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Fhe Peasant Saloon Keeper Ruler
of American Cities.
The great wave of Temperance
which is now sweeping Europe and
America has its chief impulse, no
doubt, in ethical and religious senti
ment. But a new force is operative
-the force of an exact knowledge
of the evil physical effects of alcohol.
It would be impossible to exagger
ate the importance of this new ele
ment in Temperance R:eform.
The stroy of the modern series of
scientific experiments with alcohol,
begun about twenty-five years ago
and still in progress, is given by Dr.
Henry Smith Williams in this num
ber of "McClure's Magazine." These
investigations, largely conducted in
Continental Europe, include experi
ments on the senses, upon the muscles
and upon the different human intel
lectual activities, from the simpliest
to the most complex. Without ex
ception they show that every function
of the normal human body is injured
by the use of alcohol-even the mod
erate use; and that the injury is both
serious and permanent.
This knowledge is of concern to all
the world. But there is in America a
particular and special concern over
a condition which may be believed
to be unparalleled in human history
-certainly in modern civilization!:
the power of the saloon in American
government of cities.
The fact is notorious; yet the con
dition is not clearly understood. Six
ty years ago, with the first flood of
European immigration, the character
of American city governments charged
sudden:y and entirely. A great pro
portion of the peasantry who arrived
here from the farms of Europe stop
ped in our cities. They were isolated
from the rest of the population; their
one great social centre was the saloon.
And out of this social centre came
political leaders and the manipulators
of their votes. The European peas
ant saloon keeper, for more than half
a century, has been the ruler of a
great proportion of American cities.
The case of Tammany Hall, for so
many years the real governing body
of New York, is most familiar. Its
politicians for half a century havi
graduated .into public affairs through
the common school of the saloon. Its
leaders at the present time are perfect
examples of the European peasant
saloonkeeper type, which 'has come
to govern us. The same condition
exists to a large extent in nearly ev
Sery one of the larger cities in the
country. An analysis of the member
Sship of the boards of ,aldermen in
these cities for the past few decades
shows a percentage of saloonkeepers
with foreign names which is aston
A governmenlt necessarily takes the
character of those conducting it. The
business of saloonkeeping, which pro
duced the present management of our
cities, involves from the conditions
which surround it, a disregard for1
both law and proper moral ideal s.
Ordinary commercial motives urge
the proprietors, as a class, to increase
the sale of a commodity which the
State everywhere endeavors to re
strict; and a savage condition of com
petition drives them still further
till a great proportion break the pro
visions of the law in some way; while
a considerable number ally themselves
with the most degraded and danger-i
ous forms of vice.
The government by this class has
been exactly what might 'have been
expected. A body of men-drawn
from an ancestry which 'has never
possessed any knowledge or tradi
tions of free government; educated
in a business whose financial sucess
es are made th-rough the disregard of
law-are ele'vated to the control of
the machinery of law and order in
the g'reat cities. Another type of cit
izen-men of force and enterprise
unsurpassed in the history of the
world-by adapting the discoveries
of the most inventive century of the,
world to the uses of commerce, have
massed together in the past half cen
tury a chain of great cities upon the
face of a half savage continent, and
left them to the government of such
people as these. The -commercial en
terprise of these cities has been the
marvel of the world; their 'govern
ment has reached a point of moral'
degradation and inefficiency scarcely
less than Oriental.
T'he debauehing of our city life by
this kind of government has 'been1
frequently pictured in this magazine.
