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BY EDWARD B HOI
1 am going to talk to you this morn
ing about preparedness. Not that kind j
of preparedness in which Newberry
college is engaged; not that kind of
preparedness whicL fits a man for the
world to come; but a kind of preparedness,
the basis of which is the
most important issue which the United
States faces today. And tfcis is the
preparedness of this country to resist
sudden attack?the preparedness
Yes, I realize that all of us are sick
of war. I know you do not wish a
nroi. onrJ T r?n nnt want to talk!
war. But, as I have stated, the most
serious of all national questions today
is "Are we prepared?" Are we
prepared to successfully defend American
liberty and all ti:at American
liberty stands for? Are we prepared
to safeguard American homes from
the ravages -of war?to protect tne
lives of innocent women and children?
I am not going to expound any new
doctrines this morning, or bring forth
a new theory. Any school boy could
get up here and say tfae same thing
that I will say, and perhaps do it betT
f not T on AmnnVQn'
tCi v j_> ui, J. ICC1 jl, <*11 ivwu
citizen, who loves the Stars and
Stripes as mud-, as any man can?I
feel that if I shall leave a thought
with you this morning?be an inspiration,
as it were, for just one of you
to help this country to get on the right
track, the two thousand miles which I
have traveled to deliver this talk will
fcave been repaid.
T /v/\in rr i-r\ I.A lr A f V? A ni?ACAT> f
1 <1111 11UI QUlUg LU LCLXV C t,u.c yigc&ai,
\European struggle for a basis upon
w11:ach to talk. I am going back farther
than that, and I am coming closer
home. Some months ago?weeks before
the present world war?an army
of the United States of America invaded
a neighboring State?Mexico.
After a bombardment of the most considerable
port of that nation, and af
ter Having lost u.e lives or seventeen
American marines?entered Vera Cruz
and took possession of it. The reason
for this most amazing military
expedition in the history of this country
is supplied by President Wilson
himself, who said at tf:-e time:
"We are in Mexico to serve mankind
if we can find a way."
I say to you that when a nation is
in the hands of rulers, either elected
or enthroned, who, without a formal
declaration of war?without satisfying
the requirements of common international
law?when that nation does not
Hesitate to invade a neignbonng state,
is it unreasonable to inquire as to the
supplies, ammunition and other incidentals
of war-making possessed by
the army and navy of such a nation?
And, at this time, there were such
inquiries. There was a demand from
American citizens for an official report
on tf'-e naval and military strength of
this country. And at the same time,
there came protests from earnest Welfare
ministArs onllpp-p nro
fessors and college presidents, if you
please upon such an investigation.
Because, these men said: preparedness
is not a guarantee of peace.
In the same breath I ask you: When
was unpreparedness a guarantee
; -Have any of you forgotton 189S?
Never in the history of the world ,
was a nation more unprepared for war
than was this country in 1898. Our
army and our navy had been neglected
for thirty-tfc.ree years. But did this
unpreparedness delay the declaration
oi war one instant: i>ia tnis unpreparedness
delay actual hostilities one
'Seventeen years ago, hundreds, yes<
thousands of lives of tibe flower of this '
nation were lost because of unpre-!
paredness. You know the story. In
"battle and out of battle these brave
boys died because the country over
which floated the Stars and Stripes,
the nation wfcieh guarantees life and!
liberty, the nation for which they |
fought and died?this nation toad been
negligent in those things which make
for the defense of the nation?which
guarantee -tfcat the integrity of the
nation shall be preserved.
But, some people tell us that things
are. different now?that the United
States will never haive another war.
Therefore, they say that there is no
use to prepare for or against war.
The efforts of tihese well-meaning,
peace-loving people, their desire for a
world-wide abolition of arms deserves
the higtoest commendation. And' I as
an American citizen; and you as a
true American, desire peace. iWe are 1
devoteed to commerce, the arts and industries.
