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MR. GADSDEN TELLS
OF SOUTH'S PROBLEMS.
Has been to Europe to Study the Emi
grant at Home-Discusses Condi
tions, Prospects and Need of
His Suggested Col
At the annual meeting of the State
Press association at the Isle of Palms,
Mr. P. H. Gadsden, president of the
Charleston Consolidated company,
who bad been sent by Mayor Rhett to
visit European countries and there to
make an investigation into immigra
tion. conditions, was called upon for
an address. Mr. Gasden had already
made a report to Mayor Rhett, which
was published in the Charleston pa
pers, but was not given much public
iLy throughout the state and the mem
bers of the State Press association
were very much pleased at his broad
ly intelligent discussion of the situ
ation. He told of the need of labor,
the need of immigration, the need of
more liberal labor laws and finally
of a population which will buy and
build up farm lands, which are now
being bought vety largely by negroes.
He spoke as follows:
"While the history of the immi
gration movement in this state is fair
ly wel known to you all, a brief re
view of it at this time will serve a
useful purpose. The question of im-i
migration was first brought to the at-]
tention of the public of this state by
Mr. D. C. Heyward, then a candidate
for governor; subsequently, in Janu
ary, 1904, Gov. Heyward, in his an
nual message to the general assembly,
developed his ideas as to immigration.
"By reference to that message it
will be <seen that the recommenda
tion of the governor to organize an
immigration bureau in this state was
based almost entirely upon the idea
that such a bureau when established
was to devote itself to the introduc
tion into the state of home-seeker
and settlers. Following. the recommen
dation of the governor the general
assembly passed an act which vas ap
proved on Feb. 3, 1904, establishing
a department of immigration and pro
viding for the appointment of a com
T missioner. Section 12 of this act
provides: 'That with regard to agri
cultural interests under this act, it
shall be the duty of the commission
er to secure those immigrants who
desire to pu'rehase homes, become
citizens of this state and build up ag
"The original purpose, therefore,
of the establishment of a bureau of
immigration in this state, and the pri
mary one, was to encourage home
seekers and settlers, and with that
end in view the bureau commenced its
ope1fations and succeeded in intro
ducing in different parts of the state
quite a number of Scotch and other
immigrants who became citizens of
the state and owners of land. This
* process was necessarily a slow one.
Just at this time the supply of labor
in the cotton mills of the state became
so scarce that the Cotton Mill asso
ciation of the state appointed a com
mittee to supplement such supply by
immigration from abroad and ap
proached the commissioner of
immigration with and offer to
supply the necessary funds to pre
pay the passage of cotton mill opera
tives that were needed in the state.
"Realizing that the introduction
of home-seekers and settlers, while a
natural and proper line, was necessar
ily a slow one and appreciating that
by the assistance of the cotton mills
a large number of immigrants could
be introduced into the state at one
time, the commissioner accepted the
offer of the cotton mills and went
abroad for this purpose.
The Wittekind's Trips.
"You are familiar with the two
trips of the Wittekind. Following the
arirval of the Wittekind on her last
trip, the business interest of the
State, through the South Carolina
branch of the Southern Industrial and
Immigration aissociation, determined
t-bat it was the part of wisdom to send
three commisioners to Europe for the
purpose of making a study of the con
ditions underlying the immigra.tion
question and placing the movement, if
possible. upon sound business princi
ples and on a permanent basis. The
commissioners appointed were Ex
Gov. D. C. Heyward, Commissioner E.
J. Watson and myself. Unfortunately
for the interests of the state and the
particular interest of the immig:a
tion question Gov. Heyward was pre
vented from going and Commission
er Watson and I went to Germany on
the 12th of April.
"Upon my return I filed a report
with the mavor of Charleston. setting
out the re%ults ot my inrestigaltion
and( givin" my co)uelus1ous on1 the cen
not attractive to them as compared
with the wage scale obtaining in oth
er parts of the United States, and see
ondly and equally important, we were
not prepared at this time to handle
white European labor. I further re
ported that, in my judgment, our ef
forts should be directed to the intro
duction of homeseekers and settlers,
and, with this end in view, we should
organize colonization companies to
provide for them and take care of
"From letters that I have received
since the publication of my report I
have been led to believe that what I
must consider as a cursory reading I
of the report has induced a number
of people in the state to believe that
the movement as a whole has been
a failt re and there is n-o longer any
use to continue the agitation of the
Why We Need Immigration.
"It is for this particular reason
that I am very glad of the opportun
ity to address you today. I came back
from Europe more impressed than ev
er with the importance to South Car
olina and the South of immigration.
It was inevitable, in any great econ
omic question as this, that there
should be disappointments and even
partial failure, but it has been the
experience of the world that the sound
and sane principles underlying a
movement such as this are discovered
and followed up to ultimate success.
"There has been no change in the
original purpose of the bureau or in
the discussion of the subject of immi
gration. It was originally projected
to provide home-seekers and settlers.
