Newspaper Page Text
BULGARIA ENTERS WAR
ON SIDE OF TEUTONS
ALL BALKAN NATIONS LIKELY TO
Invaders Said to Be Irregulars Wearing
Military Uniforms, But Fighting:
Tnder Orders oi Officers.
London, April 3.?Bulgaria has entered
the war on the side of the Teu
tonic ames ana -it -is cullh cr? *> xi,u*~u
zae possibilities that all the Balkan
nations may become involved
An official statement given out in
ftish, tte new capital of Serbia, and
received by the Serbian legation here
"About 2 a. m. yesterday Bulgarian
irregulars in great numbers wearing
mi'irarv uniforms suddenly attacked
our blockhouses at Valandovo.
"Our surviving - fronotier guards,
overwhelmed by superior numbers, had
to fa'l back toward the railway station
"By 5 o'clock the Bulgarians occupied
all t-e L eights 011 the left bank
of the river iYardar.
"The fighting continues and the
number of dead and wounded is considerable
on both sides.
"It is said tl:e Bulgarians kave taken
two Serbian guns.
"Wounded soldiers who have arrived
at the railway station declare the Bulgarians
maneuvered in the fight under
the orders of officers. They formed
little more tfcan a regiment and many
believe they ade not irregulars at all,
but regular troops from the Bulgarian
"The frontier posts of the neighborhood
have arrived to help and details
will be forwarded as soon as they
come to fcand. Telegraphic and telephonic
communication with Djewdfell
and Salonika is interrupted."
The Agence Dispatch Balkans in
Paris publishes two dispatches from
Nis-h confirming the news and adding:
??TV-.n Tiiil era riartc lpft SO f>n tfcft
grounds and carried back a great numbed
of wounded. The Serbian losses
were 60 killed and a greater number
wounded. The Serbians pursued the
Bulgarians up to ti:e frontiei."
Since the beginning of the war the
allies, Germany and lAustria, Italy and
even Turkey, have made overtures to
Bulgaria, owing to tsbe strategic position
Field Marshal von der Goltz was
last envov whose arrival was re
ported at Sofia, the Bulgarian capital.
He reached there on March 25 and it
was reported presented a proposal
from Turkey to cede Adrianople, Kirk
Kilisseh and other important towns to
Bulgaria in return for continued neutrality.
Turkey's offer is said to have
included the restoration of the TnosMida
line, giving Bulgaria the territory
she had previous to the treaty of
Constantinople signed at the conclusion
of tee second Balkan war. It was
reported in Vienna that t):e czar had
sent Prince Troubetzboy to Belgrade
to patch up a peace between Bulgaria
and Serbia over Macedonia. This conference
plainly did not bring results.
In February last the Berliner Disconto
Gesellschaft placed at the disposal
of Bulgaria $15,000,000 as .a second
installment of a loan of $100 000.
000 conceded by -German bankers late
in the previous year. Despite tMs
\ large German loan, it was declared
Bulgaria would maintain her neutrality.
Italy sent representatives in Bulgaria
earlv this year and also to the
other Balkan states, proposing a restoration
of the Balkin league as it existed
prior to the two Balkan wars.
TThe friendship of Italy was promised
to such a league.
It was announced last month tf-al
Italy had been successful to such a
degree that it was practically certain
tftat Germany and Austria would not
v?o. ohlo trk Arzur "Rnler.aria into th? col?
fiict on their side. On tf:e part of the
Balkan state, the end in view in these
negotiations was stated to be a permanent
peace based upon a more
equitable adjustment of boundary lines
The recent overthrow of the ministry
in Bulgaria was explained to be due
to tfje opposition of King Ferdinanc
to the proposal of the prime minister
1MS. Raaoslovoff, to declare war on Turkey
and bring about the recapture oj
Adrianople. Following the upset o;
tlie Bulgarian ministry on March S
a note was sent to Tudkey demanding
protection to Bulgarian travelers pass
ing through Turkey and intimating
that otherwise "relations between Bulgaria
and Turkey would he gravelj
In the opinion of close students oi
Balkan affairs, the action of Bulgarian
irregulars in attacking Serbiar
troops is tl:e torch that will inflam?
all the Balkan -states and possiblj
Bulgaria was humiliated by th?;
treaty of Bucharest, August 10, 1913
which took from her the "very territories
she fcad gained by the first Bal
kan war, settled by the second peac<
conference at liondon, ending in i
treaty signed May 30, 1913. The treaty
of Constantinople further humiliated
j I': er.
