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* THE VALUE OF GOOD ROADS*
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Following is a letter from Wash
ington to the Charlotte Observer,
written by H. E. C. Bryant. the
Charlotte Observer's Washingnon cor
In these days of Federal stock tak
ing when t<he experts of the various
branches of the conservation commis
sion are appraising tha dollar value
of the nation 's vast soils, inland wat
ers and mines, it is interesting to
learn that the best estimate yet made
gives to America's roads a valuation,
or cost, of $1,720,339,000. That is in
teresting in view of the fact tharl
France, with the best system of high
ways in the world, has spent approxi
mately about $600.000.000 to secure
and to maintain tihIM for a century.
while ithe United States, with but 7.14
per cent. of her highways improved.
has poured out nearly three times as
The startling figures quoted above
have been assembled by statistie ex
perts in the office of public roads in
the United States Department of Ag
rieulture, by the Federal bureau of
census, by industrial and land bureaus
of various railroads, and they prove
more than any other thing, the typi
eal prodigality and wastefulness
which has marked the expenditures
of practically everybody having any
thing to do with American highway
work. Today, within the confines of
the coiuty, there are approximately
2,150,000 miles of roads. Of that
vast mileage 43,450 are of maeadam,
124,468 of gravel, while 8,512 are sur
faced with special materials. Ifi
reaching a price, the macadam roads
are estimated at $4,500 a mile, the
gravel $1,500 a mile, and those sur
faced with -other niaterials at $1,000.
Beyond this .there is ito be considered
1,975,000 miles of earth roads. A
liberal estimate for that road, giving
consideration to expenditures for
grading, building, bridges, ,'onstruct
ing culverts and for all other pur
poses, is $500 a mile. The value of
the right of way based on average
aereage valuations as given by the
census reponts, and estimated at 40
feet in width for the entire distance,
figures to $342,000,000.
'The showing is not a creditable one
by any means, for the percentage of
improved roads is amazingly small
when compared to -t-he -total mileage.
That vast sum of money, 'had it been
as wisely spent as the money of
France is spent, would have paid for
.the eonstruction of not less than 382.
000 miles of splendid maeadam road.
Enormous Mud Tax.
If even a fair percentage of the
millions of men who live on farms
and carry forward the great task of
feeding and clothing humanity had
any realization of tihe stupendous
sum.gof money in which they are an
nually mulcated because of .the unjust
national mud tax, the county super
visor who dared to vote aginst an
appropria:tion for the betterment of
r'oads would excite the wrath of all.
Incredible as it may seem to many,
>the mud tax the farmers are forced to
pay sim.ply on the hauling of their
products is over $300,000,000 a year;
due ex.elusively to t'he shameful con
dition of roads wihich, to the man who
teams, should be synonymous with
the steel transportation lines which
carry the produets o)f ithe manufactur
Statistics prove that it costs 13
cents a ton mor~e to haul a ton over
the roads of the United States than
it costs to haul over the roads Gf -the
leadingz countries of Euroue. wlhere
good road.7 ai:e appreciated and are
Investigations conducted by the of
fice. of public road-s of the Unitted
States Department of Agriculture, by1
the industrial -hureaus of railroads
a.nd by good road associations, have
established the fact that the averagre
-cost of hauling per ton per mile in
America is 25 cents. The average cost
of hauling in the three leading coun
t.ries of Europe-England, France and
Germany-is approximately 12 eents,
being as low as 7 cents over the splen
-did natiot al roads of France.
If the point be conceded that the
.American farmer pays 13 eents per
mile per ton more tihan do the farm
ers of better road countries, it f'ol
lows that the loss is a heavy onc each
year. because of the vastness of the
crops from American farmers. Re
ports from the bureau of st.etistics of
the Department of Agriculture show
.that in one year 85,478,000,000
pounds of farm rproducts, consisting
of barley, corn, cotton, flaxseed,
hemp, hops, oats, peanuts, rice, tobac
co, wheat and wool were hauled in
farmers: wagons from their points of
origin to market places or shipping
points. Tthat weight, vast as it is, was
but a portion of ithe road tonnage.
and not th]e largest by many thous
ands of tons. It does not include any
of the products hauled from farms to
mills and from mills back to farms.
nor the. products of truck farms, and
fruit orchards. Neither does it Com
prise an.y of.the products of nlines or
which are teamed from city to coun
The average length of haul of all
farm products in this country is 9.4
imiles, tiherefore. on tihe ton nage above
brollnub:i- frth the American farmer
suffered a loss of $1.17 for every ton
hauled, a total of $38.900,000 on the
That, however, is only a percentage
of the tonnage annually transported
over the country roads. The Inter
State Comimerce Commission in a re
port embracing the fiscal year which
ended June 30th, 1906, showed that
the railroads handled 820,164,627 tons
of freight originating on the respec
tive railroads. Of that wealth of
commerce the product of the mines
cost ituted 53.9 per cent. and those
of manufacturers 14.81 per cent.
