Newspaper Page Text
VOL. XLII. NO. 121 NEWBERRY. S. C.. TUESDAY OCTOBER 17, 1905. TWICE A WEEK. $150 YEAR
WAR ON THE MOSQUITO.
Cause of Malaria and Yellow Fever
How they Propagate-Interest
ing Lecture by Dr. W. G.
Everybody would be delighted to be
rid of the m6squito. How to be rid
of him !has long been the puzzling
question. Dr. Houseal says it should
be made a misdemeanor for anyone to
have the pestiferous little singer on
his premises. That it causes the ma
laria which is prevalent in many sec
tions and is generally a very danger
ous thing not to speak of the annoy
ance which it gives those who want
to sleep. We prin't below a full re
-port of a lecture delivered by Dr.
Houseal before the student body of
Newbery college on last Thursday
morning on the mosquito. -It is an
-interesting exegesis of the history,
life and habits of the mosquito and
we. feel sure it will be read with in
terest. Dr. Houseal said in part:
It is now known that mosquitoes
are culpable in spreading several dis
eases, viz- Elephantiasis, Filaria san
guinis homino, malaria and yellow fe
ver. And recently Blanchard 1has pro
duced strong arguments to prove that
Iep-osy is spread by them.
In order to get into this subject
thoroughly it is necessary to know
something of the history of this im
In 1717 Lancisi of Rome held that
marsh lands are noxious because of
the emanations coming from them,
which he divided into inorganic and
organic. By organic he means 'the
mumerous insects which develop in
-marshes, the mosquito especially. In
1880 Manson showed the connection
tetween Elephantiasis. and mosqui
toes. In the discovery by Lavaran in
x88o of the malarial parasite, which
causes the disease malaria, lay the
Promie of the most potent gift the
laboratory had ever given to mankind
-the destruction of the disease mala
ria. In 1883 King, of Washington, at
tracted attention by arguing the con
nection of mosquitoes with malaria.
os,an Engiish army surgeon, in
india made possible the promise that
lay in the discovery of Lavaran-the
banishment of malaria from the earth.
From 1895 to 1899 he demonstrated
by the most rigid scientific experi
ment t.hat malaria is contracted alone
by the sting of the mosquito. About
the same time Bignani 'of Rome dem
onstratred by many rigid experiments
to the entire satisfaction of the scien
tific world that malaria is contracted
-alone by inoculation through the bitce
of the mosquito.
In 1881 Finley suggested the rela
tion between the mosquito and yellow
fever. In 19oo the Amenician com
mission composed of Drs. Reed, Car
roll, Lazier and Agramonte was sent
by 'the American government to Ha
vana, Cub~a, to study yellow fever and
demonstrrated that yellow fever is
contracted only by the bite of the
mosquito, stegomyia fascita. Two of
these doctors offered themselves vol
untarily for the experiment. Dr.
Lazier took the disease and lost his
life, becoming a martyr to science.
Up to this ti-me three hundred kinds
of mosquitoes have been discovered
Thirty-six kinds have been found in
North America, of these the culex
genus is most numerous, next the
anopheles, 5 kinds, and the stegomyia
'hree kinids. The anopheles is
'the kind that. spreads malaria. The
word anopheles if from the Greek
which means injurious. The anophe
les may exist and not necessarily ma
laria. The insect must be infected by
rhe malarial parasite, but no anopheles
no malaria. The anophele; is readily
distinguished from any other variety.
It is mottled having spo:s on its
wings and sits on the wall with its
body to the wall at an angle between
45 degrees and a right angle. Other
varieties sit with t.he body paral-lel to
The malarial parasites of Lavaran
belong to a numerous class of beings
that are developed in the red blood
cells of many animals. They are known
to exist in the red blood cells of birds,
reptiles, frogs and mammals. The
life 'history of these parasites is very
complicated. Taking the best known
of these 'beings, the parasites of the
worm blooded animals, we know they
have two cycles of existence-one cy
cle is completed in the red blood cells
and the other in the tissues of an in
sect. The parasites of Texas Fever
of cattle live in the red blood celss of
cattle; from these they pass into a pe
culiar kind of tick, then into the prog
eny of the mother tick; these biting
healthy cattle communica te the infec
In an analogous way the anopheles
mosquito takes the malarial parasite
from the blood cells of man, it com
pletes a cycle of existence in the 'Eis
sue of the mosquito and healthiy hu
man beings are inoculated with -mala
ria by the bite of the infected insect.