'| The treaty of Bucharest compelled
! Bulgaria to surrender Kotchana, Ishtib
and Radovishta to Serbia and Sa- |
lonika, Doiran, Demirhissar, Seres,
Drama and Kavala to Greece. She was
shorn of her prizes and I er old possessions
wrested from her.
Bulgaria's position in the present
i war was recenuy suiumauicu l .
\ M. MatC':eef, former Bulgarian minister
to Greece (on March'6, 1S15,) as
"Bulgaria wants the treaty of Bucharest
abrogated, the execution of
t! e treaty of London and the fulfilT|
ment of the St. Petersburg conven:
tion. She wants to retain the position
' and rights which the Serbo-Bulgariau j
j treaty gave her. TLus only can t'.e |
treacnery 01 Serbia, -ureece, xtummiiii
and Turkey be blotted out; 011 those
terms alone can a satisfactory settlcj
ment be arrived at in these Balkan
This statement mentions four conn- !
i tries toward which Bulgaria o erishes I
| enmity, but does not include the coun- j
j try against wcicli he holds her major [
By the treaty between Serbia and j
I Bulgaria, Russia was virtually enI
trusted with t):.e guidance of all the
, .future actions in the Balkans.
Russia is blamed as the great power
! which forced the ignoble settlement at
! Bucharest upon Bulgaria.
More intense tftan tfc-e feeling
against Russia, is the bitterness in
Bulgaria against Roumania. It is asserted
Rumania aided Russia in forcing
the treaty of Bucharest upon Bulgaria,
threatening to occupy immsdiately
the Bulgarian capital, Sola,
I with Rumanian troops in case the disj
honorable peace was not signed.
TV.e boundary fixed by tJ':e treaty of
! Bucharest was extremely complicated,
j Bulgaria was left with Strumitza, in
! Macedonia, and 70 miles of seacoast I
i on the Aegean, between the towns of j
Mesta and Maritza.
But the Serbo-Greek boundary was !
t? ? ? ? 0/v?. I
j SO drawn luai ueveuiire ccij
bian and Vodena and Fiorina fell to
After this settlement it remained for
Bulgaria to make a treaoty /with Turkey,
but Bulgaria ftad been left prostrate,
in no condition for a t)':ird war j
with the Turks, and was compelled
again to yield.
Turkey compelled the Bulgarian envoys
to renounce their claim to Demotika
and Kirk Kilisseh and in this
! way Turkey managed to get territory
i beyond the fMaritza river.
i By the treaty of Constantinople,
I signed September 29, 1913, tibe Turkoi
Bulgarian lino was traced up Ma|
ritza river to a point near Mandra, and I
j then, west of Demotika, leaving both I
| that town and Adrianople to Turkey,
j Indeed, the Bulgarian concessions to
Turkey was practically doubled in extent
over t):at allotted to Turkey by
the treaty of London.
These two settlements left Bulga
j ria with "manifold grievances.
; little country had her back to tlie wall
j ?nothing but enemies all round.
Every month since lias served to
make more intense these antipathies
and the outbreak of tf;e present war
suddenly gave Bulgaria its opportunity.
Again Bulgaria became a factor
in politics, not only in the Balkaa
j states, but far beyond them. From
J tl':e outset of the confict it became i
| apparent that Bulgaria dominated the
| situation and by action could at any I
j moment embroil a large part of Eui
rnr?a tt'iat hnd remained Quiescent.
! COCK CROWING CONTESTS
LATEST MISSOURI FAD
j A Joplin, Mo., dispatch says: What
bids fair to become tTn-e most popular
j contest among tthe rural population
I of Missouri was lield near the little
vHUwa io tr\ 2 *1
I viiiuge vi i^uucncf,, ttuu *0 ?.v w ?
It is a cock crowing competition and
is open to all comers. The birds arcbrought
to the contest in darkened
boxes. The rooster is suddenly taken
out into the light and placed on a
platform. T:e bird imagines he is
thprp to t'-prald a sunnosed dawn, and
' ; at once begins crowing. At the same
11 time a special timepiece is started. The
' j one that utttrs the greatest number o:
' | cock-a-doodle-doos in twentv minutes
| is proclaimed champion.
For a month before the contest tu-e
'! birds are carefully conditioned. Eacfi,
'! owner has his own secret method of
r | feeding, which he closely guards from
| fcis competitors. For from two to three
. |-weeks prior to the crowing match the
' ori/1 TY1 d
I iwu i?> uai c.iuu > ciixvi vvk/
p; stimulating as possible.
