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CARE OF THE BABY
nt Methods Employed b:
s the World over-Cus
s of Uncivilized Peoples.
ri Coupin, a French anthropol
who has been making an ex
veg4udy of the- curiosilties of thi
an race, has gathered together
e amount of entertaining materia
cerning the different ways that th<
ople of savage and .civilized nation
y and clothe their babies..
lie finds that in general *he lot o
der infancy is anything but envi
le amkg savages. Often the chil<
a prisoner from the time of hi
Irt ;iI he is turned loose at creep
ing or swalking age **o look after him
self. For in his early !babyhood he i
fastened into a cradle, usually mad
of wood, which is as hard and narro
as a coffin.
The inhabitants of Manchuria ani
the Almerican Apaches, for .instance
have the vaguest notions about th
advantage of exercises for younj
babies. They crowd the infant into
narrow cradle with quantities of clo-d
and tie it in with cords in such a wa:
that 'tis -a 'wonder it does not becom
deformed. Nor is it :any better lucl
to be born a Lapp baby, for this lit
tle one is bound intO a cradle made o
hollowed twood, cut to -a point at eac
end-and lined with moss. The mothe
carries this 'vith 'her everywhere, whe:
she isteps, she hangs it to a branc1
or if there are no trees near, sh
sticks :it up in the snow.
-The savage woman of Australia a]
ways carries her -tiny 'baby in- a bas
ket.*. When the child is older he i
placed on his mother's shouldei
where he keeps his position by hold
-ing- on 'her head. Most of the Aus
tralian -women are 'fond r6 Their chil
dren, sometim6s, indeed, they shoi
-their affection by eating them.'
Among civilized nations -che cloth
ing of the newly -born 'has preocctl
pied the -people of all tinei, .and fror
-theIr reflections upon this subjec
"have Yesulted -the -strangest and mos
anti-hygienic garments imaginabl,
Except among 'the Spartans, who ieJ
~their 6hildren naked to develop nat
'urally, without restraint, in order tha
-they might 'become beautiful adoles
-cents, what seems to 'have in-tereste
the 'ancients most was an a-nxiety t
* urnish a guard for the weak limb
:an frail 'body -of infancy. 11 all chil
dren had 'been well forged, 'or i'f al
'peoples, like the Spartans, had expos
-ed upon Taygetus all the newly bor:
'he were ill shaped, 'this idea 'proba
bly w-ould no>t 'have arisen. Unhapp
ly, badly formed infai ts are not
-rarity, and i 'is almost natural tha
our ancestors shou.ld have thought c
-mdartyrizing babies 'in order to giv
-hem stra'ight limbs -and deep chests
If -this ,or,thopedic met-hod 'had lye
applied to the deformed babies onli
it would "not 'have been so ~bad. Bu
this didn't happen. When they saa
the eifects of rickets ibecoming genera
.du'ring the course of the second yeat
-deforming the thorax, the 'limbs, an
-the ver,tebral column, 'no warning a
these disasters having 'occurred a
birth, they became certain that suc9
deformhiries were the restilt of bas
~methods o'f treatment. They declare<
that the deformity could not 'have re
suited if thei child had 'been dresse
from birth in such a way that its bod
-was kept straight.
There was exhibited at the exposi
tion of 1899 a curious statuet<te of ter
racotta, moulded in the form of -
sheath, its head being covered withi
little hood, wearing about its neck1
small disk called a "bulla." This is
precious -document, which was .fouma
at Vi'terbo; it shows an undeniabli
mnethod of the Romans for the swad
' dling of babies. Among them a chil<
was plunged into a Ibath as soon a
it was -born. Then it 'was wrapped ii
'r linen cloth, 'bound on 'by a ribbonl
Thus it was incased tightly from heat
to.'foot, care being taken that i'rs arms
'were imprisoned. Little by little thes<
mnem'bers -were given freedom, then th<
feet, then the legs.
.In France in the middle ages chil
dren 'were 's-ill swaddled after t'h
Roman met-hod. The baby was firs
wrapped up in a piece of cloth. Among
the rich -this was linen-but one mnus
remember that at this time a liner
shirt was a luxury, even for the rich
-More often they swaddled the newly
'born in wool. About 'The s'waddling
clothes they frapped 'bandages, some
times in a way as curious as tha
'wh:ha f itaeenhcnry 'sculpture o:
L:r' Dame a: i'aris di%plays.
In the evghte:nth century a Corsi
--an baby and as vcll a child of Van
clkse were kound up neatly from the
arnpiLs to the feet. having the hand.
free-a point which in itself was an
I evidence of progress. On the other
-hand, the Bretons. Parisians, and the
inhabitants of Luxembourg, 'whether
poor or rich, had the baby's arms con
scientioUsly rolled tip in all kinds of
covers: and if the swaddling in this
case was less tight the imprisonment
was no' less complete, for the un
happy child was reduced to immobili
- Under these circumstances it is not
I at all astonishing to see the consid
a erable deformities -from which chil
- dren have suffered up to our century.