A government by saloonkeepers, and
by dealers in flagrant immorality,
finds both its power and profit in the
establishment of vice by its official
position. The progress of such a gov
ernment is shown in George Kennan 's
description of the former regime in
San Francisco, published in "Mc
Clure 's M1agazine" of September,
Instead of protecting the public by
efotrcina the laws it devoted itself
mainly to making money by allowing
amblers. policy-sellers, brothel keep
e's a prostitutes to break the laws.
its .1one,t omfeier5 andi men tried, at
tirsI, to do their duty ; but the police
commissioners, under the influen.-; or
direction of Ruef, interferred witb
their efforts to close illegal and im
moral resorts; the police court judges
allowing themselvse to be swayed by
seltish politicial considerations, re
leased the prisoners whom they ar
Conditions similar to this 'have been
shown in this magazine to exist in
New York, Ohicago, St. Louis, Pitts
burg, and other great cities of Ameri
ca. The results have been a general
disintegration in the moral fibre of
eities. Life itself is much more un
safe than under the well-ordered gov
ernment of European cities. The
uurder rate in Chicago and New York
is six or eight times as great as in
London and Berlin. Even such a pri
mary necessity of civilization as the
safety of women is lost sight of. A
leading Chicago newspaper said in
It has ever been our proudest boast
as a people that in this country wo
man is respected and protected as
she is in no other. That boast is
becoming an empty one in Chicago.
Women have not only been annoyed
and insulted in great numbers on the
streets within a very short time, but
not a few have been murdered. In
the year before. the Hollister tragedy
there were seventeen mu-rders of wo
men in Chicago, which attracted the
attention of the city.
The system of government which
produces this result was well describ
ed some years ago by the late Bishop
Potter, speaking of .conditions in New
A corrupt system, he said, whose
infamous details have been steadily
uncovered, to ou.r increasing horror
and humiliation, was brazenly ignor
ed by those who were fattening on its
spoils, and the world was presented
with the astounding spectacle of a
great municipality, whose civic mech
anism was largely employed in trad
ing in the bodies and souls of the de
Aside from giving direct encour
agement and propagation to the more
terrible forms of vice, the European
peasant saloonkeeper government of
our cities furnishes a fitting field for
so-called respectable men-but really
criminals of the worst type-who help
organize and perpetuate saloon gov
ernment for the purpose of secu.ring
by bribery, franchises for public util
ities without paying therefor. Thus
American cities 'have been robbed as
well as badly governed.
There are signs of amelioration of
these conditions in most of the great
cities o.f the country. But every ad
vance is made against the fierce an
tagonism of just suo~h systems ab
Bishop Potter described; and those
systems exist in every large Ainr
ean city today-either in direct con
trol or ready. to take control at 'the
slightest sign of relaxation by the
forces which are opposing them. And1
the foundation of this evil structure
is the European peasant saloonkeep
"McClure's Magazine,'' in the next
year, will consider the horrible in
fluence of the salo'n in American life.
Dr. Williams will follow his article
in the present number by studies of
the influence of alcohol upon 'society
at large, upon racial development and
upon the State. The -author is espec
ially equipped for his work. He is
in the first place perhaps the great
est living popularizer of national
science and history in America; and
*he has himself made life-long obser
vations upon t-he influence of alcohol
-both physical and social-first as
a medical praetitioner in the t.reat
ment of the insane *at the great asy
lums at Bloomingdale and Randall's
sland, and later by study,' and ob
servation in the chief capitals of Eu
rope, where he has lived the greater
part of the last ten years. The sound
judgment and impartial temper which
have characterized his work in other
fields will be found in his treatment
of this great subject.
WHAT SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACH
ERS CAN DO.
(Prepared by Miss Julia Colman.)
It is generally understood by Sun
day-shool teachers, that their first
duty to their classes is to teach the
Scriptures. But a large number have
not yet asked themselves what the
Sriptures teach about Temperance.
They know, perhaps, some of the oft
quoted texts, as "Look not upon the
wine,'' etc., but will they give even
such .texts their full weight and im
portance, unless they take in the
spirit of such passages as trhese:
"Your bodies are the temples of the
Holy Ghost which is in you,'' '"The
pure in heart shall se God ?'
Is t-he body. steepledl in alcohol and
nicotine, pure? Is it a lit dwelling
)lace for the Holy Spirit? Ts it
ready to have Christ and( the Fa:ier
come in anid sup) with1 the tenan t?
Youi wish to traini up those little one's
whose nn even soconfiinglv into
VOur. for lives of usefulness here
amd Iappiiess hereafter. You have
reasonl to believe that the use of al
cobol and tobacco will be most seri
ous hindrances to them in their ad
vancement for this life and for the
next. Have you ever warned them
of this danger and sought to guard
them against it?