On the t.heory tha.t mine products
and manufactured articles are trans-1
ported by rail and not by wagon,
those may be excluded from consid
eration. There is .then left 32 per
cent., which is made up of agricultur
al. forest and miscellaneous pro
ducits; a maximum of 265.000.000
tons which annually pass over the
eountry roads in the wagons of ten
millions of fa:rmers. With the aver
age haul of 9.4 miles, that product
passes over 2,491,000,000 miles of
country roads. At the accepted rate
of 25 cents a ton mile, ithe cost to the
farmer of hauling his wares to tha
transportation points or market cen
tres is $622,750,000. If it could be
hauled at the average European rate
of 12 cents a mile, the cost would be
$298,920,000; the difference of
$323,830,000 being itihe unjust tax
placed upon him because of the im
passable condition of his transporta
All Divide the Burden.
It must not be assumed by the city
man or the city woman, however, that
the farmer is the only sufferer or <that
he is alone forced to carry the mud
tax burden. Everybody has -to sha-re
it, for it is the consumer who finally
pays the freight." Th-e cost of the
eggs served on the tables of the city
hotels have itheir price established,
aot because of the arduous labors of
the hen, but largely because of the
:ost of transporting the wares of the
1en from hennery to hostelry. The
ost of the cream in the breakf-ast
offee rests not so much upon the
trenuous endeavors of the cow as up
m the cost of transporting that cream
rom dailry farm to city home, and
he cost of the breakfast roll rests
nore upon t.he cost of ihauling the
,iheat from Western fields, first to
hipping point, thence to elevator,
Kence to mill and thence to baker,
han upon the toil of tile baker.
During ie year 1906 it eost 3.8
~ents per bushel to carry wheat fromj
ew York to Livgerpool. a distance of
,100 miles, while it costs the Ame-ri
~an farmer 1.6 cents more to haul
hat same busiheI of wheat from his1
~arn to the nearest market place nine
nies away; tile heavy cost being~ due
o the fact that the roads were so bad
hat he spent a generous portion of
:he time between sunup and sundow.n:
n stealing rails from .his neighbor's
~ene with which to pry- ihis wagon
t of ithe slo,ughs and ruts.1
Would Save Money in Horses. 1
It doesn't take a scientist to appre
ite the fact that all commodities1
nfv b~ \ e hauled more economically
ve:- hard. smoothl roads than over
nft, bad ones. but it may iinterest
nay whlo do haul to learn the reason
Tests by eminent engineers have
roved that if a horse can barely
raw a load oil a level road over iron
ails, it will reqjuire one and one-half
mrses to draw that same load on 1
ishalt, three and ojne-half horses
?o draw it over the best Belgian1
bloek pavemen , seven over cobble
~toe pavement in good repair, thir
een on bad cobblestonle. twenty on
mn ordinary earth road. and forty on
i sandy road. The resistance in
oudSii can be stated as follows: On
m earth road, 224 pounds: on a hard
olled gravel road, 75 p)ound(s; on a
ard, smoccth macadam, 45 pounds,
h: velocity being a pace.
Tiherefore, were all American roads
mproved, large loads could be hauled
ith far less power and such increase
~voud involve an eniormnous reduction
n tihe number of draft animals, there
y saving millions of dollars. as the
nvestment in draft animals is some
At the present aime there are in
America 23,300,000 horses and mules
orth .$4,423,679,0 00. It is a simple
athematical proposition to priove
that if about 73 per cent of that num
ber of horses and mn-les were needed
l ultimate saving of at least $1.100,
00.000 would be made.
Real Estate Values Would Increase.
It is inlevitable that tIhe imp)rove
meat ot country hiubwvays briniiZ
about a marked increase in the value
f the hands which are t ra versed.
This in crease has been estimated
by students of economics at from .$2
t-o 9 perae reports fmom the Unit
ed States census bureau. from the
land aid iidiistrial buraus of twelve
tink line railroads. and from the bU
reau of statistics of the United
States Department of Agriculture
agreeing on these figures.
In various sections of the South
wiere illternal improveni,?its were
low, cotiiv boans ISiSslud bonlds
within the past few year for in
proved roads. In every instance farm
lands adjacent to these bettered high
assessed valuation, in some iistanices
the rise being as high as $30 an acre
for the entire county.