We are not a military nation,
and can not be made a military
nation, but so long as war seems to be
the accepted mode and means of settling
grave international disputes, just
TV liJLiim 1 l/UJLLLUL
J SEAL, CLASS '06.
so long will this nation be forced to
maintain an efficient army and navy
to protect its integrity, its independence,
its women and its children. We
mi'* tt-oll cat.- WP will not DTO
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ourselves with rubber overshoes
and umbrellas so that we will not 'have
unexpected showers. Or that we will
suppress winter clothing so that we
will not have cold weather. There
were people long ago who did not believe
in preparedness, for when Old
Xoah and his three sons were building
ark, these people murmured
and said: "Why are you building this
great ark? Why the very fact that
you are building it is enough to bring
on a flood." But when the ark anchored
on Mount Ararat, Xoah knew
that beneath him in ten fathoms of
water were a world of people who did
not believe in preparedness.
And, yet Mr. Wilson?for whom I
have the highest regard?and who I
think is the greatest president of all
time?Mr. Wilson says:
it A ? J ?? * * - ' + if* rn nrnrr*r?^A/1
Alia W Uctl lb 11 Liia-i, is
that we are prepared to do? To defend
ourselves against attack? We
l ave always found the means to do
that, and shall always find them whenever
-Oh, how could a man who reached
maturity before 1898?a man who Ibas
?'' ^ i.U -
wnuen a greai nisiory ui me uaaeu
States?say: "We hare always found
Has any one o*f you orgotten that
the lives of hundreds of brave and
noble young men of America were sacrificed,
because while the soldiers of
Ag-uinaldo were armed with modern
rifles," with smokeless powder, the
American boys were armed with old
fashioned Springfield rifles tJh-e smoke
of whose antiquated ammunition revealed
the American firing line?
Has any one of you forgotten how
the boys who volunteered from Newberry
went away to war, anarmea ana
in citizen cloties? How men suffered
in camps because of lack of adequate
supplies, because of lack of proper
food and proper medicartreafment?
Has any one of you forgotten that
seventeen years ago, within sight of
New York city on Hoffman's Island,
because of insufficient preparation, because
of the lack of simplest medical
treatment, men lay and suffered, wrhile
in their eyes there flamed the red fire
celebrating tfte fall of Santiago?
Seventeen years ago in fever camp,
in loathsome transport, in battle and
out of battle unpreparedness cost this
nation the lives" of many who volunteered
for the noblest cause for
which young men can serve.
Yes, I agree with Mr. Wilson that
we can always find a means. I believe
tJ'at .we would lick any nation
or any body of nations on earth. in a
finish fight, but that we would get a
mishtv finp trounomsr in the first fif
teen or twenty rounds. And I think
that Mr. Wilson meant, wlhen he said
that we will find the means that Americans
will invariably rise to defend
tf eir homes; that there need be no
force "to drive men to enlist. Yet, was
the courage of the Belgians any protection
against the ruin that has befallen
that nation? Does not the present
war teach us 'that courage, devotion,
sacrifice, is as nothing with
preparation? Before the fire of 42centimetre
guns, the body, if not the
spirit, of national defense crumbles.
And 42-centimetre guns are not the
work of months, but years. Courage,
unfortified by preparation, becomes
mere wanton waste when war begins.
The simple question that the American
people must answer is this:
"Si-all we arm or shall we disarm?"
Since 1898 -the United States has
taken on greater responsibilities, for
example, Panama'and the Pi':illipines.
These possessions must be defended
if we are to defend them, for they
must excite the avarice and invite the
attack of those nations who are looking
for their "place in the sun/' and
these nations believe that the ri-gfbt to
hold them rests upon the preparedness
to defend them.
The question therefore, is, "Shall we
provide forts without guns, guns without
ammunition, battleships without
target practice, artillery without the
necessary gunners? " If we shall we
shall commit a crime which will some
day be paid for in Ifoe lives of young
men of this nation who have responded
tn thp rni2<h^st and nrwhl?*= t ^n.hr
that young men know.
fWlhat shall we do?
On one hand we have China, and
on the other hand we have Germany ?
io waicn are we jeanmg, as regaras
preparedness? The Chinese, being unprepared
are not strong enough to
compete with the Japanese with fleets
and armies and hajre submitted to
Japan, and yet China has four hun
[ dred millions of peoples within her
l own borders and Japan only a hana-!
j ful in comparison. China coul j < old |
| a commanding position in Asia if she
would only put a comparatively small
! percentage of Ler ample population
; under arms, and for the lack of this |
I ? _ ? J _ , ,-.^1 InA r. .. U i
i pi trpcu truucss sue tuiu^ciicu iu auu- ;
j mit to the insolent demands of a
smaller neighbor and perhaps lose'
her sovereignty. Will you say to me, |
that this country should follow the
footsteps of China.