No danger? I thought so onee. I
looked into the fair young faces in
my own class: I looked around upon
the healthy and happy boys on the
other side, and I saw no sign of the
blight tkat should come upon them.
Yet t.he blight came. I -had the mor
tification of seeing the cheeks of one
of my own pets coarsened into those
of a beer-drinker (begun medicinally,
of course), and the sons of two of
ficers in the school became sots!
How many others were led away
by these enemies to all purity and
piety, I do not know; but I shall never
forget that no teaching that they re
ceiver in that Sunday-sehool, so far
as I know, specifically warned them
of this danger. No, I did not see.the
danger then, but having seen the out
come, I beg to warn you before it is
too late and save you from a like mor
tification and your scholars from a
Exceptional cases? Oh. no! All the
sad drinkers were fair young children
once, and a large proportion of them,
probably more than 'half in this coun
try, have been Sunday-school children
at some time. How many of them do
you suppose received any special Tem
perance teaching, judging from your
own observation and experience? I
do not mean simply how many have
heard Temperance "pieces" and
son.rs. but how many were taught the
nature and the danger of alcoholic
liquors and shown how and why to
Danger! Oh, yes, there is danger
to them all! Chicago reports 30,000
juvenile tipplers, and 12,000 of them
are or have been in the Sunday school.
Statistics from jails andpri sons show
that most of the prisoners came there
through drink, and a large propor
tion of them -have been in Sunday
school. Then society takes hold of
these poor wretches and tries to re
form and save them, when it would
have been so much easier and so much
better every way if that teaching had
been given before they went so sadly
And then, we should not rest satis
fed with merely those -we teach; we
should send them forth so earnest and
so eharged with the truth, that they
become burning and shining lights
to others. What a matter of rejoicing
it would b.e to you, my dear Sunday
school teacher, in some future day,
of you could look back over the chil
dren that 'have been from time to
time ent-rusted to your care, and see
them all safe from this destroyer of
all good, and some of them devoting
their God-given powers to saving
others! And now, dear teacher, shall
tihe good you do descend thus from
generation to generation, and break
in waves of living light on the far
thest shores of time, or shall your
neglect echo forever from the groans
of lost souls t'hrough the dark cav
erns of despair?
CALESTON & WESTEN CAR
Schedule in effect May 31, 1908.
Lv. Newberry(C N & L) 12:56 p.m.
\r. Laurens 2:02 p.m.
Lv. Laurens (C & W C) 2:35 p.m
Ar. Greenville 4:00 p.
Lv. Laurens . 2:32 p.m
A r. Spartanburg 4:03 p.m.
Lv. Spartanburg (So. IRy.) 5:00 p.m.
Ar. Hendersonville 7:43 p.m.
.\r. Asheville 8:50 p.m.
Lv. Laurens (C & W C) 2:32, p.m.
Ar. Greenwood 3:32 p.m.
Ar. McCormiek 4:33 p.m
Ar. Augusta 6:15 p.m.
Tn-Weekly Parlar Car line be
navn Augusta and Asheville. Trains
Nos. I and 2, leave Augusta-.Tuesda.y.
Thu~rsdays and Saturdays, leave
A -heille Mondays, Wednesdays and
Note: The above arrivale an:d de.
partures, as well as conn-eetions with
other companmes, are given as ifor.
tation, and are not guaranteed.
Gen. Pan. A.gt.,
Gen. TP. Bryan,
Greenvine, S. C..
NOTICE OF FINAL SETTLEIMENT
Notice is hereby given that I wil]
make a final settlement of the estate
of William C. Tyree, deceased, on
May 17, 1909, in the Probate Court
for Newberry County, S. C., and -vill
immediately thereafter apply to said
Court for a final diseharge as Admin
istrator of the personal estate of said
J. P. Tyree,
Adlmr. &c., of Wm.Ti C. Tyree, decd.
I April 14th, 1909.