At the present tine there are ap
proximately 840,000,000 acres of farm
lands in the United St.ates. about 50
per cenit of these being improved. If
the roads of the United Staies were
immediately improved. the increased
value of tihese farm lands. would
readh so huge a figutre that it would
pay for the building of thousainds of
miles of modern macadaan road.
To be conservative estimatet tihe in
creased value at the minimum in
crease quoted. accredit it to but one
half of the total acreage. and the re
sult would be a gain in the value of
farm lands of many hundreds of nil
lions of dolla:rs.
(Tihe entire article consumes con
siderable space. It is so well writ
ten and contains such valuable infor
mation, however, that it will be con
cluded in the next issue of The
Herald and News.)
(Continued from'page two.)
Juror Bierman arose and asked the
"How many shells does an auto
atie revolver !hold?"
"Nine-eight in the clip or maga
.ine, and one in the chamber."
On redirect examination the officer
said the picked up an empty shell near
rhe scene of the shooting. Where lie
picked it up was several feet behind
where Senator Carmack s.tood when
the firing began.
Dr. R. E. Fort, to whose infirmary,
aear the scene of the tragedy, the two
Coopers walked after the shooting.
letailed how tihe defendants came to
Bullet Still in Young Cooper's
"Robin Cooper had a pistol shot
wound in the right shoulder just
ibove the eollarbone,'' said the wit
ess. "I dressed the wound. There
was uo point of exit anid I assume
~hat the bule is still in t.he young
nan 's shoulder.
"Wihen I started to dress 'the
wound Robin asked for tobacco and
igarette papers. I' got them out of
1s pocket and found in his overcoat
m automatic revolver. A bullet 'had
assed through the left sleeve of his
>vercat, but had niot touched his per
"Did vou .hear Col. Cooper use the
ele phone 'P']
"I did, several times, but only once
lid I hear what ie said.
"To whom was hre talking?i"
" To his daughter, Mtrs. Burch. He1
~aid: 'Daughter, it is all over. Rob
n has killed Carmack. Robin is shot.
"I told him to tell Mr's. Burch
hat Robin was not badly hurt, and1
iad :to repeat it twiee.'
"Was Robin Cooper near enoughi to
During Dr. Fort's recital of this in
~ident, Mrs. Murehi's eyes filled, and
he began to 'cry softly to herself,
~hielding her eyes with her gloved
On er oss-examinat.ion. Dr. Fort
aid he did not hear Col. Cooper say:
I dio not want any one to come in
his 'room,t except >t he officers. I don't
~vant to kill another man.'' He
houht inhe remark might have been
nade and might have been called
forth by the intense excitement, and
e crjowd that was g'rowing outside.
When p)roceeding, were resumedI
Lfter luncheon Judge Hart announced
hat there must be no further demon
~tratins in t.he court room.
One Witness Confused.
G. F. Cole, of the Baptist Publish
ng company, was :the next witness.
Be testified that he visited the scene
f the killing the day after it hap
ened. -and that there were two tele
hone poles within a foot of each
)ther. A day or two after~ the shoot
ng oneW of these poles was cI1hpped
lown. Cole swore that there were
:wo bullet holes in this post. fired
vidently, from the north.west, or
Erom the direction in which Col.
ooper stood. He attempted :to est i
nate the distance at about eight or
:en feet. The witness was badly con
used on cross-examination, and eculd
aot tell how he fixed the distance.
Finally Cole blunted out:
''Well, I heard that other wit nessen
astified -that ('ol. Coope~r stood about
eiht or ten feet away from the
Judge Anderson also confused the
witness as to the direnitioni of the bul1
ets and thte height of the ma rks on
hepils, and then attacked his abil
ity to itell tthe calibre of a bullet hlde
The witness said one bullet buried it
W1 1 he pil le, while the othelr mere
ly notched it, and that both were
mnade by the same calibre bullet. HE
c-ould not explain how he reached thi,
'ni('hlsio)l wlMeI fllv was a perforated
l(le 14d lie odier sinllp.\ a ridge
Tilt dl"1ef t' llll y * 111m.'11 ellel'g
n cro s-i'N nlill ti tlls witlls- S
The State Rests.
A.4 soon1 a., ("Ole Wal ex.CuISed At
toriley G(e-nerl McCarn .announceed
that hie State would rest its Case il
ief. The defence asked until Sat
lirday to arrange its ease.
The coUll granited the request, bL1
iad no sooner done so than Attorney
J eneral McCarn said:
.The State has a few more witnes
4s in its ease in Oiief, whom we de
3paired of getting here. However
xith an adjournment to Saturday. wc
believe we can get them here, and wil
utroduce them at ithat time."