On the other hand what do we rave?;
Germany. *nd since I have chosen
I Germany as a nation presenting the t
highest efficiency in preparedness, you j
will pardon me if I say that f believe j
that Germany is right in what we are!
wont to term militarism. I know!
that if the United States was located :
as is Germany, as regard to geography,
and likewise as regard to enemies,
you would demand that your
son learn the rudiments of warfare, i
and you would demand of the nation \
that she wou!d arm to the hilt. For
what do we have? On one hand we.
i have Russia?great growling bear, I
j who because of her successful war j
witi'n Japan, found it somewhat incon-,
venient to gain exit to t!he ocean1
through the Yellow Sea, must turn the
It was not for idle sport tf: at Russia j
nade her military strength, her military'
forces available for immediate mobo-,
lization five fold, in the years immed-;
iately after the war with Japan. And
statistics show that the German army
grew faster; t!':at it was raised to a
(higher point of efficiency in the last
ten years. So that the latter did not
require a keen sense to fathom what '
Russia was after. . . . Coupled with
this, there was France and hsr people
crying for revenge and France was'
also the first nation of Europe to increase
her military strength on a
large scale. And again, last, but by
no means least is England?a nation
whose pages of history are written in
til:e blood of men?England proud mistress
of the seas?growing jealous of
the rapid strides of Germany in commerce?saw
an opportunity to strike.
11 believe tlfcat Russian aggressiveness,
; French revenge and British jealousy
of three words, "Made in Germany,"
brought on this war.
' But, in keeping with the topic, I
ask you why is Germany on top? Is
it because she has more men to draw
irom tnai nave ner adversaries uo |
figl t the great battles of the world
Against a combined Austro-Germanic
world population of 132,000,000
! she has 722,000,000 of t':.e allies
| against her. (This not includes Turkey).
Then it is not because of this. 1
Is it because of money expended?
In 1912 Germany spent in round
numbers $170,000,000 for the maintenance
of her armies. France in the
same year spent $180,000,000. Russia
$230,000,000 and England $150,000. Yet
with an annual expenditure of less
than one third of her combined opponents
si:e has successfully carried
i on this war on Eastern and Western
fronts, and with the aid of Austria has
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almost i>rtmg'UL lue wieaiu ui mtr uiiai
battle to her brow!
Is it because of natural superior
fighting qualities of the Germans? You
know that the German by nature is a
child. He is not a fighter. Is it courage?
The allies are courageous too.
Is it bravery and long suffering? No.
What tihen? Efficiency of preparation.
But wait, as the disarmament people
of this great country of ours would
say to you, Give the allies time. Mr.
Kitchener said the same thing: "Give
us time." When he was asked in parliament:
"Mr. Kitchener, can you tell
us about when the war will end?" he
answered, "I can not tell you when it
is going to end, but it is going to be
! ging inj May." 'Mir. Kitchener was
! right. T':e war did "begin" on England
the first day in May of this year,
or April 28th to be exact. It began
tten in earnest for England, but not
as the lordly Kitchener anticipated,
for the English were on the Teceiving
end, instead of the sending. You
know the story.
| But, you ask, "What has all this got
to do with America? Wfcat has it got
to do with the army and the na'vy of
tine United States?"
We will not discuss the army, for
lightly speaking, we have none. Moreover,
it is the navy to which we look
for national defense. Then what about
You tell me: "WTay didn't out good
neighbor, Mr. Josephus Daniels of
North Carolina tell us that the navy
is all right?that it is bigger and better
than it ever was?and that it is
ready on a moment's notice to successfully
cope with the navy of any
Yes, Mr. Daniels tell us that we
have more warships than ever before
in the history of tibe nation and that
we are building more every day. But
Mr. Daniels did not tell you what kind;
of war ships! People seem to forget j
that a 'battleship becomes antiquated.
The Cumberland, was no match for
the Merrimac in Hampton Roads, andj
fifteen battleships like the Orgeon
w:;ioh gained world-tame for going
practically aio;.:nd the globe to get
into battle line?fifteen Ore^ons would
be no match for one modern dreadnought!
