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THE BOLL WEEVIL.
The Ways of the Pest That Ravages
The South's Great Staple
A name which has recently grown
to be considered a synonym for dis
aster is that of the cotton boll weevil.
So fearsome has this tiny insect be
come that it theatens the stability of
one of America's greatest industries
and presages a commercial revolution.
If the inroads of the pest that has
marched steadily onward from the
fields of Old Mexico by stages into
Louisiana and Texas are not soon
checked the name. "King Cotton,"
will have passed from American own
ership and the supremacy of this coun
try in the cotton markets of the world
have become but the bitter memory or
a growing nation vanquished by an
insect less than a quarter of an inch in!
This little beast. says The Wash
ington Star. has devoured millions of
dollars' worth of cotton during the
past few years. and all the energies of
the cotton growers. assisted by the
arm -Af! science, have thus far utterly
failed to find a remedy which will
drive the pests from the country.
Driven to the point of desperation by;
their growing losses, the cotton grow
ers sought the aid of the Department
of Agriculture, and from there went;
to the Congress of the United States.
The first named branch of the gov
ernment service sent its experts and
entomologists into the' pest ridden
fields, and the result was reported to
Congress. That body at last took ac
tion and appropriated S2o.ooo to be
-used in experiments looking toward
the examination of the unwelcomed
To the average reader of the inten
tions of the great department of the
government that devotes its energies
for the benefit of the farmers of the
-country- the name boll weevil signifies
ittie. M-.ny of these readers do not
know whether this means an insect.
a bird or a disease. They simply be
lieve that there must be something pe
culiarly obnoxious about the monster.
whatever his family history may be,
Abat calls for such drastic action on'
:the part of the whole people or ad
-mit the defeat of a great national en
-.terprise at the hands of an unknown
The boll weevil is a beetle. varying
in le-gth from three-sixteenths to
three-eights of an inch. He-is born
hungry and with an hereditary appe
tite for cotton bolls only that would
drive despair to the heart of the most
cheerful agriculturist. In a single
night one of the baby weev;is will eat
.an amount of young cott n boli. or
the tenderst parts. that if pernitted
-to :reach maturity, would make a bale.
weighing twenty-seven million times
his own weighit. He is not an insect
of the highest order of intelligence.
and. when lie diies with his rather t:n
developed wvigs doesC so in an aim
less manner and in a straight line.
alighting on any other plant that his
legs happen to touch !irst. One ot
the prox isions of nature that has been
noted in this pest is that he grows ac
cording to the food he has had dur
ing his continement in the larva of
this mother. lack of food never injur
.ing hinm in the least beyond a retard
ing of his growth entirely dispro por
tionate to his appetite. A halt sized
*weevil will eat quite as much as i
larger brother. or at least wixll destroy
.as much cotton, for they all select the
tender "squares." or uindev eloped
tolls, and never descend to the ma
ture bo i> unless driven to the course
by desperate straits for food.
A newly born weevil is whitish in
-.color, growing to chocolate with age,
while some even are almost black,
this difference making it almost im
'posible for the average agriculturist
to properly classify their various
neighbors of the insect wvorld when
they marage to get them in custody
for that purpose. The active fedling
period of the adult weevils is during
the day. At night they travel and rly
but very little. During the vir>,roua
growing season of cotton the weevils
. move from plant to plant by short,
s3luggish :lights. They wander to the
'top of a plant and hop off imou the
air. dropping do.wn on the first cotton
boll they hit. They' feed for the most
part by getting up among the develop
ing leaf buds between the seed leaves,
ir.to which they ea:, just as they do
the y.).g squares later. In spring.
beize the squares form on the cot
ton plants, they often eat small holes
into the tender growing' portions of
.h ants, e thu -mling or stunting
.r making them unit for the pro
duction of the cotton of commerce.
They do not bore holes in the plants
thev attack. but eat into them. The
end of the snout of the weevil is pro
vided with small, claw-like jaws. with
which it actually eats a hole, rather
than bores it. as is the popular notion.
When preparing to feed on any ex
posed portions of the plant the weevil
nearly always uses its sharp mandibles
at the end of the snout to rasp the
outer bark. so as to enable it to get
hold of the ragged ends, which it then
deliberately pulls off and lays to one
side. it then eats the tender portions
beneath, a process which may be com
pared to the peeling of an apple be
fore eating it. They are not at a loss
fir food if all the young squares are
gone. for the fullgrown boll is by no
means despised by them when they
feel the need of food. It is practical
ly certain that this variety of weevil
will not eat anything but cotton, but
for that plant its appetite is abnormal.
