thert is such a thing
ryin- even :. good impulse too fa
tiert is something radically wr
any syst-ne of iomi or school
ing that implants the idea in the n;
.of a gzirl that she should not I- d
pendent onl her father. even w1kn I
is abundantly able to provide Ifh
Fven if it be granted that si. ca
I have more social enjoyment i . th
town or city than in the country-ion
of her parents, this furnishes no*uffl
cient excuse for her to lea%e he,4a r
ents when her presence and he' af
fords them such unalloyed hapixnes!
It often happens that the mothe-Oget
ting'on in years. is worn out witl to,
and care. She has . given all; he
Etrength and time to the raising an
training of her children, and tc h!
it is an inexpressible pleasure : he
her daughter insists on assuming iom
of her duties.and. re'sponsibilitie.q an
enables her.. to enjoy a well-erne
A number 6f years ago it wa th
writer's good fortune to be a fre er
visitor at a home where the cor to
above metioned existed. The 1,otl1
er's health 'was not good and the odef
daughter ha@simply relieved her f a
household cares. not even allowirf th
youfiger'children to trouble hikvt
any of their troubles. This datiht
was accomplished. well educa5d.
very fine musician and could 4sii
have secured a position to teach. .Thi
she would have liked to do. bu~ sli
felt that hen' first duty was at -hr
and the discharge of this sacredlut
wilIl even' be the sweetest- and tede
est ,recollect ion of hen' life, for *he
she ~was callea on to see that ytta
pass away she was sustained''an
soothed by the consciousness tha, st
had done all that lay in her poW4 1
make her mother's last years pa i
peace aind happiness.
One of the greatest and noblest :n-n
Rlobert E., Lee-who has ever livid C
this earth. miade duty the watec:."or
of his whole life, and no sacrifi e<
Idanger ever restr-ained him fron '1
tog wthat he ctonc'eived to be right ' 1
path of dluty often calls us to 4 9.
In ns that humanly speakin un
the very rever'se of thne ones w'e .Jtl
choose, but the'n ther'e should et 1
p'resent the thought that after a,-'t
strnong~est ha ppi ness comes fo
c-o'nscousness of having done oui.C
moset to pro nmote the happiness of t-es
w ~ho anre dear' to tus. Fortunate, I:
Se.'d. is the daughter who, when t
I ooks lot the last time on the fac
her t ii:*', with hi'r ti~red hands 1D1'
ed aco.<'.) her oom, can feel thatsl
nevern hro'ught tian's to the now c-l.S(
yes~ or' 'patngs of sorr'ow to the mn
seltish heart, which has forever c'a
id to bent.
If she can feel thus then she he
* 'ea,e 'and joy that will be her gre'
ol ' . tn long as life endures.' foi wa
r. v. ealI or woe, the futuire h:
nf sor for ii her, this is something
no earthyi~ t'-wert ent take "way'
A i i n~ hie: she' uit leaves to
thr eshni of h'r ?O"e. 5tands( in gr"
n i"d( of hetrn' ine''s '-'usel and I'.
tetio(n. andi it is a inhisfor'twme wi
str'ess' ofi icttrums: ~n.'4 .ipr've' :1
Iof tis" -' ft-guard'.. t i. re lat c1
th ing. on earth that '''ins :Ca :i
fronn Heaven it 's the lov.' '. .n ml
''rI for h''r childl. N.. pi'lin -au! port:
it:n plumm~net canl suintd its deT:h
for~ it is as dee'p andl widi' as a f.tl
,im'lessn s'ia. to whichn no men~asurew~
can be g.iv'en.
pardonedt ' for' giving onne mor'ei i'u
traitnon of the sacr-ific"' inf in.' Cin
1to d'ty. the facts of which are
A ""oid nany y.-ars ago rh'e'e
es-5iitii'n of the y'iung lad:' at
:;n n tseparah!ie baririer' in th- 3:
its i tolneia te conStifumma tion. :ha$ v
st:lcie bjeinig an iinvall n moth-r I
Swhose c-are the daughter . 'i!
"-nelf "esponsible. After thne
tnagodmayn' yec..in- it
"d away"t and a short timcm
deatih th.s dazughter' nman'nie
-ttiman to wvhomn she had P
; . attah. T'c 'hey were
tin"g alo'n' iiti years5 theit,
Io'n d'oubt that tha:t 10
-found gri""t hapopiness. i
i'f henr mari ted life',' I
bi Anve that in this
nI.ss to i'omipeinat
of sainri!ie'e t'o a si
rIt has always li'
-der- t'' the wiier'
iif ttrying at lens
cr's lovi' for a eti
-lvi' frnm its hi
thtrioug.h the ' e
for the ni
hand tin hr
- tin t
SUEZ A DREARY DITCH.