, The time taken up by each cock is
| usually limited to twenty minutes, and
^! a timekeeper stands near to mark th-3
^ | number of crows and the variation of
| notes, which are all considered.
, j We don't know whicfi is worse? a
- worldly wise widow who tries to act
- like a school girl, or a school girl who
i attempts to emulate a worldly wise
i widow.?Jacksonville Times-Union.
IN NEW YEARECOf
IS FULL OF INTEREST
State Publication Offers Many Hint;
to Student of South Carolina
The Yearbook for 19] 4, issued b;
L. e State department of agriculture
commerce and industries, contains <
number of interesting notes on th<
history of agriculture in South Caro
lina. Some of these suggest inquiries
which might well be made the basi:
o: monographs. Studies in history it
the schools and colleges of t:is region
have been too exclusively con:
fined to the political and military
fields. T':ere is a vast amount of 'virgin
material available to him who
looks into the economic history oi
the State. Especially worth while
would be an investigation of t e evolution
or agriculture. An iiliminating
and useful essay might be written
for example, upon the farm practice
and the household arts carried on
under the capable direction of Eliza
Lucas. Another paper might deal
with the propaganda suggested by
Thomas Jefferson -for the growing
i.ereabouts of the olive, the a'mond
and t:e castor bean.
Among the notes in the current edition
of The Yearbook are the follow
"Diversification and rotation," the
commissioner points out, "have been
urged upon South Carolinians since
Deep Plowing: Distrusted.
"There was a time when there was
actually a controversy over ti:e benefits
of deep plowing. . . . Horace
Greeley declared tO.at the suspicion
cast upon this innovation cost the
South in one year a million bushels
"This department has witnessed
with pleasure the growing interest in
the cultivation of sorghum and ribbon
cane, not only for forage, but for
t e manufacture of syrup. It is only
one step, and quite an easy one, from
syrup to sugar. The late Jo?ti Alexander,
of Columbia, made a centrifugal
mill at a price within the means of
any farmer and it is natural to suppose
that almost any machine shop
in the State today could make them
for farm use." v
"Dr. Junius Smith was successful
in growing tea in upper South Carolina
ten years before the war between
t e sections; t':.e only reason why he
" * ~ ' - *- t
aid not continue it upon <x larger suait
being the matter o: the cost of labor.'
The Yearbook quotes from Tourney's
"Geology of South Carolina,'
1S43, an account of indigo culture it
this State, written by the late Thomas
W. Glover, of Orangeburg. The in
qiiiry is suggested by the commis
sioner whether, if Europe so.all be a
war for a long time, t: e planting o
indigo might not profitably be revive*
in the South.
Herbemont of Columbia.
X. Herbemont, a viticulturist, o
Columbia, is quoted as urging on th<
notice of his fellow citizens the im
portance of a more scientific practic
1 in farm management. It is a pit;
that some adequate biography of Mi
Herbemont is not extant. His letter
to the American Agriculturist am
i otfier journals prove mm uusscsscu v
i respectable learning as well as of en
| terprise and foresight in fcorticulturc
An interesting letter, cited in th
report, is that of Col. William Haz
zard, dated St. Simon, February 2S
1828. "Every individual," the write
; insisted, "should provide land to pro
duce grain, pulse and roots for hi
personal and plantation uses."
"In 1810, there was quite a contro
very over the matter of seed (corn
r.nlnn+inn '? Vin<"TL.'?iQT> Trvhn TftvlOT. C
| (fiv/li) V VMM ? ?? y ? -w ? 7
j South Carolina, and "the famous farm
! er of New Jersey, Jsepoa Cooper."
IT!':e steam plow, says The Yearbook
is a Southern invention, "having bee
patented in 1833 by E. C. Bellingei
i of this State. His gang plow is prac
tically the same as that in use today.
"The Cashmere goat was introduce
into this State by Dr. J. B. Davis i
'^Edmund Ruffin, of Virginia, wh
was connected wit1 a the first geologi
cal survey of ti~is State, in 1848, spok
in several Southern States, urging
use of marl and of lime as manures.
? ^ 1 ^
Tea as a i;aronna autpie.
Southern Agriculturalist, 1S2S: "To
importation of tea into the Unite
States is from 8,000,000 to 10,000,00
pounds annually. It might become
great staple of South Carolina."
j "Col. J. C. Stribling, Pendleton, th
real inventor of toe split log drag, or
erates an overhead system for irr:
gating his truck garden."