O", but you tell me, we launched the
biggest battleship in the world a few
weeks ago. T'r.e Pennsylvania, you
mean. The press talked about her
great tonnage?the largest of any ship
afloat. It told us about her big guns,
her armor and her general ability
to fight. But let me tell you this, in
a recent battle between English and
German squadrons in the North Sea,
the German battle cruiser Bleucl er
was sunk. Why? Because she was
t i t- rt \' n .
lacKing in oig guns: .no. oecause,
si':e was lacking in armor? Xo. Because
her gunners were not efficient
or were not brave and courageous? Xo.
Why? The Bleud er went down because
she was slow. It was a running
fight and the ship could not keep up
in the battle line. She lagged behind, |
the fast English boats closed in on j
Vior onr? tnic miclitv- eo^-fic'-tor u'ac i
sent to the depths of the ocean. And
yet, my good friends the Bleucher
was from two to three knots an hour
faster than ti'is great ship Pennsylvania
over wf:ich we raised such a
hullabollo! There may have been
some excuse for the Bleucher's slowness,
for she was a comparatively old
boat. But what excuse is there for
the slowness of the Pennsylvania?
We know that submarines are playing
a great part in the naval game of
tf: e present war. 'What kind of submarines
has the United States? A
montn ago eleven submarines, practically
the entire strength of this country
in boats of such type, were on
review at the naval shown on Hudson
River. The pictures of four of them
appeared in one of the New York dailies,
and with them a picture of a modern
German submarine. 'There was no
comment. None was necessary. The
pictures told tJ.'e story. Three days
later eleven little submarines went out
with the rest of the fleet for maneuvers.
In three hours' time two were put
out of commission by a make-believe
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the dump-heap. What would become
of the remaining litte nine if they
faced a real enemy?
Mr. Daniels goes farther and tells
us that we not only have enougj'a boats,
but we have enough men to man
them. In fact, ?e says, there is a
waiting list of officers. I do not tell
you that Mr. Daniels does not know
what he is talking abou$. I do not
say that he is trying to 'mislead the
people, but I tell you this: Less than
four months ago t) e German auxiliary
cruiser, the Eitel Frederick, sought re
fuge in the harbor at Norfolk, Virginia.
At the same time, British menof-war
appeared off the coast, and it
appeared that these British boats were
steaming within t):e three mile limit.
A call was sent from naval headquarters
to the scout cruiser Binning):am,
to go to Norfolk to prevent any British
boat from violating our neutrality
?to keep them out of American
waters. And what happened. The
piUminlgthiam was then 'Stationed at
Philadelphia, and it required drawing
from tne enure neei assemoiea mere
to get enough men to make a full
complement for the cruiser Birmingham.
And furthermore, in ti':e dead
i hours of night, when all Philadelphia
was asleep, policemen of that city
went into the slums to get enough
Italians .and peoples.of other nations
I to not as stokers?to shovel eoal he
Tieath the boilers of the Birmingham
?to carry the fighting boat to Norfolk
?a night's journey from Philadelphia!
We are further told by this same
man that the guns of defense of New
York city, our principal port, have a
range "the greatest in the world." Yet
Representative Gardner has pointed
cut tl_at the guns carried by battleships
like the superdreadnaught Queen
Elizabeth of the British navy, which
have been in the action at the Dardanelles,
with power enough to carry
projectiles weighing from 1,500 to 2,000
pounds from 15 to 20 miles?these
guns could reduce the forts tfcat defend
New York, and while they were
about it, remain out of range of our
guns. In other words, the guns of the
Queen Elizabeth can shoot four miles
farther than the guns off Sandy Hook.
And once the forts that defend New
York are reduced, wfaat would bappen?
The enemy fleet could tfcen move
in closer and destroy the city if it did
not surrender. And once New York
city was in the hands of a foreign
army and navy, it would be but a day's
work to take over our powder making
plants, wfhich are all located in
the New York district. It would require
a short time to pulverize our
small standing army. And once this
happened, I fear it would require a
greater genius than a Wood row Wilson
to find the means to defend our
liberty, to preserve our independence
and to safeguard our homes and our
women and children from the ravages
of an invading army.
What is wrong? I ask. Are we appropriating
enough, money? Or arei
Long Distance calls for fi:
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