The proposition may be stated with
out furcher argument that an insect
so injurious should be exterminated.
For such efforts to be attended
with success we should know all about
the .habits of the mosquito and the
conditions of its existence.
We must know first that it propa
gates its species in water alone. This
fact gives definite information of the
whereabouts of its breeding places.
The female mosquito deposits her
eggs four hundred to five hundred
at one time, then come the larvae or
wigglers, then the pupae, then the
winged mosquito. From twelve to
twenty-five days after the deposit of
eggs comes the full fledged mosquito,
the anopheles in twenty-five days.
Some species propagate most ac
tively in offensive water. Water is se
lected containing decomposing or
ganic matter, such a,s spoiled fish or
any kind of meat or in sewage water,
other kinds prefer small quantities of
fresh' water in which to deposit their
eggs. The anopheles belongs to this
class. This kind deposits its eggs in
small depressions in the earth filled
with water, in small ponds covered
with green scum, in pockets of water,
in marshes and along running
streams. They also. deposit in the
most unsuspected places, in.the crotch
of trees, in a sagging gutter that :does
not empty perfectly, in the chicken
trough when the water is not changed
often, in rain barrels, in any 'wooden
or metal utensil that is left sitting
around to be filled with rain water, an
old discarded cooking utensil or an
empty .fruit or meat can.
How long is the life of the mosquito
is a disputed point. The general im
pression is that it lives tbut a few days,
that the daughter mosquito sucks
blood but once and deposits 'her eggs
and dies. The male mosquito is not a
blood sucker, 'he is a vegetarian. The.
mosquito 'has been confined in a cage
and kept alive for two months on
sugar water. How much loi'ger would
the insect live if allowed to go and
come as it pleased and allowed to se
lect its own food?
The female mosquito hibernates.
Wihen the cool evenings come she
seeks a place of refuge in such places
as barns, stables, caves, cracks of
stumps, hollow 'trees and our dwelling
houses. This explains why we have
more 'malaria in the fall than any oth
In the dormant 'hibernating state
the mosquito lives the winter through,
at least, enough survive the winter to
deposit eggs in the spring and rear
a new crop of mosquitoes.
Larvae found in blocks of ice will
become act-ive again and eggs having
lain on dry land for months will
hatch out mosquitoes when water is
Another much discussed question
is how far will the mosqjuito 'fly? The
crews of pilot boats lying four miles
frorn t'he Jersey shore sometimes be
toes. They are of the culex solicitans
or Atlantic Coast striped legged mos- I
quitoes which breed in salt water
marshes. They are carried far on the
wings of the wind 'Jhe anopheles . I
never found far from home, no mos- S
quito willingly -goes far from home. t
Ross states 'that he never found I
anophc es mc.e than on hundred and
fifty yards from home. They never d
fly high from the ground. This ex
plains the fact long known, Vhat those i
who sleep up stairs are not so apt to c
.have chills and fever. C
They may be carried far in R. R. d
trains, on ships and in farmers loads t
of hay from country to 'town and in c
this way spread disease. They will
not live when packed -in clothing in v
trunks more than thirty hours. So it c
would be useless to fumigate baggage, n
from a yellow fever district, two days
The way .to rid the world of yellow e
fever .is to exterminate 'the stegomyia t
fascita. Thie ways to destroy malaria I
ist. To protect our dwelling houses
from mosquitoes by screens and if I
necessary sleep under mosquito nets. g
2nd. To wage an active, earnest p
warfare against the pest. Drain pools, t
ponds and marshes; and be careful s
that no receptacles 'to hold water are N
left about the premises. And in the C
malarial season w1hen pools and ponds k
cannot be conveniently drained to use fi
petroleum oil sprinkled upon them,
the crude oil is best, one pint to every
diameter of twenty feet. The larva, I
come to the surface every two minutes t<
to get air and the oil is sucked into X
t.he delicate respiratory apparatus and
kills the larvae, in a pond or pool it h
is said, in twenty minutes. The oil a
should be used every two weeks.