~ i- 1 0"A 4.^ -fU
.J. K. uous?, writing 111 ioiu tu w
Rural Care inian, published by th
late Cc! D. Wyatt Aiken: "Cotto
may e\or It? a prominent crop, but :
should be cultivated, oulv as one c
the many necessaries of life; an air
pie sufficiency of everything consume
| rjKm :r.e laim snouid De grown at
r' "John R. Matt:' ows, one of t e pioi
neers in the successful cultivation of
I sea lsiuiiu coiion, reporieu 10 iu?*
I "icultural society of St. John's parish
I i that he saved his lands rroin sterility
and :r:ide tliein productive by using
s 12-> loads of salt inud and 30 of stable
manure per acre."
"There is in this office a collection
of eld drawings. & owing t'.ie style of
*' \ats used it a number of places along
the coast to reduce the sea water to a
1; salty brine for the purpose of fer
j tili/rat'on: and, in fact, there were
-1 some experimenters who reduced the
5; brip.j 10 salt crystals."
j | rncam -
11 THE TEKKIPLE TOLL
-! OF THE El'ivOPEAN WAP,
! There have been many estimates ol
-' the losses in killed r.nd wounded d!ir
ring the eig t months of the war, and
' J si! of them arc made in sue1.: enor|
mo us figures as to seem almost in !
credible. The insistence by reputable
I and competent students c: the war,
i however, that hundreds of thousan is
:' of men ?. ave been sacrificed in toe
i course of ti.:e fighting thus far can
! not fail to carry some measure of
j conviction to the most skeptical.
| A staff correspondent of The New
York IWorld, but lately returned from
i the war area, declares that the a'lie^
j on the western front are patiently
biding t'.:cir time for the great strok?
they are determined to-make against
t1 e Germans, and they have calculated
on losses aggregating a million
men in the campaign they are planning
to drive the invaders out oi:
France and Belgium. From this he
proceeds to an apalysis of til:e losses
; thus far scored on the field of battle
"These figures stagger one, but a
| moment's reflection will svow tiiat
I T j
! ill U U? li\J lilVfiiio CAur.jCliiini.
j The total losses so far in this war
J have been at least 6,000.000 killed,
wounded or put out of action on bot?.
"The Prussian lists alone show
| losses in excess of 1,000 000 men, and
: it is admitted that this is not t'.ialf of
| the German locoes. A ?very conservative
estimate to date is that Germany
has lost 2,500,000 men. and that Austria
i' as lost nearly if not quite 1 000,
"Of the allies Russia has lost most
r.eavily, and although no accurate figures
are available, her casualties total
at least 1,500,000. The French have
lest well over 1,000,000. Nobody knows
k wl' at the Serbian losses are, but I have
, heard them estimated at 225.000. Great
, Britain fcas lost at least 150,000, caunting
the casualties in her Indian 'forces.
j Feigium has had nearly 100,000 put
i hors de combat.
5 "This gives roug ly a total loss of
- 0.000,000 for the allies and aboui
- 3,500.000 for their enemies.''
1 Of L!:is number certainly two nr'l?
linn onri nJrKa r?s bnlf a* manv more.
* are prisoners. The Germans haze
nearly a million in their camps and
compounds, and ti e Russians probaf
j biy have half a million in theirs. If
I six million men C:ave been put out of
action, perhaps three and a half miie
lion ha-.e been killed or wounded, and
57 of these peri aps one-i:*ourth have.
' been killed, or in the neighborhood of
s three-quarters of a million men. Of
^ the wounded many, of course, have aiready
recovered and resumed their
places in the ranks, a large propor'
tion of tie remaining will be able to
61 rptnrn tr> the lines within tine nex:
few weeks, and many will recover anj
'> be able to aid in the work of restorer
tion that will come after the war.
~ With ail these deductions, however,
s t):e number of men lost beyond recall
in fl'-.e great conflict is a huge total,
>- but the significance of the number in
) the prospect of further losses is the
>f most hideous feature of the bloody
- toll. T:e heaviest fighting in the west????
of no i o vot r>Ainp Tf allies
j ci 11 a.ix^a xo ?.vf i}
count upon sacrificing a million men
n to the effort to expel the Germans, i!
r> is certain the Germans may be expected
to lose three-quarters as man;;
" in opposition. There will remain tlu
g figf:.ting in the eastern area of tt:e war
n where, up to this time, there have beej
I only tne open operauuxis smuc
| first sharp campaign in Belgium and
0 France and tie losses there may well
1 be estimated as equal to tftose thai
e v.*ill be made in the west. Before thf
anniversary of the wars beginninc
ccmes around, it is not unlikely thai
two million more men will have beer
- i^n- -,^,1 +>ia o.rM win hardh
U I UlVUgill 1\J Tf y ClIiLi Uiiv V.UU .
d then be in sigfct. If the estimates o1
0 six million incapacitated thus far is
a correct, there is in sight a toll of perhaps
eigf:t million men sacrificed in e
year of struggle for the mastery oj
i TTV-? ir*riT\r\ -ft orn r>^>c cf-n^rrpr flip ID!
j Hi U1 UJJC. UUV11 .j?.~OD~- ?