Cana (Cift Throui1 RegIron Bre of
A%t save Hiblien Richne.a
W. E. #urtis in Chicago Record-Her
All1at 'fn the Red sea. Jan. IS.
Fvery v-ssel passing through the Suez
.-anl is coamnrelied to ta-ke a pilot. be
causo Iskippers t-f ordinary vessels can
:wt be t-usted to navigate the narrow
channel. for the slightest deviation
:.,y c:,se damage that will cost thou
sands of dollars to repair. Each year.
howeVe. navigation is rendered easier
by the widening of the channel and
by the excavation of additional sidings
or b2asis where vessels can pass.
'roin the moment the pilot goes on the
h- tatk,-s charge of the move,
ients ta the ship and is responsible for
whatever may happen, regulating the
Si--1 according to tonnage and
Vtss-els annot pass in motion. When
thl-y meet the one which arrives first
at the signal station is compelled to
stp ad : tie up in the basin until the
other goes by. These basins are found
at intervals ot' a few miles, and at
every basin is a "gare" or station in
charge of a sianal officer. who corre
sponds to a train dispatcher oi one
o our railroads. and the block system
is used to regulate the movement of
vesse.b Formerly no traffic was al
lowed at night. but now it is. carried on
ithout interruption by the aid of
-trie lights on the shore and search
ts on the vesst-ls.
he canal looks exactly what it is
big ditch on a desert of sand on
ich foxes. javkals. hyenas and oc
ionally li-1nS art'e Sten by the watch
it in the signal towers. At some
ct-s the banks of earth on either
e are so hhzh that passengers on the
amer -catinit see over them, but for
)st of the journey you have a wide
-eop on both sides back t) the moun
ins that rise from the desert, and
a certain point for a mile or two
ount Sinai is visible 37 miles to the
utheast. and is pointed out to you
. the captain or the deck steward.
aked Arah bivs run along the banks
ying for baksheesh and easily keep
reast of the creeping vessel, grab
ng at wennivs which passengers
row them from the deck. Half the
ins roll down in the water. which is
asperating to the youngsters. They
n not like to stop and dive for them
-hile there is a chance of getting more.
ut I imagine they mark the spots and
ome back to recover lost backsheesh
ien they have left the vessel.
There are only two towns of any
account or. the canal. - One is Ismalia.
a half way point. with a population of
4.00t. it is the only monument in honor
of the Khedive Ismail. 'vho did the
most and spent the most'to carry out
the enterprise. and lost his throne
I thereby. It is rather a pretty town,
- abundantly irrigated, and hence has
lovely gardens and groves of palms
r and other trees. Here reside most of
the engineers and other officers of the
canal, because it is preferable to Port
Said. There is a.hospital for sick em
ployees. a club for th6 benefit of the
- officers, and several good houses, in
- eluding one erected especially for the
entertainment of M. de Lesseps, when
. he should be pliased to use it. Beyond
- i Ismalia. as before,' are occasional
I oases in the desert-groves of palms
r and luxuriant gardens surr6unding the
stations of the canal. officials, for
wherever you can turn *ater on that
lonely desert everything will grow with
e a wild luxuriance. It seems as if the
earth suddenly released germindting
power that had. -been accumulating
during centuries of suppresion.
e The chief interest is found in the
t town of Suez,-because itlis the crossing
place of the great caravans of camels
-: that furnish transportation betwen the
t I two continents of Asia and Africa, and
Ji tfavel regularly between Cairo. Da
e i mascus and Bagdad: also becatise bib
- , lical historians believe that here the
r waters of the Red sea opened 3.50(
a! years ago and allowed 3.000.000 of the
F children of Israel to cross over upot
si dry bottom. It requires a considerabl(
.concession to the imagination anda
,strength of faith that a majority o:
yankind do not possess to accept thF
-theory, but no one knows to the c2on
trary, and experience has taught m4
r never to doubt the faith of interestinl
stories. If you do, you deprive youx1
e self and others of much plea:sure. 11
0is like analyzing-the -attraeto n of
! pretty woman. or~ separating her fea
tures into lots, classifying them ani
- measuring them by the Venus de 3Iilo
1. n the other side of the Red sea
which, by the way, is not red, but blut
r -as blue as the sky in June-you cat
-see the purple. peaks of the Sinait<
e range. and a few miles from the shore
which you can reach in three hours
e by donkey, one of these remarkabli
oases that are frequently found in tha
edesert. This particular one is caille
e i the Wells of 31oses. There is a comn
efortless hotel kept by an Arab. w,her
-beds and refreshment can be obtamned
ebut it is better to start early in th
-morning, so as to get back the sam
e day, and take a luncheon in a baske
f trom suez. The trip can be e-asil:
I- made whi'le th,' vessel is coaling.