Every case of malaria should be re
ported to the health authorities and s
screening should be required so that r
mosquitoes would not become infect
Every case of malaria should -have a
thoroughi treatment with quinine so
that every malarial parasite in the
blood is destroyed.
The time will come when it will be a
misdemeanor to have 'mosquitoes r
breeding on one's premises. It is so u
now in some cities of the world. Such
a law exists, I am told, in Habana
and has accomplished wonderful re-e
sults. Previous to 1900 when the U. c
S. governmenfl took 'charge of t-he
city the average death rate for thes
preceding ten years from yellow fever.
was 462 annually.. In 1901 there were n
only five. In 1901 there were 350
cases of malaria. In the first fouf
months of 1902 there had occurred t<
only twenty-six cases of malaria. t
Tihen is it not well to heed the i2
teaching of scientific and practical ex
perience? And inaugurate a war of C
extermination upon the mosquito and v
rid the world of one of its greatest I
New Telephone Line. t1
The new telephone line which 'has
been 'talked of for a long time leading d
out about 8 1-2 miles to the residence
of Dr. W. E. Lake 'has 'been abouth
completed and will be ready for use
in a very short time. This line was
built largely by Dr. Wv. E. Lake and h
Mr. R. L. Schumpert and Rev. H. W.
Whitaker who will have phones in
their houses. Mr. I. H. Boulware will d
also have a phone. We are glad to I
see this enterprise on the part of these
progressive farmers. Tihie telephone e
and free delivery of mail in the rural I
districts are doing much to make
country li-fe not only pleasant but de- a
sirable. Just one other thing is neces
sary and that is better public high- r
ways. These will come in time and
when they do then you will see the
people who have business in the cit- i
jes seeking country homes. If we had I
a phone system out toward the Cald- v.
well community we would be in a
speaking distance of almost the en- c
The Diary of Mr. Noah.
qew York Sun.
February 17.-Star:ed to work.
Prouble with Mrs. Noah from the
,ery first jump. Always the. way.
;he wants a door in the back end of
he ark. I stand firm for a window.
shall not give in.
February 18.-Compromised-on a
February 23.-More trouble. Walk
rig delegate of the building trades
ame around and ordered all hands
ff 'che job, said one of the caulkers
idn't have a union card. A few of
he animals had arrived. They're out
n a sympathetic strike.
February 24.-Had a private inter
iew with walking delegate. Strike
alled off. Find walking delegates get
iore expensive every year.
February 25-Another interruption.
olicitor for Sca.ds and Scandals drop
d in this morning. Wan-ted five
flents for a write up. Told him to go.
'hen he asked insinuatingly if I
adnft been leading a double life.
'old .him only once. That was when
ate too many green peaches. Just
etting ready to kick him off the
remises when he mentioned a cer
iin litfle matter; said it would make
picy reading in the next issue of
lillage Venom. Had forgotten about
ertain Little Matter. Decided not to
ick solicitor. Also decided to pay
ve talents -for writre up.
February 28.-Launching today.
Lrk to be christened the Marjory J.
prefer calling her the Tody Hamil
>n, but wife favors a ladylike name.
March 16.-Animals coming in. Two
ippopotamusses and one pair of red
nts arrived t-his afternoon.
March 30.-Found a fresh egg in
ie dodo-bird's nest. Dodo hen said
he was laying up something for a
iiny day. Have an idea this saying
April 8.-Weather bureau predicas
dry spring. Friends tell me it's
)olish to be figuring on so much rain.
!uery: Can it be possible I'm on the
April 9.- -Fair and warmer. My pri
ate forecast calls for storms tomor-'
>w. Feel .mighty dubious. If sched
le goes wrong M'rs, Noah will never
:t us hear the end of it.
April 1o.-6:3o a. m.-Clear weath
r. Feel more dubious. 11 a. i.
louding up to windward. Easier in
iy mind. 4:30 p. m.-B-risk shbowers
nice noon. Tra la tla!
April rx.-Still rasining. I guess
iaybe I ain't the real thing.
April 2.-Steady rains since last
~port. Roof of the weather observa
ry under water. Weather observa
>ry issued its last bulletin this morn
ig: "Continued fair weather."
.April 21.-Everything under water.
lur party apparenrly the only sur
ivors. All of wife's relatives lost.
tan ill wind, etc.