When ready to deposit an egg the
female weevil eats the customary hole
into a square, form or boll. as the
same thing is called at the different
stages of its development. and hollows
it out somewhat larger at the inner
end to fit the egg. She then tzrns
round. protrudes her evipositc.r. or
egg guide. into this hole and lays the
egg. She then seals the hole with a
drop of glue and goes about her busi
ness. This sealing process prevents
the entrance of any insect and ex
chudes the -rain and dew. In two or
three days the weevil grub is hatch
vd. and at once opens up his campaign
by eating everything in his reach.
Only one egg is ever p-:rposely laid
in a square. Observations thus far
made by the scientists of the Depart
ment of Agrici:lture are not yet con
clusive. but ;t is generally believed
that a di,tinct hibernating brood is
produced later in the season in those
sections where frost kills the cotton.
Early in the spring. when the weevil
come from their winter quarters. they
are voracious eaters. and feed readily
Tn any young cottin they can find. As
soon as cold weather begius the aduth
weevils seek winter quarters. crawling
into cracks of fences, under the barks
of trees and in the cotton gins, among
trash. in fact, everywhere and any
where that they can find a comforta
ble place in which to pass the time
until the new crop is ready for their
appetites. From early spring until
fall they are busy at their nefarious
work. and keel the cotton grower in
a state of perennial anxiety over his
Up to this time it has been found
that frost is the'most efficacious agent
that could be used against them, but
this is wholly unfeasible, and the ex
periments of the Department of Agri
culture with the $25o,ooo that have
been placed at its .disposal by Con
gress wvill be along lines that are pius
sible of ci mnintuing when once the
right agent is found. They are gra.i
ually spreading uver the ci umnry, the
high wind:- that recently v'isited the
lo wer cotto n belt iof the so uth ws'
being responsie f 'r si m;e uf ,the m:i
gration, their uwn efffiris acchnt2:t
fr the rest. Fire is the agent that vp
to this time has been found mist cf
fective. It is utilized by consumi:,
the affected sunares as they fall from~i
the plant. thus destri ying all of th:
generation . f weevils and fortifying
the grower against the :uroads ni a
new one in the spring. It is by co
operation with the farmers of Texas
and Louisiana that the department
hpes to win the fight against the pest.
and if even partial success attends
their efforts the quarter of a million
dollars will have been well expended.
and they can with safety call on the
treaurv of the United States for any
thin-g additional that may be reqluired
toi c' miplete their work.
RETURNED TO LIFE.
Resurrected Man Tells of the Happi
n,ss of Heaven.
The days of n*racles are nlot pas
ed, according to those H-miliar v:i
the death and return to life of Ulyse'!
S. Roberts. a cigarmaker and ni::i
can. l1e hadl been atTicted with con
upti'.n i,.r n:early a y'ear. .-ay
arrisburg. li!. special to the Phil
adelphia Ree rd. Two weeks ago i
condi(in bc'amie wo'rse, and a e
days later he called his wvife and to:
hem good-bye, told them of the far:
approaching end. In the presence o
the family, his pastor, Rev. A. S.
Maxey, of the First Methodist Epis
copa chrch,of his ity Attrne
R. S. Marsh. his family physician and
number of relatives, he died. An un
dertakes was called. Twelve hours had
elapsed since the spirit had left the
body, when suddenly the figure lying
on -.he cot smiled and opened its eyes.
Mr. Roberts then spoke and asked
them how long he had been gone, and,
when told, he said:
"That's strange; it seems to me I
have been gone 1.ooo years. I have
been in heaven and I have been hap
He told of his meeting his father,
who had long preceded him and other
relatives and friends. Many ques
tions were asked by the pastor, Rev.
A. S. Maxey. concerning heaven and.
the description given by him was
Bit." said he. "I have just seven;
days to remain on earth when I will
leave you until we meet up yonder."
When asked by Rev. 'Maxey as to
how Jesus appeared he said he was
m t ahvays happy. except at tines
when he beheld thi earth :teeped in
sii. R, bert- expres:e( a de-ire to re
wrn i, neavn. an(! r:e z.. his pred'A
Z;.m.n Ihe sieveh:1 dlay. a:ni at the
verv htur n4ued lie a dai ctlie.
Best Reredy For Constipation.
"Thle : remiedy I- 'r e ! n pat:*
I ever used iS Chamberlain'- St-mach
and Liver Tablets." says Mr. 1-'.li I),t
ler of Frankville N. Y. "They act
gently and witrnout any unpleasant
effect. and leave the bowels in a per
fectlv natural conditi(,n." S-ld by
Smith Drug Co.. Newberry and Pr11
perity Drug Co., Prosperity.
Creat New Offe
United States I
Contest Opened Ja
For the exact, or the nearest to
of Cotton received at all Unit
Ist, 1904, both inclusive.
For the next nearest estimate-.
For the next nearest estimate....