- Today the swaddling clothes, thanks
to the doccors. who, more often than
formerly, are interested in 'the dress
e ing of the newly born. cover and pro
tect infants without torturing them.
I One must also thank J. J.. Rossean.
, who preached strongly against The
E fashion of tight swaddling clothes.
To most people bands many yards
a long, which were adorned with em
' broideries among the rich and with
7 coarse stuff among the poor and which
a surrounded and "sustained" the bodies
of infants, are things of the past.
- Yet from -cime to time in the back
f 1ward provinces one still Finds a kind
I of corset used, with or without whale
r :bones, laced up the back and drawn
11 tight to keep the baby's body straight.
But its use is becoming less and less
e frequen:t, and w-e may hope that wi-ch
the progress of education this pTac
- tice will disappear completely. Oth
- erwise the swaddling clothes are made
s much the same the world over at the
present day. The child's head is cov
- .ered with a three piece -Ibonne-c, mad%.
- large enough not to squeeze it anid
- fastened by two ties under the chin.
It is especially upon the baby's head
that -the slightest compression is dan
gerous. After the child's birch the
- bones are still soft, and The slightest
pressure is likely to cause deformity,
t whidh may result in idiocy 'The Car
ibes, who observe the unfortunate
custom of shaping the heads of their
children, are swarming with idots. In
1834S~ Achilles Foville, a specialist in
tj.insanit y, had 'his attention led into
this direction by noticing how many~
didiots had a circular depression about
' the head. The depression was caus
sed by a bandage which it was cus
~ tomary at the tirne to bind about the
'heads of 'in:fants. At Toulous-e, at this
same epoch. Delehaye verified This
-In Ettrope today the child is still
-swaddled, Ibut' in place, of the old fas'h
ioned bands which kept the garments
t on safety pins are used. Usually the
arms are friee, and -the legs while :cov
e ered, still enjoy a certain amounit of
-freedom. ITihe baby of Lorraine has
''additional comfort, for a little enshion
is fascened on 'its ~back, so that when
tfit is put down 'by its nurse it always
v'has a little 'bed to lie on.
1 ' There are various modifications of
the present European fashion. T'he
Swiss baby, Ifor' example, does not
have its arms free, and the baby o:
t .lower Charante is so wrapped that
only :its righit arm is free, in order
'Tat it may not become left handed. In
La Creuse a short strap is 'bound about
the upper and the lower part of the
body, 'hindering- thus every move
~'ment of the arms and legs. In the
lower ?yrenees, where moth ers. have
to cross fields and mountains with
their babies, to the clothing of the
nursling is 'added a kind of 'sack, fur
nished with thongs which fas'ten to the
woman's shoulders, so that she will
not be hindered in 'her *movements 'by
the child which she carries.
SFormerly in the Basque cointries
the c'hild was placed in a linen 'sack,
which was hung upon the wall like a
bundle. In La Vienne tihey were sat
isfied 'with a 'belt fastened under the
-childs arms. In La Gironde the meth
od was much more barbarous. A tree
trunk was hollowed out and its bot
tomn filled with straw and rags. When
t he child as placed in t'his instrument
of torture the weight of its body
came upon its arms and legs; thus the
shoulders were pushed up, the chest
deformed, and the legs bowed.
There are in France agents who
make a business of carrying infants to
nurses in the country, and of bring
ing nurses .to the towns to secure
places. The profession of these men
was in the years past less reputable;
they carried to the hospitals babies'
whose mothers did n'ot want them,
Wvay. either layig the children down
upon straw -in boxes or panniers, or
placing them upright, crowded close
to one another, in hampers. In Le
Poitou these agents carried the frail
lictle beings in a kind of saddlebags,
one in front of the shoulder and one
behind, without either protection from
the cold or any care. It has been
proved that only about 3 per cent of
these foundlings were saved.
M. Coupin agrees with M. Felix
Regnault *that the manner in which
civilized women carry their babies in
their arms is inferior to that of sav
age or half civilized peoples, who car
ry their children in such a way that
their own activities are not interfered
with. The French peasants, the Ar
menians, the Maronites and the Tat
ars leave their babies in the cradle,
tied in if necessary, while they work
in the fields. In Russia, however, the
mother is not separated from her ba
by. In white Russia, and among the
Ostiaks, she puts her child in a light
osier basket and carries this cradle
upon her back, well fastened with
Much preferable is the African cus
tom. IThe negress carries the baby
upon her back, but it is held firm by
means of a loin cloth and a piece of
cloth which is fastened in front of her
chest. She is always able to have her
baby with her, whether she is weeding,
grinding corn, or carrying a pitcher
1home from the well on her head. A
variety of this same custom obtains
among the Japanese, who have the
reputation of being the people who
give the most personal attention to
their children. The kimono which
they wear is a great advantage, since
it is so ample that by pushing aside
slightly the pieces which cross in
front of the chest there is made at th;
back a funnel shaped space in which
tihe -child is put; its head sticks out at
the top and its arms and legs are free.