e The children of Israel, according t<
d the Bible, wandered three days in thi
a- wildeness of Shur and found no wvater
-ad when they came to 31arah the:
could not drink the waters, for the:
'. were bitter. and the people murmure<
t aainst Moses. sayini: "W'hat shall w
i dink?" and he cried unto the Lor<
s antd the Lord showed him a tree whic1
t he east into the' water's and the water;
were nmade sweet. And they came t
-LImlim w~here there wvere 1'2 wells o
wter, and three score andl ten paIn
it tres and they encamped there by th
-waters. And .\i;-iamr. the prophetesm
ni the sister' of Aaron. to,ok a timubre
rr in her' handi. :' id all the wornen won
i t 01na.-r ber' with timibr-is and wit1
t dnces. That be'autifuil scne one r
- the afdramatia' in the whole Bibh
y is b,4 ded to have taken place hera
for ~tese wells are" the- wells ot Enm
- an three : ad tenl palm trees stil
tt shelter a cole:ion of a dozen or mor
springs. The village is peopled b;
Saked Arabs. sinewy, springy, en
during fellows. wvhose flesh shines lik
nn polished mahoaganiy, and who must te
15 semble the yonmg maen of Israel whe
thy started oni the jour ey that wa
-- not finished for 40 years.
S.It is dificeult to understand why an
ehow they haippen-d to be wanderini
t .about so long down here. if you wvi
ff look at the ma' p you will see that Sue
is amost on a line with Cairo, and
r r ws the most natural rendezvous of tl
I- iins an n.i:h but. as I have' alread.
- Ar.....-....th- ostmyteious an al so.
s tv of~1' a *nris and1 m n th oth
sie re F.y . Nubi ,and) the Souda:
at Sinaie pentinsula i prjete sithwa
at and dilludesna the ottwhar
m- a ner the. poio t aa he isouda
at Tor, the land inlg pla(ce fort Sinmai (V
s t nosite Tori is Jebe)(l Ez-Zit. whui
h.means '"thm mountain of oil." where I'
al jltfleu was disc).'iourd sonfl ye-am at
and crie:at.*d great ex(itemen'it. Huti
Sdeds o'f t housandas of dollar's ha
e.hen )Ii e'XPended (" ui sink.ing wells at
r uiling do'y-ks. wariehouses. anad ri'n
it ries. but haav" all been abandone
becaus", for s'omn ra:son. the man
aturer's could not c'opete with tl
t :Standard (il compainy or the Russli
,factories oni the Blac'k and Caspt
.People thinik that there is a good de
'more wealth in Arabia thang we kne
of It w.t ne of reater ins'ortan
than. now. and in ancient days pro
duced considerable gold and other met
als. but now it sips little but 'dates.
wool and coffee, and even these are
gradually falling off. Mocha coffee Is
produced at the extreme end of the
Arabian paninsula. in a province called
Yemen. and derives its name from the
little port it is shipped from. But the
people have no enmerprise, the coffee
orchLrds have been injured by insects
and blight, and the trees have not been
rvnewed. This is acounted for by bad
government. As everywhere else in
the doninions of the sultan of Turkey,
fur Arabia is nominally a part of the
Ottoman empire, the officials receive
no salaries. and live off blackmail.
Hence'. whenever a citizen gets a little
ahead. when he shows signs of pros
perity. he immediately becomes an
ob.ect of plunder and persecution by
the tax gatherer and by every other
represen:ative of the government.
There is no incentive for the coffee
growers to extend their orchards or
to increase their product.
One does not realize, until he comes
face to face with the fact, that Arabia
is nearly half as large as the United
States. ts area is almost as great as
that of India. and is nearly equal to
that of our States east of the Missis
s.ippi river. The population is un
known. because there has never been
a census, but it is suposed to be be
tween seven and twelve millions. The
distance from north to south is more
than a thousand miles, and from east
to west it varies from 500 to 800. Yet
ii all this enormous territory there is
no centralized authority. The interior
I is goverened by petty sheiks, each
being absolute over the members of
his own tribe. Along a coast line of
u.arly 2.500 miles are only six ports.
wneire the sultan of Turkey maintains
p;sh:a go'ernors and garrisons to pro
tee(t the collectors of customs, who are
required to pay him a eertain amount
of tribute every year. ai.d they wring
it out of the people any way they can.
The relationship between the gov
ernment at Constantinople and the
hidouins of Arabia is very slender.
ai is due solely to the cohesive power
4of the Mohammedan religion. There Is
no law in Arabia but the Korarq; there
are no courts but the priests; there are
ni mails, no postoffices, no postage
stamps. and a person who wants to
communicate with a distant fried mUst
st-nd his letter by a messenger, whih
is -xpensive. or by a caravan, which is
the common way. There Is no tele
graph line. no newspaper. no rallrod.
and, strange to say, not a river in all
that vast area except a few shallow.
rocky beds, which during the spd
bring down. water from the melti
snow on the mountain tops to the sea,
but for iine months In the year are
as dry as a crematory.