For the 5 next nearest estimate,
For the I 0 next nearest estimate
For the 20 next nearest estimate
For the 50 next nearest estimate
For the 100 next nearest estimat(
Additional Offers for Besi
Made During Different
of the Contest.
For convenience the time of the col
test is divided into estimates receive
by The Constitution during four p
riods-the first period covering froi
the beginning of contest to Februar
10, 1904; second period, from Febr1
ary 10 to March 1, 1904; thIrd perios
March 1 to 20; fourth period, Marc
20 to April 20, 1904. We will gis
the best estimate received durir
each period (in addition to whatevi
other prize it may take, or if it tall
no prize at all), the sum of $125.00.
The tour 'prizes thus ofrered a
$125.00 each amount to-.
Conditions of Sendini
Subject to the usual condi
bs now on. Attention is called tc
1. Send $1.00 for The Week
,2. Send 50 cents for The
3. Send $1.25 for The We
TIMATES in the contest-that is,
4. Send 50 cents for ONE
SCRIPTIOn'. Such a remi_ttance
make a number of estimates on
warded at the same time estimat
without subscriptions, the sender
fered for only ten estimates in one
CEIVED WITHOUT SUBSCRIPT
PER ITSELF IS AN ACKNOWL
5. The money and the subs
The estimate, the money and the
Secretary Hester's F
COTTON SEASON. 0
- 898-99--------------- -.
The figures above are certified by S
furnish the oflicial figures to decidet
Address All Orders to
Why Use Many Words to Ten You That
The Best *
s Chemical Co.
They have the Best Facilities, use the Best Materals,
and maintain the highest reputation for the
evenhess and value of their Ftftlr.
Me Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.
CHARLESTON, S. C.
WhisJCey I Morphine - C*garette _ _ All Cr g and Tobacco
Habit, - Habit Iabit. . HabIts
Cured by Keeley Institute of South Carolina
j-'29 L.dy St. Pt. Co. Box 7. C0!.ro;a, S. C. Conti,!-rnt-al -01--;~: .6eik~ l ted,
r Upon Receipts of Cotton at All
Ports From September Ist, 1903,
st, 1904, Both Incusive.
n. 18th, 1904, Closes April 20th, 1904.
VISION OF PRIZES.
the exact, estimate of the total number of Bales
ad States ports from September I st, 1903, to May
........... ........................................$8 2.500-00
. ........................................ ... ...---- - 1-000.00
$25.00 each .----------.-------.................-12--00
is, 12.50 each- - - -- --................ 125.00
9, 10.00 each --..................................... 20000
, 5.00 each -----..................................... 250P
is 3.00 each.....i.....................................___00._____
4 500baleseithe way f th0e.ac
PerlOsFSc-n-For distribution' among
I those estimates (not taking any of
the above 188 prizes con notshain
500 bathes eith0rbalesoeither exact
ofteeatfigures...... .. .....---..,000.00
it in seoF aitrtieon an prz ,simt h
~~ Estihoteseitimhiss (ot Reeingtan ontst
thflowngsgmr th conditionsoltofe)cm
ly Cnstiuti ngya n withit 1,00baEs EiTE inteaytet
Sun- ot one yera wthe xa t Ogur ES...... .. the ,o00.00
ekJy Constitutfi tieon anSuny Sotpoh n ern sedTWmat E
Estimates inr The osituis n antePortRe esun oth.t
EosTA asledeua in the c onstItuio eacU DO eek, WANT conSt
tereypy forin pumrivly of ending siae I o iht
i Constis,io yone myseand TH E MAESTMATE EVER $1.0 os.
may fowrth oemya with i plndSiMAT diont thein cofs
ordr.y ostaio card receip South boneyran sentd ETWOTES R
IONS estmae subrpTeionstitutonderd ather frA The THnn South
EDis N THAT,yo myOUndR EIEMATE S EENRECEVEY AN.0 Ior
cription and the estimate must come in the same envelope every time.
subscription go together. THIS RULE IS POSITIVE.
igures Covering the Period of the Contest.
TOTAL PORT RECEIPTS. BAL.ES IN COTTON CROP.
foloigyar The period cove:ed byti not th. j'1O thb pr. t Cot t Is
intes. given only as a:, additional aid to an intelli
..... 8,333,862-..--. ---... ---... ----------------------- 1 , 199,994
. 934 ...................7,9 ,5.----------------.----------- ,274,840
..-. 6,843,134------ .-.--.- ----. -------------------- 10,383,422
-.... 6,346,312--. . . . ..--------. .-------------------- 9,436,416
..... 7 218,179.------------- ..---------. --------------- 10,680,680
.-. 7. 37 .627..-.---------------------------. ------.. .. 10,727,559
ecretary Henry G. Hester, of the New Orleans Cotton Exchange, who will
m=H- ATLNT A CONSTITUTION.. Atlanta. Ca.