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* DEEP FALL PLOWING AND *
* THE SEED BED. *
* * ;
******* + ** *****.
At I he commencement of the FaraneiV
Cooperative I )<}inons| ration
Work in the Southern States it was ]
found necessary to outline the fundamental
principles of good farming
?n?l to insist, thai. Mm tillers of the
soil should becyihe familiar with
them and practice them as a first '
utep in the betterment of farm life. We
have previously staled those first
principles, but possibly they should
be more fully explained.
Prepare a deep and thoroughly pul- I
veri/.ed seed bed, well drained; break
in the fall to a depth of H. 10, or 12
"inches, according to the soil, willi I
implements that will not bring loo 1
much of the subsoil |<? the surface. '
(Pile Ioregoing depths should he <
reached gradually.) <
The presence of heal, air, and moisture
is essential lo chemical and germ
action in the preparlion of planl food
in the soil. The depths to which these
penetrate the soil depend upon the
depth of |1k> plowing, provided the <
<-oil is well drained. There is no use t
in plowing down inlo a subsoil full
It lias been proved beyond (pies- i
tion tli.if the roots of plants penetrate ?
the soil deeper and feed deeper in I i
deeply plowed land. Thus, in general, ?*
it may he slated that when the soil is <
plowed .'t inches deep the plants have '
t inches of food; when plowed f? ?
inches deep, I hey have (i inches of r
food, and when plowed 10 inches 1
deep thc\ li;i\'e 10 inches of food. The (
fact that the bottom portions of (lie | s
plowed hind are tud as rich in avail- i i
able plant food ;is the top portions!'
shows the necessity of getting more > t
air and l:e;it down to them by deeper ^
Phe most essential condition for x
fertile soil is a constant snpplv of '
moislure, so thai a film of water can v
envelop the soil particles and absorb '
nulriliv elements. 'Phe hair roots }<
of plants drink this for nourishment. j .If
there is anv more than enongli to I
serve as films (or the soil particlcs j I
and capillary w ater, I here is too I
much and it should be drained olT.il
Pius can he determined by digging a s
hole 'JO inches deep. If there is sland- '
ing water in the bottoni of the hole, 4
it indicates too much water in the *
soil or subsoil. I
Pile capacity of a given soil to '
bold I'ibn and capillary moisture do- >
ponds upon how finely it is pnlveriz<'d
and upon (he amount of humus in t
it. I uplowcd lands retain but little j*
waier. thoroughly pulveri/.ed soil .'? ] 1
.indies deep can n??i store enough to j <
make a crop, j |
It! all Southern States there are!
evcr\ year periods of drought, some- j t
tunes not ?erions. but generally snf-. ?
tieienl l\ protracted to reduce the crop. ! i
Phe remedy for this i-. increased stor- J age
capacity for moisture. This can j I
be accomplished by deep and thorough ! tillage
a lid by filling the soil with,!
h'iiuu~ (partly decayed vegetation).! '
I he eltec! ot deep tillage has been I 1
explained. I he idled of humus is to ' I
gieatlx increase the storage capac.itv|*
"t soil- tor water and |o reduce cvap-I
"ration. A pouml of humus will store ' t
s ""! one-half tinies a- much j I
moisture as a pound of sand, and the' i
s.iiul will lo?e its water b\ evapora- I
'i"!l t'liee and one-halt times more j
rapidly than the humus. A .lay soil ! I
will store only about oiie-fonrt h as h
"1;"'i nioivture as humus. and will j
lo>e :i b\ evaporation twice as rapid-I
Plants u-o an enormous quantity '
ot water. An acre ot good corn will j
absorb and evaporate during its i
growth nearly 10 inches of water. 1
About t h ree-1 on rt lis of this amount
will lie required during the last seventy-live
days of its growth, or at the ;
rate ot J inches ot water a month, i1
I his i? in addition to evaporation!1
from the soil, which, even with the I
retarding influence of a dust, mulch. I:
will amount to several inches each j
month in midsummer. In case the)
hind is plowed only or ! inches]'
<leep. (hough thoroughly pulverized, it |'
will store an amount of moisture en-j1
tirely insnllicient to supply crop requirements
in any protracted drought.