The captain tells me that they pro
'uce a curious phen6menon. The cQst
- the Red sea is lined with c
I . . a.ks. built by those mysterious aid
wonderful little masons who, like sime
men that I know of, hate fresh .water,
I and wherever the'spring ftoods fall Into
the seas there is always a wide brek
in the coral reef.
The mountains/of Arabia reach 'a
altitude of 10,000 feet, and In S"its
where borings have been made:tie d
is more than 600 feet deep. It
prevailing impresion. that Arib
vast expanse ofl desert- but a'It
mistake. There 0e wide ..Nr
ren sand. which..area IrrIa tn
cultivation only &cause they.
be reached by water, but twb-04Tat
the country is capable of cultiy .
and. lying at an -altItude- o fet
above the sea, might prod
sugar and other: semil-tropilI VVIC
in unlimited 4uatities. Although
there are no streaths ielity sof.-water
can be had for irrigation pur*4ei by
digging 20 or 30 feet, and the ilitrdW
tion of windmills would. simplify'. tOe
pumping problem. On the coast-.iti is
Intensely hot, and the humdity ot-the
atmophere during the summer sean
makes life almost unendurable biAt'in
the interior, upon the table lan( f alhg
the mountain slopes: and in the valls,
the mercury seldoin rises above _5
grees. even in. mid-su'mmer. - le
the direct rays of the sun are liitepe'e.
it is cool in the shade, and .at night,.the
mercury often falls below 50.
More than, two-thirds .of the popuila
tion are Bedouin nomads, without b,er
manent places of abode, who -livie.dn
tents made of camel's hair, just lke
the patriarchs of old. They have enr
mous flocks of sheep and goats, an1d
herds of catle and camels. 'The follow
the grass and move from place to blece
with all their possessions. There are.
however, several prosperous cities 6f
considerable population and c'omr:ierce.
Trade is conducted by camel caravans.
which cross the desert regularly, anid
transport enormous quantities of dates,
wool) and other merchandise.
* William E. Curtis.
A schooi for (Grown-UTii.
Gaston'a (N. C.) Gazette.
The Stattesville Landmark refers to
the pluck of a boy t7 years old and:of
a man twice that age who recently
buckled down to books at Bule's Creek
academy without knowing how to read.
The boy didn't know his letters, the
man began in the first reader. Yes.
that is plucky in a sense. Not that
the task is so great. but that the
nerv'e to get one's consent to undertake
it at those ages is so rare. Butf It
ought not to be rare. The task is not
great, not difficult of accomplishment.
Little children who liye with books
and picture blocks learn to read be
fore they are six years of age, learn
without special teaching: with isome
'direct and regular instruction they
would learn sooner. We do not believe
that there is in the State an illiterate.
grown man of,. ordiniary intelligence
and industry that could not lear'n to
read in six weeks, write in tern weeks.
and get a good beginning in arnithnietic
in a few more weks, If he wotuldi only
give these things attention and reg
ular study. Why hasn't somebody
started a school for grown men who
1cannot read and write? The gap be
tween the man who cannot read and
the man who can-how great and how
wide it is! What storehouses of rich
ness and vast and fertile fields are
shut away from him wvho cannot read.
Beyond the Alps lies Italy-and the
jAlps in this case are not impassable.
The gap is wide but no,t difficult to
him who tries, and the' prize Is zo
worth the winning: The mnan who
icannot thinks the way Is hard; the
man who can knows it is not. The
t rown man who cannot'.read and write
-sombody show him, somcbody neip
- -*s missionary work for one,
. :ss happiness for two.
sPECULIATORS IN TROUBLE..
Have Been Starting War Rumora in
Italy for Money Purposes.
dRome. Feb. 21.-Rumors of warlike
js. prepaations by Italy having been cir
- 'tulated a semi-official communication
has emanated from the government
Iwhich is in substance as follows:
Stories of alleged armaments and of
the mrov ements of~ warships and troops
ot s.ervice abroad a.re entirely false.
Iniataions exist that this false news
iconnected with stock exchange
sp-' ulations and those responsible
havn'e been brought before the law
eouts to be punished according to law
with imprisonment of from three to
i-The communication evidently alludes
to the insistence by a portion of the
.press that Italy will be antagonistic to
A us.tria in the Balkans and to the
- preidictions of international complica
e ions thus causing a fall in Italian
i bonds and a rise in the exchange ott
SDr. Janseso'M success.
e ('ape Town. Feb. 2t.-Dr. Jameson
.e a suceeded ini completing a cabinet,