This the French savant regards as the
ideal method of carrying a child, for
it keeps the baby warm and comfort
able and does not cause 'a waste of
time on the part of its nurse.
Farm containing 476 acres situated
in Union and Newberry counties, six
niles from Shelton (Sou. Ry.) and
seven miles .from Whitmire, (S. ,A.
L. Ry.). Nice home and five tenant
houses, barns, etc. Fine timber and
farm' lands. $1o.oo per acre. Further
information call or write,
Jos. E. Leach, Attorney,
Columbia, S. C.
The County Cotton Association will
meet at Newherry on Saturday, the
th of December, 1905, for the pur
pose of electing a president, secre
tary and treasurer. and three delega'tes
to the State Cotton Association, to 'oe
held in Columbia on the first Wednes
day 'in January, 1906.
R. T. C. Hunter.
NOTICE 0!F FINAL SETTLE
MENT AND DISCHARGE.
Notice is hereby gin. 'at the un
dersigned will make a finalI settlement
as Executors on the estate of Henry
Shealy, deceased, in the Probate
Court for Newberry county on the
1th day of December, 1905, at II
o'clock a. mn. A1l persons 4'iol-ding
claims against the said est.ate will
present te same duly attested by
said date and all persons indebted to
the said estate will make payment.
B. F. Sheaf'y,
J. A. Shealy,
33restosi ani Vestern Carolina Ry.
(Schedule in Effect April i6, 1905.)
.5 2. Daily.
Lv. Newberry. ..........1236 p. mn.
Ar. Laurens ........ .... 1.50 P.m
No. 2. Daily.
Lv. Laurens........... 1.5 0 IS p. m.
Ar. Greenwood ........... 2.46 p. mn.
Ar. Augusta............." 5.20 p. m .
Ar. Anderson ........... 7.10 p. mn.
No. 42. Daily.
li. Augusta....... . ......... .....2.35 p. mn.
Ar. A1endale........................... 4 30 p. mn.
Ar. Fairfax... ....................... 4.4! p. m.
Ar. Charleston......................... 7.40 p. mn.
r. Beaufort.......................... 6.2o p. m
r. Port Royal............. ...... 6.4 p. m1
A.r. savaunah........ ......... ... 6.4 p- m
Ar. waycross ..... ................. io.oo p. mn.
Ar. Tacksonville........................ .........
No. I. Daily.
Lv. Laurens.......................... 2.07 p. mn
Ar. Spartanbu-g.........---........- 3.20 p. in
No. 52. No. 87.
Daily. Ex. Sun.
Lv. Laurens............. 2.09 p. mn. 8.oo a.m.
Are. Grenil........25 p. i". 91.28. Oi *T
12th Car, Maki
Although Flour advance(
tomers the sarr
Best Patent, Gotton,
Best Half Patent, Cottc
While we are doing th
are also leading in Dry C
ing, Millinery, &c., &c.
goods, carefully selectE
Baltimore, and want evt
see for themselves and i
are headquarters. and thi
all kinds goods at very
pay $40.00 for Sewing IM
drop head $17.93, guarc
high tone, 12 stop Organ
Choice Western Seed (
Thousands of bargaim
Almost impossible to me
TIiB SOU?' .S GRE
on All Throu
Winter Tourist R
effect to all Fl
For full informati<
Routes, Etc., co
Bro oks Morgan,
Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent,
AIR - LINE -
NORTH - SOUTH
Two Daily Pullman Ves1
Between SOUTH an
The Best Rates and Roul
Via Richmond and wA
Norfolk and Steamne
N ashville, Memphie
Louis, Chicago, Nev
Points South and Southwi
and Jacksonville and a
PossiTIVELy THE SHoRt
WFor detailed information,
man reservations, etc., app?y
board Air Line Railway, or Jo
Passenger Agent, Columbia,
C. F. STEWART, As!
W. L BURROUGHS. Tray.]
ng 1.200 BbIs.
i we hold for our cus
ie old price.
e Flour business, we
Woods, Notions, Cloth
We are brim full of
d in New York and
:rybody to come and
ye convinced that we
2 proper place to buy
bottom prices. Why
achine? We sell good
mnteed; good Walnut
)ats, sacked 55 cents.
in our immense line.
ntion them all.
ATBST SYSTEM, '
edules on All
ates are now in
on as to Rates,
R. W. Hunt,
Division Pass. Agent,
Charleston, S. C.
- EAST -- WEST.
ibuled Limited Trains
d NEW YORK.
IG CAR SERVICE.
:e to all Eastern Cities
rashington, or via
s, Louisville, St.
rOrleans, and All
11l points In Florida
EST .. INE BETWEEN
rates, schedules, Pull
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s. W. Stewart. Traveling