I liese shallow ami generally poorly j
prepared seed beds are the principal
cause of the low corn yields in the 1
South, and they a fleet the cotton 1
yields similarly, but not so much, be- :
cause cotton is a more drought-resisting
plant than corn. If planting is
done at all, it is folly to prepare a
seed bed so shallow as to bring about
tlie almost total loss of the crop some
years and a reduced crop every year.
Many tanners plow or cultivate
their corn early a- deeplv as tliev i
break their land in preparing a seed!
bed : tlr- leaves no space for roots in !
the pulverized and aired soil. Kootsi
occupy a largo space. If all the roots
of a single vigorous cornstalk were
I>1 ;?<*<?<! end to cud tlic.v would reach
more Hum a mile, and if allowed by
the plowing they will fill the soil to
:i considerable depth and feed in all
portions of it.
The Root System of Corn.
At, the Wisconsin Agricultural Ex- ,
periment Station it was found that
when corn was .'J foot high the roots
had penetrated the soil for 2 feel and <
thoroughly occupied it. At maturity
the roots were I feet deep. A( this
lime the upper laterals were about
1 inches from the surface. ;
At the North Dakota Agricultural
Experiment Station the corn roots
liad penetrated a 1-2 feet deep and I
Hilly occupied the ground ninety days I
iTier planting. I
AI the Minnesota Agricultural Ex>eriment
Station I he corn roots had !
>enetrated 12 inches deep and had i
"I"end laterally 1-8 inches eighteen '
lavs after planting. 7n most portions i
>f the South nothing less than an
Much seed bed will insure <>ren a I
air corn crop, and 10 inches is safer. I
wine soils may rerpiire more. Prom
? to 8 inches of prcpartion for cot- ]
on coresponds to 8 nnd 10 inches for |
oru, so far as the requirements of <
he plant are concerned. <
What is Deep Plowing?
Plowing ,T. '1. r?. or 0 inches deep ,
s only common plowing. Tn our in- ,
:lructions nothing less than 8 inches
s considered "deep" plowing. We i
ire not advocating a single plowing
>f 8 inches in depth once in two or ,
hiee years, but tlie prcpartion of an j
l-inch seed bed thoroughly pulveriz'd
and filled with humus. Tt should
?e plowed and cross plowed to that '
lepth, or if cross plowing can not lie '
afelv done on account of hills (lion .
t should be plowed twice in the same ]
liicction and disked thoroughlv or
he smoothing harrow repeatedly used.
iVhen Should This Plowing be Done? '
Always plow in the fall before the 1
vintcr rains set in: the earlier after !
he first ..f October the better. Al- !
vays use a ever er..p of oats. bar- 1
ey. wheat. ,.r rye. If possible. Kverv '
?bservant farm, r na- noted tha; seeds .
rerminnlc more quickly and that '
bints grow more rapidly on fall '
nvaking. I'aM plowing renders more
hint food ready for use, while llie ^
reparation of the land in the fall
'.i\e> Work in the spring, when everv- '
hing on the farm is crowding. A '
'over crop is a net gain. It keeps the '
oil from washing, utilizes the plant
ood that otherwise might escape into 1
he air, and it adds humus. The soil 1
s improved by the crop and winter I
nazing is provided. In plowed lan<l '
lie plant food is less than in unplow- '
d land; more plant food may be pro- '
liice.l and more can be stored. In
:i-e a cover crop is used the loss of I
'lant food is slight. 1
An objection i- sometimes urged '
ha.t I all-plowed soil becomes saturat- 1
d with water during the winter and '
einains wetter and colder later in the '
pi inn that laud let; unbroken in the '
all. this i< true only upon land not
uilliciont I v drained and where the '
uvaking is shallow. Water passes
' 1*0111:h deep breaking readily, and 1
kvitli reasonable drainage it is ready
or planting earlier than lands brok- :
n iu the spring.