-'So the State does not rest ?'' re
narked Judge Anderson, sotto voce.
The defence expects to spend ai
least a week upon its case in chief
The State in rebutital .has somethin
ike fifty witnesses. Then the de
rence again will have its innings.
Counsel for both sides went into con
erenee. at once, and messengers be
ran to round up witnesses.
Very Low Round Trip Rates to Wash
ington, D. C., Via Southern
Account Presidential Inauguratior
;le Southern railway will sell round
trip tickets to Washington, D. C.
from all points at greatly reducec
-ates. Tickets to be on sale February
?th and March 1st, 2nd and 3rd,
L909, good to leave Washington re
:urning not later than midnight of
.arch 8th, 1909.
Round trip rates from principal
>oints as follows:
bbeville ...............$16 25
Blacksburg ..............$13 70
amden ... ..... ... .....$14 05
harleston ... .. ........ .$16 40
Jolumbia ... ..... .. .. ...$15 05
reenville .... .... .... ..$15 55
reenwood ...... ...... ...$15 80
hancaster ...... ... ........$13 75
rangeburg' .............$15 8
Eok Hill ............ ..$13 05
Spartanburg ....... .....-.$14 65
sumter..... ..... ... .. ..$14 50
forkville........ .. ......$13 60
For detailed information, sleeping
har reservations, schedules of regularx
md special trains, apply to Southern
ailway ticket agents or address,
. J. C. Lusk,
Division Passenger Agent,
r. L. Meek, Charleston, S. C.
Asst. Gen. Pass., Agt.,
Washington's Plague Spots
ie in the lowv, marshy bottoms of the
~otomae, the breedling. ground of ma
aria germs. These germs cause chills,
~ever and ague, billiousness, jaundice,
assitude, weakness and general de
ility and bring suffering or death to
housands yearly. But Electric Bit
ers never fail to destroy them and
ure malaria troubles. "They are the
)est all-round tonic and cure for mal
iria I ever used,'' writes R. M.
Fames, of Louellen, S. C. They cure
stomach, Liver, -Kidney and Blood
Croubles and will prevent Typhoid.
ry them, 50c. Guaranteed by W. E.
elham & Son, Newberry, S. C.
'HARLESTON & WESTERN CARL
Schedule in effect May 31, 1908.
v. Newha-ry(C N & L) 12:56 p.m.
\ r. L.a'irens 2:02 p.m.
'. Louwre (C & WV C) 2:35 p.m.
\r. r.enville 4:00 p.m.
4v. L'aui.ens 2:32 p.m.
\r. Spartanhurg 4:05 p.m.
. Spartimnhure (So. Ry.) 5:00 p.m.
\r. Hendersonville 7:45 p.m.
tr. Asheville 8:50 p.m
v. Laurens (C & W C) 2:32 p.m.
kr. Greenwood 3:32 p.m
tr. McCormick 4:33 p.m
.r. Augusta 6:15 p.m.
Ti-Weekly Pariar Car line be
~en Auensta and Asheville Trains
Ts. 1 and 2. leave Auignsta Tuesd ays.
hursday's and Snturdays. learrc
Asheville Mondays, Wednesdays and
Note: The above arrivals and de.
artures. as well as connections with
>ther companies, are ffiven as infor
nation, and are not guarantead.
Gen. Pass. Agt.,
Geo. T. Bryan,
Greenvin~e, S. C.,
K1N DISEASES AND BLOOD SORES CURED
Tetterine is a universal cure for every disease
rhich affects the skin or has its outlet through
he skin. Whatever this wonderful omtment
-eaches it cures. It relieves pain instantly and
diects permanent cures in chromec cases of years
tanding, such as itching piles. tetter, eczema,
nfants' sores. and all diseases of the skin and
calp. Write for testimonials. Ask for Tetterme
Lt your druggists, or send 50c to The Shauptrmne
o.. Svannah. Gat
You Must Be Well Read.
It is always a decided compliment to any man or woman to
hear his or her friends speak of thern as being a well read
person. It carries with it the evidence of knowledge, informa
tion and culture. This opportunity is offered every one at
Newberry by MAYES' BOOK ST ORE, and at very
reasonable prices. You should call and look over the many
new books we have on exhibit at 50c. Among which you will
find the following:
Dri and I.
The Waters of Caney Fork.
The Kidnapped Millionaires.
A Man's Woman.
The Last Hope.
A Thief in the Night.
The Ordeal oi Alizabeth.
We give these as a sample of the many good things we have
in the book line for the reading public. You should make the
BOOK STORE your headquarters during your leisure
hours, and thus become acquainted with the large number of
fine books and periodicals we have on our shelves.
Mses' Book Store
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