April 22.-Coursing south today we
ighted the oldest citizen on top of
le Park. Row 'building flag staff.
eemed to be out of Ihis head. As we
rew alongside I heard him saying.
Tglk about your early spring fres
et, you may rhink this is pretty big
ut I remember in the spring of .oo58"
-Just then a streak of lightning 'hit
im and he shriveled up like a spider
1 a hot skillet.
April 23.-Shem reports several ad
itions to the red ant family. Cute
ttle cusses, Shem says.
April 24.-No change in tche weath
r. Spent the day reading Mary Jane
lolmes' "Tempest and Sunshine."
Lppropriate. but pretty thin stuff for
April 25.-Amateur minstrels last
tight. I was the middle man. Ja
'het got "if a dandy; asked me
When is a door not a door? WXihen
Csa jar." A jar. see? made a hir,
ut seems :o me T've heard it some
there before. Mighty few jokes now
days. Japhet made a first-class act
r, but his 'brother was a Ham.
April 2...-.More rerd ants. All rar
suicide bets are off on red ants.
April 28.-Wife objects to my
smoking on board. Says a pipe
smells up the whole place. Positive
ly refused to quit.- Wifeg etting en
tirely too bossy since she took up
with the new owman idea.
April 29.-No sleep. Wife fussed
all night. 2 p. m.-Decided to give
up cmoking in the ark. Think maybe
it affects my heart, anyhow.
April 30.-Who said the leopard
couldn't change its spots? It's always
changing 'em-most restless brute on
board. Says the red ants bother him.
General complaint on this score. And
not a speck of insect powder on
board! And no ant eater!
May 1.-Only time I ever remember
thef irst of the month without a lot
of bill collectors around. Silver lin
ings to these clouds all right.
May 6.-Row today. Shem's wife
started it, trying to make burnt-wood
designs on the eephant. Advised her
to work on the red ants in the ice box.
There's about 2,000,000 of them that
we could spare and still have plenty.
May 8.-Forgot to say that it's nev
er missed a day raining. Rain busi
ness beginning to be overdone. Noth
ng else happening.
May 15.-Fierce storm. Everybody
seasick. I stood it for a while but
after dinner I gave up too. Compelled
to batter down the hatches in the af
ternoon. All hands thrown together
informally and nobody appeared to
hold anything back. Humpty Jock
son, the camel, seemed worse off than
anybody. Honestly, at times I
thonght that camel was trying to turn
'himself wrong side out. I told him if
he tasted anything slick in his throat
to swallow it back quick, it would be
his liver. Calmer toward evening.
Memo.-In my magazine article on
the voyage shall head this chaptir,
"And the Ark was Pitched Within
May io.-Reading up on natural
history, I find the camel has seven
stomachs. No wonder Humpty Jack
son suffered yesterday. Look how i
felt, and me with only one.
May 20.-Hurrah? Clearing up at
last. Sun out today for about five
minutes. Shem went to bed suffering
from nervous prostration, and Ham
has his jobwbos&.f the red ant de
partment. Ham says it's the 'hardest
work 'he ever tackled.
May 22.-Water going down. 'I'm
afraid we're in for a malarial summer,
even after the roads dry off.
May 29.-Senet out the raven today
tfind a real estate agent if possible.
Am in them arket for a good, high,
June 1.-Nothing doing with the
raven. Guess he decide-d not to come
back on account of the ants. Can't
blame him-like to get away myself.
June 3.-No raven yet. Send out
the dove. Doves may make a better
advance agent for this floating insect
emporium. Wife inclined to be snap
ps-h-says I ought to have known to
send out a dove in the first place.
June 6-Dove back oday, bringing
handbill announcing a bargain sale of
dry goods, slightly damaged by wa
ter. Mrs. N. and the boy's wives all
worked up at the prospect of getting
in on it. Dove meant well, I guess,
but I can see mighty well this selec
tion of reading matter is going to cost
me some money. Shem, Ham and
Jap'het feel the same way.
The express company hauled over
ab&out three loads of jugs one day last
week. Capt. Langford explained the
large amount that day by the fact that
the supply for the day before missed
connection in Columbia.
M\r. A. T. Brown is nominated for
nmayor in another column.
It is getting time for the city
democracy to meet and provide for