When land is nearly level and
liainatie poor, the soil should not be :
Ilal-broken. but left in ridges or nar- '
I'ow lands about "> or li feet wide. I
suitable for planting, with a dead 1
furrow h,'tween. This provides win!er
drainage and keeps 111 e pulverized 1
"UI ? '' I he water, which is im- :
I'ortant even i i' unbroken
Deepening the Soil.
I he ad\ ice to go down graduallv is
:i\en solely because the inexperienced
farmer may try to plow too deeply
the liist time and bring to the surface
too much of the subsoil. The best
plan is to double plow; that is, to
lollovv the breaking plow in the same '
?e.?oter (with sides removed) and go
ilown as deeply as desired. OeucraUy
I he disk plow may be >ent down 8 or
10 inches with impunity if the plowing
is done in the fall, ami especially
it I he land is plowed twice or more.
riiere is u<> qestion that breaking
:md pulverizing to a depth of 8 to 10
i>r 12 inches is economical. The cost
f breaking 10 inches deep when done
wuh a disk plow should not be more
I ban .Mi cents an acre in excess of
breaking (i indies deep. Whether a
plant has plenty ot food all the time
r?r only part of the time makes the
difference between a good crop and
:i poor crop.
It is Advisable to Plow Deeper Than
8. 10. or 12 Inches?
I he dept h of plowing must be determined
bv the farmer himself. He
knows the conditions and is the best
judge ot the cost. |n mam' sections.
'I' done in the fall i: undoubtedlv
pays to subsoil i:> -jo inches. This
ha> been proved b\ sonic of the best
tanners :?n. 1 .\perimenters in the
world. Some subsoils in humid climates
ha\ e been made so close and
compact l>y the abundant rainfall that it
air docs not penetrate tliem to aid in ti
preparing plant food. Such fields, o
therefore, may not show any benefits
of subsoiling until after two or more 1<
It rarely pays to subsoil land in the t!
spring, and it is never advisable to
use the subsoil plow when the sub- tl
soil is fully saturated with water,
men though I lie surface be fairly dry. ai
I nder such conditions of plowing the
clay subsoil is pressed and packed, si
when the object is to pulverize it and m
ullow the air to act upon it. r?
Experience Agrees With Theory. bi
No principle in agriculture Jias tl
been more thoroughly demonstrated
than the value of a deep, thoroughlv 1,1
pulverized seed bed. ti
I he Unmans plowed on an average p
) inches deep?always three times for (l
? crop, and in still* lands nine times. E
Pliey did not call inches 1' plowng";
it was only "scarifying."
The I'Memish fanners were the first s'
lo follow the better lines of agrieul- sl
ure after (lie Dark Ages. They dovoted
their efforts to three main
joints: (1^ The frofjuont and deep
ml veri/a I ion of I lie soil, (2) the ac- s:l
simulation of manure, and (.'!) the
lest ruction of weeds. sn
A deeper and more thoroughly pnl erized
seed bed was I lie foundation ;l
ipon which England built an improved
agriculture, and this principle has
!)oen generally accepted there for 1,1
nore than one hundred and sixtv 1,1
rears, until the average production
las increased nearly fivefold. ''
A late letter from TTon. Wm. Rannd- ''
is. director of Hie Central Exporinental
Farm, Ottawa. Canada, state? ,U
hat fanners usually plow sliallowly
mmediately after harvest (August)
'!<? preserve moisture and destroy -'
weeks. * * * in October they
'ommonly plow S inches deep. Any 'J
dowing done in the spring months is
isually shallow, not more than f> ?!
nchesdeep." Right inches of break- |
ug in October in Canada, where *
frosts penetrate or I feet deep. i<
letter tor moisture storage than plowng
to a dept'h of 1;> inches in the
Jon Ihern States. ( !
I he writer has visited a number of
^outheru agricultural colleges this ;s
>car. In every case the directors of j1(
heir experiment stations favored a ,,,
leep and thoroughlv prepared seed uicd.
The Georgia Experiment Station ;1|
Millet ins repeatedly urge a deep, mel- o\\.
and rich seed bed for corn, and
they insist that if the soil is not .,
latiirally such it should be made so
>.V deep tillage and the addition of -|<
I'iilletin No. I).5 ot the Georgia Ex'criuient
Station, on "Cotton."
