Newspaper Page Text
First Year (
War of Nations, in Which L(
Billions, Has Been Produci
Changes in Mei
The second year of the European
war opened last Sunday. On August
1, 1914, Germany declared war against
Russia and the last chance vanished
of localizing the Austro-Servian war,
declared tf-ree days previously by Aus
All the grea.t powers of Europe war#
drawn into a struggle, the like of
which history has not heretofore recorded.
Eleven nations are at war and
almost all lands are effected, directly
or indirectly. Millions of men have
"been killed wounded or carried into
captivity in hostile countries. Billions
of dollars have been expended. Thousands
of square miles of territory have
been devastated and hundreds of cities
and towns laid waste. Half t'ie world
is in mourning for the dead. And although
the war has been in progress
with unexampled fury for a year, the
result may be summarized in one brief
sentence: Xo decisive results have
been achieved and the end is not in
Determination to pursue the war to
o Aar>icivo an flinp' had hPf>n PXDrfSSftd
by fcigh officials of all the belligerent
nations, preparations are being made
for next winter's campaign, and, in
fact, indications from Europe are that
ii is more likely to increase in size
rather than decrease. It is still an
rvrnnofctirm -a-HAthpr Riile^aria. Rou
mania or Greece will be drawn in.
In view of the immensity of the
struggle, previous stan lards count for
little in considering the price the
world is paying. The figures involved
are so vast as to convey little meaning. I
The nations at war have poured out j
their treasures of men and gold without
limit. The usual standards of life
have been subordinated or disregarded,
<H2<2 111 SUlLie UctStib suciai, uiuusuiai
and political activities ha;ve been virtually
reorganized on a militaristic
basis to make all contribute to the
supreme necessities of war.
It is impossible to obtain accurate
oto+icH/>e of +('-?> numW nf mpn pti
gaged, the casualties and the cost.
For obvious reasons the size of tiie
various armies is kept secret. Most
of the nations do not consider it expedient
to reveal the number of casualties;
in fact, Great Britain is the
only one w-ich has given out official
totals. As to the money expended
ar? avniiAhlp ortlv nartial sta
Half of World at War.
Wore than half the population of
the world lives in the countries at
war. The population of the warring
countries is estimated roughly at 947,000,000,
and of the countries at peace
at 779,000,000. The population of the
entente nations is perhaps live times
as great as that of their opponents.
The number of men under arms has
been estimated ivariously, usually in
the neighborhood of 20,000,000. William
Michaelis, writing recently in a
Berlin magazine, put the number of
soldiers at war at 21,770,000?for the
allies, 12,820,000; for Germany, Austria-Hungary
and Turkey, 8,950,000.
No previous war has approached the
present one in wholesale destruction
of life. This is due not only, to the
number of men involved but to the terrible
efficiency 'of modern weapons
Trench warfare on a great scale with
its deadly charges, mining operations
and extensive use of artillery and |
hand grenades contributed to this
end. Whereas in the past it has been
calculated t':at the proportion of killed
to total casualties runs 1 to 8 or 1
to 10, the proportion in trench warfare,
as indicated by official British
statistics, is about 1 to 5.
The battles on the plains of Flanders,
on the Warsaw front, in the Aus
** ^ - J ??
iro-u-erman <iuva.xict; Lixivugu Uauvtw |
.and in the Carpathians were attended
iby frightful slaughter. Russian losses
in the Carpathians alone were estimated
unofficially at 500,000. Along the
battlefields from Arras, in northwestern
France, to the Belgian coast whole
' iritVi nrvrnco5
fields nave deeu iuvcicu ?,
and at the time of the German attempt
to reach the English channel the Ypser
canal was choked with the dead. According
to official British statistics,
the British army alone foas been
aosing of late in killed, wounded and
missing 2,000 a day. On June 9 Pre?. ?
or?n/-knn/?ar? that British
lilltrr !ais-4 uiuii quuvumvvu -
casualties since the beginning of tfte
war (excluding naval losses of IS,549
up to May 31) amounted to 258,069, of
which the total amount of killed was
Others Suffer More.
The losses of Germany, France and
Russia, by reason of their larger armies,
have been far greater. The
Heer und Politik of. Berlin early in
______ ^ 4
T " ' '
Sees No D<
osses of Men Have Run Into A
live of No Crushing Defeat fo
thods Mark Modern Struggle /
I J une estimated that more than 5,000,-t
000 soldiers of the countries at war
! wit:: Germany and her allies have been
I killed, wounded or captured. Hailaire
| Belloc, the English military writer,
said Germany's potential manhood for
j actual fighting probably had dimin
ished from all causes by nearly onehalf
in the first year of the war, and
asserted a conservative estimate was
that Germany had much nearer 4,000,000
titan 3,000,000 men permanently
out of the field. Estimates of the total
casualties run from 6,000,000 to
8,000,000 with the former figure probably
The cost in money runs to a similar
iv nuge loiai. ureai; eruain is now
spending about ?15,000,000 a day on
the war, according to Premier Asquith.
Albert Metin, general budget reporter
of the French chamber of deputies,
calculates the war is costing France
$10,000 a minute, or $14,000,000 a day.
William Michaelic recently estimated
f ^ a /^rkilTF aaf f + rv of ^ Q fill A
11IC uailj tuot LLf \J?d lli.a.JLlJ CL L <jJU,-'JV,VUV,
saying 40 days of this war cost as
much as the whole Franco-Prussian
war of 1S70-1. In March Dr. Karl
Helfferich, secretary of the imperial
treasury of Germany, said the war
I _ _ _ 11 1. .11* ?- AAA
was costing ail oeingerenis $6o,vvu,000
On the basis of Dr. Helfferich's estimate,
the first year of ti-e war cost
the stupendous sum of $11,500,000,000.