;_ i agination and mock tfte comprehension
of men of normal mind.
e >lost Likely.
n Bix?By tf:e way, who is. or rathei
it was the god of war?
>f Dix?I've forgotten the duffer's
t- name, but I think it was lAnnanias ?
d j Indianapolis Journal.
George I>. Cromer, o*' Ncwuerry, is
i veil known all ever the State. He is
I lawyer and was formerly president of
J Newberry college, and Iir.3 taken r?
! wide interest in matters o: the kind
( which will come before t e State boui.i t
! of charities.
| R. H. King, of Charleson, is secre-!
I tary of t' e Charleston Y. C. A. and 1
' has had considerable experience in ;
: community work. He has been acti ej
Iy identified with movements meaning
j the upbuilding of institutions cominc:!
; under tlic supervision of this law. !
D. D. Wallace, of Spartanburg, is j
| professor of hicicry and economics of j
j Woffonl college, and is ti e author gi i
j several v;ell known works. He i
1 been a student cf coeiolor;k:al problems 1
1 and is regarded as a well-posted man. |
Dr. Z. T. Co-dy, of Greenville, is *. ?- '
I itor of the Baptist Corner. Hi.; lar^ r i
; activities ave been alcn^; the lines
Long Distance calls for f
radius of several hundred
"In less than one hou
^ ? - - ? *- ? ./-v ^ 1 f- /~\
OI 11UU1 ctt <X lvjicu lv/
"Since then we have 2
Bell Telephone to every f<
most profitable results,
rates are reasonable and
in one Long Distance Te
a dozen letters"
SOUTHERN BELL TI
AND TELEGRAPH <
kua JLfta. i;u.
f I JL* _
Opened February 20, <
Opened January 1, clos
Tickets on sale daily '<
1 returning. Good going '
ing via another. Stop-o
. Round Trip from Newbe
One way, via Portland, C
; Also very low round trij
i Portland, Ore. ; Vancouv
J Western points.
Full information regar
: points of interest, schedu
Also descriptive literatur
us help you plan your tri
Why pay Tourist Ag
. | CLLKZ 11 ixuux vuu
t| S. H, M
. | Columb
S. H. Hardwick, H. I1
.! P. T. E., G. J
D. C. D.
ccritemV.nte.! in the law creating ^
v )\ >" ' f f.'t O f jrwg Qn;J CO:" ^ j
ti.:r.s. I In) ha.? .'cvotP'l much time
among r v ' - M
pm.ient dtlirquciit and deficient^!
c"a??es of the State citizenship.
L. E. Carngr-n, of Society Hill, :s -V
plsnter cf large undertakings and v.a?
formerly a member of the teusc rro*
Darlington. He has always been acS
ivt- i:i the work contemplated by tfl
law and is a student of sociology
and economic questions. ||j
The board is said to be one ofl
-t o: us Kir.u appointed in any fl
in a good many years. All of the J
ers seem anxious to Dcgin tneA
oi co-opt rating witn those offrceflj
me i 11- ? or institute*:s eonniv^^*
rnder the purview of the act towards
improving eonj-liorifc in the various
jra's, aim?hcuses, chain gauge and the
I of its Value
"One of our salesmen
value of the Long Distance
Telephone to us.
He was at Huntsville,
Ala., and upon his own
responsibility put in ^
ifteen merchants within a
ir he had sold 2100 barrels M
us of less than six dollars, j
ipplied the Long Distance'
mature of our business with
The service is fine, the J
there is more satisfaction, -il
:lephone talk than in half
^UMrAIM * J
LUMBIA. S. C. M
1 Exposition^ V
iloses December 4, 1915 ?
raia Exposition 1
les December 31, 1915.
>r of the South
md limited 90 days for
da one route and return- J
vers allowed. I
rry, S. C. - - - $81.10 V
regon - - - $102.81 I
rates from other points. V
) rates to Seattle Washier,
B. C., and many other |
ding the various routes,
les, etc , gladly furnished,
e sent upon request. Let
encies when our services
iia, S. C.
\ Cary, W. E. McGee,
P. A. A. G. P. A.
. C. S.C. J