States thai " fourteen years ot' ex- 1J
erimenlat ion have justified certain
'onclussions that may lie accepted as !'
|>i act ically tinal. Mie following is J
"i t liein: "Thorough bearking
,nd commingling of the upper soil.!
gradually increasing the depth to S
>r 111 inehes, using plow and harrow. "
is more ettect ive than deeper but less
Ihoroug'h pulverizing." !
<>n the sugar plantations of Louisi- j
ma the tillage tor cane averages I'J to
l > inehes in depth.
On the Eva plantation, in the Haw- !
iiiian l>laml>, the average depth of
|dowing is :?0 inches. This plantation ^
|?roduces the largest crops of sugari
nine to t he acre in t he world.
In the tanners Cooperative I )e- ^
inon^t rut ion \\ .?rl< tin* importance of
i deep and thoroughly prepared seed [
hed like a garden lias been most wide- !
ly demonstrated. Thousands of tests |
have been made each year bv exact ^
and pa.i list a ki ng tanners t?> an extent
that leaves no possible room for "i|
doubt as to the great value of a deep *
and thoroughly prepared seed bed. .V(
Concretely stated, a deep, thor- P
inighly pulverized seed bed filled with
humus has the following advantages: w
(1) It provides more food, because "
The Book Store
come if you are 1
Glass, Fancy Chir
increases chemical action and niulplics
bacterial life in a larger body
(-) It stores more moisture and it
>ses its moisture less rapidly on acaunt
of its cooler lower strata and
ie presence of more 'humus.
(3) It increases the number of roots
iat a plant will throw out.
(1) ft allows plants to root deeper
iid find permanent moisture.
(;>) Tt largely obviates the necest.v
of terracing, because it holds so
inch water in suspension that heavy
tin fa lis will go to the bottom and
? held by the drier earth above until
ley can he absorbed by the subsoil,
(fi) Humus enables the soil to store
ore moisture, increases its tcmporaiie,
makes it more porus, furnishes
'ant food, stimulates chemical aeon,
and fosters bacterial life,
xceptions Due to Conditions of Soil
(1) Never plow below the line of
anding water in the soil, because the
ibso-il can not be pulverized in water,
lie water level must first be lower1
(J) Do no /iccp fall plowing on light
indv land . n dry, semiarid plains,
ill (liis especially applies to elevated
ind.v table-lands. Such lands can be
'Iped by adding liiinins and using
winter cover crop of durum wheat.
(*5) Do not plow deeply or subsoil in
c spring. I lie subsoil is generallv
>o full of water, and is too late for
uch ertective action of the air upon
ie soil and for the winter rains to
riu the subsoil before planting for
(-1) Thin gray soils underlaid with
How or still clay near the surface,
"St of the post-oak flats, and the
m pa rat ivelv level coast lands should
broken in ridges (back-furrowed)
<>. or i feet wide, according to the
"P to be planted. Cotton and corn
ay he left thicker in the row to offt
tin' wider space between the rows,
lie dead furrow between the rows
lould be double-plowed and made
; deep a> practicable, with ;i good
uh't for t he water. This method
ill gradually deepen the soil, iu'ea-e
drainage, reduce washing, and
ve ;i larger and deeper body of loose,
red earth for the roots. This plan
excellent when surface drainage is
H-essary. Soil to be live and friable
ust be kept out of standing water
inter and summer.
I lie sugar planters of Tjounisiana
1 use the ridge method (generally
teet wide) both for sugar cane and
?rn. I he dead I arrow is as deep as
plow drawn by 4 or (? heavy mules
in penetrate at the last breaking.
hi< gives an average depth of tillage
12 or If) inches.
I he adoption of the ridge method
i demonstration fields in the Yazoo
?'!ta i:i UHKi increased the yield of
I'll from I l bushels per acre to 70
i-iu-ls. \o fertilizer was used.