EXCUSION RATES VIA
To Charleston, S. C., Columbia, S.
C., Spartanburg, S. C., and
Washington ,D. C.
To Chaxleston and return:-Ac
count Meeting of Shriners the South
ern Railway announces very low
round tip rates. Tickets will be
sold April 21 and 22 limited for re
turn, leaving Charleston not later
than midnight, April 23, 1909.
To Columbia and return:-Account
Musical Festival very low round trip
tickets will be sold April 21, 22 and
23 limited for return, leaving Colum
bia not later than midnight April
To Spartanburg and return:-Ac
count South Atlantic States Musical
Festival very cheap round trip tick
ets will be sold, April 19, 20, 21, and
22 for trains scheduled to arrive in
Spartanburg before noon April 23,
1909. Limited for return, leaving
Spartanburg not later than midnight
April 24th, 1909.
TTo Washington, D. C., and re
turn:-Account Annual Meeting
Daughters of the American Revolu
tion, Washington, D. C., very low
round trip tickets will be on sale Apr.
15 and 16 only, from all stations,
limited for return, leaving Washing
ton up to and including, but not later
than midnight, April 28th, 1909.
For detailed information, tickets,
etc., apply to Southern Railway tick
et agents or address,
J L. Meek,
Asst. General Passenger Agent,
J. C. Lusk,
Division Passenger Agent,
Charleston, S. C.
ANNUAL MEETING STOCKHOLD
The annual meeting of the stock
holders of The Newberry Cotton
Mills will be held in the rooms of
The Chamber of Commerce at New
berry, S. C., Wednesday, May 5th,
1909, at eleven o'clock.
Geo. S. Mower, See.
4-16-09 3t Itaw.
NEWBEEMY UNION STATION.
Arrival arnd Departure of Passenger
Trains-Effective 12.01 A. M.
Sunday, June 7th, 1908.
No. 15 for! Greenville .. .. 8.57a.m.
No. 18 for Columbia .. .. 1.40) p.m.
No. 11 for Greenville .....3.20 p.m.
No. 16 for Columbia .... .8.47 p.m.
C., N. & L. E
*No. 22 for Columbia ... . .8.47 a.m.
No. 52 for Greenville .. 12.56 p.mn
No. o3 for Columbia .. .. 3.20 p.nm
*No. 21 for Laurens .. .. 7.25 p.m
*Does not run on Sunday
This time table shows the time.~ a:
which trains may be expected to de
part from this station, but their de
parture is not guaranteed and the
time shown is subject to change with
G. L. Robinson,
BLUE RIDGE SCHEDULES.
No. 18, leaves Anderson at 6.30 a.
m., for connection at Belton witn
Southern for Greenville.
No. 12, from Walhalla. leaves An
derson at 10.15 a. in., for connection
at Belton with Southern Railway for
Columbia and Greenville.
No. 20, leaves Anderson at 2.20
p. mn., for connections at Belton with
Southern Railway for Greenville.
No. 8, daily except Sunday, from
Walhalla arrives Anderson 6.24 p.
in., with connections at Sene.ea with
Southern Railway from points southb
No. 10, from Walhalla, leaves An
erson at 4.57 p. mn., for conndetions
at Belton with Southern Railway for,
Greenville and Columbia.
No. 17, arrives at Anderson at 7.50
. mn., from Belton with connections
No. 9, arrives at Anderson at -12.24
p. in., from Belton with connections1
from Greenville and Columbia. Goes
No. 19, arrives at Anderson at 3.40
p. in., from Belton with connections
No. 11, arrives at Anderson at
6.29 p. in., from Belton with con
netions from Greenville and Colum
bia. Goes to Walhalla.
No. 7, daily except Sunday, leaves
Anderson at 9.20 a. in., for Walhalla,
iith connections at Seneca for local
Nos. 17, 18, 19, and 20 are mixed
t'ans between Anderson and Belton.
Nos. 7 and 8 are local freight
trains, carrying passengers, between
Anderson and Walhalla and between
Wlhalla and AndersoE
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