It was temporarily diverted in the
hope of speedily supplying help to
our textile interests. In my judgment
every dollar which has .been spent up
to this time on the introduction of
immigrants into this state has been
a good investment. In no other way
could the subject have been brought
to public attention and in no other
way could a subject of this magni
tude, which promises so much for the
future of the south, have been rec
ognized by the public as one of its
great economic questions.
"I think that Mr. Watson as com
missioner deserves great credit at our
hands in having kept the subject so
prominently before the public. The
arguments in favor of immigration
are both politiel and economit:'?Ai
tical, as offering the only permanent
solution of the negro question in the
"Ever since the war, we have re
sorted to one expedient after anoth
er in the vain hope of solving what
we have all been brought to consider
as the great negro question. Each one
has proved temporary and u.nsuecess
ful; the only permanent solution is
to make this a white man's country;
not necessarily to drive the negro out
of the country; for one, I think this
would be a mistake. I think that he
is a most desirable laborer and his
services should be encouraged. But in
order to remove the influence which
he exercises as being practically the
sole labor in the south, we must in
crease our white population. This is
impossible to accomplish satisfactory
by natural methods and therefore it
is imperative that we resort to the ar
tificial increase of our white popula
tion by immigration.
"The economic arguments sp rak
for themselves. The South, since the
war. has been rapidly increasing in
wealth. It has built up-a great cotton
mill industry and other industrial
enterprises and the result is that at
this time capital has outgrown labor.
The South at a Standstill.
"The two factors which go to make
up the prosperity of a country are
capital and labor. One must b.e as
plentiful as the other. Today we are
faced with the situation in the South
that there is in certain industries, a
signation for want of labor. At a
time when the cotton mills of this
state have never been more prosp~er
ous. there are less cotton mills under
construction than at any time in the
last ten years. This, to a certain ex
tent, is true in every department of
our industrial life.
"Our fanns have been largely
drawn upon for wvhite laibor by the
cotton mills and other industries at
the expense of the agricultural inter
ests of the state. One of the results of
this has been, as shown by t'he United
States census, that the nunter of ne
gro farmers and land holders in this
state has increased to a very consid
eFarms Bought by Negroes.
"If the present situation is allow
eto continue and the white men are
drawn from the farms by inducements
f reter rewards in induhttrial een
ter the results must inevitably be
hat 'ne farm la:nds will be owned by
hrounuutlle world inis shown that
the culy suecessful way to handle
;uch a question is by colonization, and
it is to this point that I particularly
ish to direct your attention.
'I think from now on the efforts
of our bureau should be directed to
the advertisement throughout the
.Korth and West and through the va
rious countries of Europe, of the ad
vantages which South Carolina of
fers for the small farmer and the
home seeker, both of climate and of
soil and that the business interest of
ur state should organize local colon
ization companies in every county.
'It is the province of the public
man and the statesman to arouse pub
lie interest on great economic ques
ion and it is equally the privilege
nd the duty of the business man to
marry them out to a successful issue
by placing themb upon sound -b.usi
"All of us realize that it is imprac
ticable to enlist the active 'and sus
tained interest of people in any great
public questien unless it can be plac
ed upon a safe business plane which
tolds out the promise of a substan
ial personal reward. It is this very
Eact which has made the colonization
plan so successful wherever tried
throughout the United States. It not
nly solves the public question of the
introduction of immigrants into the
state, bnt at the -zame tme it returns
to the partiee. organizing such a colo
aization company rewards which equ
al, if they do not surpass, those which
:Ntr be cbtained in other business en
What We Need-Population.
"Wha- we need in this state is pop
alation. With population, we would
have more railraods per square mile,
more cotton manufactories and more
industrial enterprises of every nature.
There are hundreds of thousands of
icres of goOnd licallhy fertile land
whic.h for years have not been plant
ed. My suggestion ic. that the busi
ess interests of esch county organ
ize a colonization company on a
small basis of say, from $10,000 to
20,000 capital and obtain options on
these lands at the lowest possible fi
Yure. In order to success, the option
price on such lands should :not ex
eed $10 per acre. I believe that a
majority of tbe;e lands can be ob
ttined at from $5 to $6 per acre. They
can be sold to a desirable celass of
immirants at from $15 to $20 peri
acre provided they are sold on easy
nd long terms.
The Plan Proposed.
'The colnnization company should
make a special effort to look after the
interests particularly of the first set.
ters and see that they are favorably
ocated and are given .every possible
opportunity to make money.. After
this is accomplished it will form a flu.
dees for a large movement in that
particular locality. Already suc.h a
movemet has been started in Aik~
en and Chester counties.