I;; case no winter cover crop is us1
"lie Miil should he disked or liar
wed two or three times during the
inter, provided it is dry enough,
ivr good dradnage to all parts of the
Any cultivation done after the deep
ill breaking should be shallow?not
ore than or -1 inches deep.
S. A. Knapp,
Spr.-ial Audit in Charge.
l>. T. < ialloway,
i liief of liureau.
cptemher 1. 1H0S.
out h's Companion.
"Why, Mrs. White," began the
lmmor visitor -newly returned to
aymouth, "how those maples of
mil's have grown since last year! It's
"Oh, I do' know's it's anything to
onder at," said Mrs. White, easily.
They ain't got anything else to do."
) is the place to
n need of Cut
ia and Stealing
STATU OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
COUNTY OF NEWBERRY.
British ami American Mortgage
Company, Limited, Plaintiffs,
Jno. W. Ropp et al., Defendants.
By order of the court licrein I will
sell to the highest bidder at public
auction before the court house at
Newberry, S. dufring the legal
hours of salt* on saleday in November,
1008, same being the 2nd day of
said month, the undivided interest of
John W. Ropp in all that tract of
land situate in No. 7 Township, New- I
berry County, State of South Carolina,
of which the late Caroline W.
Ropp died seized and possessed, containing
one hundred and thirty and
two-thirds (130 2-3) acres, more or
less, and hounded by Saluda river,
lands of R. G. Williams, F. A. Lindsay
and others, the interest of the
said John \\ . Ropp being one-fourth
of said tract of land.
Also, at the same time and place,
all thai tract of land lying and being
situate in the county of Newberry,
State of South Carolina, Township
No. Seven, containing six hundred
and eight (AOS) acres, more or less,
bounded on north by lands of T). M.
Spearman, east by lands of Alice R
Hipp and Sophia Oeloach, south by
Saluda river and west by lands of W.
J. Hollow ay.
Terms of Sale: One-third of the
purchase money to be paid in cash,
the balance in one and two years in
equal annual instalments, tho credit
portion to be secured by bond of the
purchaser and a mortgage of the
premises sold and to bear interest
from (lie dale of sale at the rate of
eight per cent per annum, interest to
i be paid annually, with leave to the
I purchaser to anticipate the credit
portion in whole or in part. Purchaser
to pay for papers and recording
H. H. Rikard,
[Master's OlVieo. Oct. S. "100S.
STATU OF SOUTH* CAROLINA,
COUNTY OK XUWMKRRY.
Court of Common Fleas.
j Bedell H. Roland, in his own right
and as administrator of the personal
estate of Carrie F. Roland, deceased.
R. 1 odd Roland, in his own right
and as administrator of the personal
estate of Carrie E. Roland, deceased,
and Josephine Taylor. Defendants.
B\ \irtue of an order of the court
herein, I will sell to the highest bidder
ai public auction, before the
court house at Newberry. S. C.' during
the legal hours ?.?' sale, on sale,
d.?\ in November. "10US, the same bei
ing tlie 2nd day ot said month, all
i that lot of land lying and being sitj
uate in the Town of Prosperity,
County of Newberry and State of
South ( arolina. bounded by a public
'street of the said Town, by lots of
j Dr. Ceo. Y. Hunter, Elvira Kibler.
William and Irving I.one and perj
I onus ot sale: One half of the purchase
money to be paid in cash, the
j balance in one year from day of sale,
J the credit portion to be secured by
bond of the purchaser and a mortgage
of the premises > dd. and to
J bear interest fr >m the day of sale at
| the rate o! oiuiit per cent per annum,
with leave to ; lie purchaset to anticipate
payment in whole or in part,
j Purchaser to pay for papers and for
H. H. Rikard.
Master's Otlice. Oct. 8. 1008.
Notice is hereby given that the
books of registration for the town of
Newberry. S. ( ., will be open on Tuesday.
September 8th. 1008. and the undersigned
as Supervisor <?f Registration
tor the said town, will keep said
books open every day from nine A.
M. until five P. M. (Sunday excepted)
including the first dav of December
Eugene S. Worts.
Supervisor of Registration.
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