'It is proposed by some of us in
Charleston county, shortly to organ
ize a. colonization company with a
view of acquiring options on practi.
cally all of the low lands in Charles
ton county. The object of the com*
pany will be through the agency ol
the county drainage, commission, tc
thorouhly dr-ain such lands and make
them healthy. It is then purposed to
build houses on such lands and invitE
immigration. We feel satisfied that
such a company so organized and
operated on the plans which I havE
outlined, will make very handsome
eturns to the stockholders and at
the same time it will reclaim the ma*
laraia lands in Charleston and will
give the city of Charlestion one o
the riehest back counties which any
state of the United 'States en.Joys.
''As an illustration of the possi
bilities from such lands, I would call
your attention to the growth withir
recent years of the trucking interests
in Charleston county and vicinity
Within twenty years this interest,
from a very small beginning. ha~
grown to proportions where the aver
age for five years gives a crop worti
over two million dollars and the net
profit to the farmers of over nirn
hundred thousanid per annum.
The Drainage Work.
'The low lands to which I havE
just referred. are, when drained, equ
ally adapted for the trueking inter
ests as the lands in St. Andrew's 01
Tung's island. and there is no reasor
why such a plan if prosecuted on
sound business lines, should not prov
entirely successful. both from a pub
lic standpoint and from the stand
point of the individual stockholder.
" There is already a movement or
oot bracing eleven counties of this
state to reclaim their low, swampy
lands by drainage, and this will ulti
m;itelv be donle. But the pr-actical
qustinH lhas always aisen: what i
to h (doe with 5uch lands when they
address of this kind. to touch upoi
O1ne as)eet of tile question. however.
I whie.h it seems to m1e. deserves seri
ous considleration at the hands of us
all, and that is the necessity on our
part of preparing the conditions
throughout the state to make them at
tractive and satisfactory to the new
citizens whom we are inviting.
"While at this time we purpose to
devote our attention primarily to the
introduction of the home-seeker and
the farmer, still it is inevitable, that
as the movement grows, we will
'broaden out our lines and use our
best efforts to supplement the sup
ply of labor in the state.
Better Labor Laws Needed.
"Before we can expect to bring in
to this state any considerable number
of white labor, it is absolutely neces
sary, in my opinion, that our labor
laws should be made to conform to
a white man's country. Ever since the
establishment of this colony, we have
been dependent upon negro labor with
the result that all of our legislation
so far as farm labor conrteast are
concerned, has had reference to an
inferior class of workmen, and we
have enacted legislation which seem
ed to be required by the peculiar
class of labor which we had at hand.
"If we are earnest with this ques
tion of immigration, if we have firm
ly made up our minds that we pro
pose to adopt a course which in sue
ceeding generations will make this a
white man's country, if we are thor
oughly convinced of the propriety of
introducing white laborers in our
midst, the sooner we begin to set our
own house in order, the better.
"The conditions necessary for the
control of negro labor would not be
submitted to for a moment by white
Ilabor, aid the first step which we
should take, in my judgment, is to
reform our contract labor laws and
make them conform to states and
countries where white labor is invit
ed and prosperous.
'I was glad to see that this ques
tion had been brought up in the Unit
ed States court and that his honor,
Judge Brawley, had decided that the
act of South Carolina on this subject
was unconstitutional. What I would
like to see, however, is not that the
act should be nullified by the courts,
but that at the coming session of the
legislature, the general assembly of
South Carolina should repeal such act,
thereby authoritatively declaring the
public policy of this state on this sub
''You can accept it without reserva
tion that labor laws framed for an
inferior colored laibor can :not and
will not be acceptable to the liberty
loving and liberty-seeking white man.
''In conclusion, I would urge upon
you gentlemen of the State Presss
charged as you are with the great re
sponsibility of leading and largely
moulding the public opinion of this
state, to give the matter of immigra
tion your serious and patriotic con
sideration, as upon the attitude tak
en by you will~largely depend the an
swer t'o the question: Shall this for
all time be a white man's country?''
Southern. Farm Magazine of Balti
more for June.
Taxation for the support of local
schools is the fundamental principle
in American education, and any at
tempt to obscure that principle is
bound to introduce a dangerous can
ker into American education. Money
raised by local taxes for the support
of local schools is more likely to meet
the educational needs of the commun
ity better .than monsey raised in any
other way. Farmers of the country
can afford to give'no heed to the
specious arguments that, if made ef
fetive, will bind the farmers hand
and foot to a power in education and
consequently, a power over thes indi
vid:al that can only undermine the
rihts of tlie individual.
A Boston lawyer, who brought his
wit from his native Dublin, while
cross-examining the plaintiff in .a di
vorce trial, brought forth the follow
"You wish to divorce this woman
because she drinks?''
"Do you drink yourself?''
"That's my business!''-angrily.
Whereupon the unmoved lawyer
"Hiave you any other business?''
The undersigned will furnish a
Ifirst class barbecue at Forks school
houe on the 6th of July, and will be
nleased to have the publice take no
tiee and z':vernI themselves accord
nl. In addition to a first class din
ner futrther'O etert anent and amuse
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June 14, 1906.
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