Mr. Michaelis puts the figure at 15
billions of dollars, not including Italy's
expenditures, a sum .more than 50 per
cent, greater than the gold production
of the world during the last 500 years.
Other estimates run still higher, to 20
billion dollars or more.
In addition to t';e money expended
directly on the war, the loss in de
I sirucuon or property on iana ana sea
has run high into the millions. Great
losses are being occasioned by the cessation
or curtailment of many forms
of productive industry. The energies
of the world have been largely diverted
to making war. Factories of
all crvrtc hstvo hppn tnrnpri mrPr tn thp
making of war munitions, men taken
i from mill and field, to be replaced by
women, old men and children. Economists
assert that for generations to
come the world will feel the effect of
tie huge losses, in the burden of taxation
and otherwise, and sociologists
make conflicting predictions as to its
moral, physical and psychological effect
oil generations living and to come.
>'eutrals Also Affected.
Neutrals as well as belligerents have
been affected. The financial stringency
which followed the outbreak of war
was worldwide. Tne united states, m
common with other neutrals, has been
confronted with the threatened
1 abridgement of its rights, particularly
at sea, and has sent notes of remonstance
to England and Germany, the
complications with ti':e latter country
following the sinking of the Lusitania
giving especial concern.
The war has been attended with many
unexpected features, one of which is
its protraction. It has been believed
that such a struggle would be of comparatively
short duration, on account
of the cost and loss of life it would
entail. At the outset it was commonly
said that within less than a year the
nations in\Tvlvpd would Ha compelled
to seek peace through financial exhaustion,
if for no other reason. While
each side has won its victories, no final 1
results have been reached in any of the 1
campaigns, with a few minor exceptions
of the lesser operations in distant
colonies. Over the greater part
of thp Franco-Belgian front the oppos
ing millions are facing each other in
the same positions as last September. .
Movements on the eastern front have
been wider, but with no signs of an i
The German, plan is generally as- j
sumed to have been to deal first with <
France, in the early weeks of the war
before the Russian army, slower to
mobilize, was able to present a serious ;
menace; and then to turn on Russia.
The fierce resistance of Belgium and <
the unexpectedly quick mobilization of ;
both the French and Russian armies
presented the full fruition of this plan.
Nevertheless Germany Ifcas been able to ,j
hold her own on both the eastern and <
western fronts. <
Separate Wars Waged. i
In reality the struggle of the 11 na- i
tions is divided into a number of sep- '
arate wars, related to eacfo' other in i
only a general way. The whole field of
military operations may be sum- <
marized as follows: <
tr? nvcn/ia onr? "Rp.J?Tiim n-ermanv is i
JLJJ. I' iuuvo i*uu ?
battling with Great Britain, France ]
and Belgium. In August Germany in- ]
vaaed Belgium anti France, pushing <
SC IdlUll 1 VCU/ i
iillions and of Property Into
r Any Belligerent?Great
southward almost to the gates of
Paris. Following the battle of the
Marne, perhaps the most important
contest of the war thus far, t)':e Germans
were compelled to retreat and
haive since held an entrenched line
from the Belgian coast to Alsace, retaining
possession of northeastern
France and most of Belgium. In this I
theater the war has been so even that
tf:e capture of a group of houses or a
few yards of trenches has been considered
a ivictory worthy of mention
in the official reports. The German
attempt to break through to the English
channel, the British victory at
'Xeuve Ciapelle, the German triumph
at Soissons, while calling forth supreme
efforts, did not materially
change the relative pasitions of the antagonists
along the front of nearly
On the eastern front Russia faces
Germany and Austria-Hungary. Russian
armies invaded Galicia and Buko
wina, capturing most of the former
province, but lost the greater part of
this territory as a result of Field
Marshal von Mackenzen's great drive
from Cracow. The Germans invaded
Russian Poland, and ti':eir attempts to
capture Warsaw led to some of the
deadliest fighting of the war. In time
^ 1- - -J. 1- 1 - i.11 ^ J J ~ 4. ^
tue siruggie nere seiueu uuwu iu
trench warfare, much as in the west,
with Germany retaining a large part
of Russian Poland. Russian invasions
of East Prussia resulted in disastrous
defeats. Further north, the Germans
swept in tJ-e Baltic provinces of Russia,
capturing Libau, on the sea. The
nnnrenerienteri extension of battle lines I
which this war has witnessed reached
its most remarkable exemplification in
this campaign, in which the front has
been drawn out more than 600 miles
from the Baltic to Bukowina.
Italy, after ten months of uncertainty,
began war with Austria-Hungary,
in May, and has occupied a fringe of
Austrian territory m me moumamuus
region to the north. Trent and Trieste
are the objectives of the Italian campaign.
Owing to the difficult nature
of the ground neither of ti':e antagonists
has made much headway.
In Moslem Regions.
On the Gallipoli peninsula, in the
Dardanelles and in the Bosphorus,
Turkey, aided by her Teutonic allies,
is at war with France, Great Britain
and Russia, with possession of Constantinople
as t)-e great stake. Following
the failure of the naval asault
on the Dardanelles by an Anglo-French
fleet, troops were landed on the peninsula.
Few details of this campaign are
available, and lit.tle is known beyond
the fact that the fighting has been particularly
severe, and that t?e allies
have occupied and retained the tip of
Servia and Montenegro, the former
assisted by British troops, are at war
with Austria-Hungary. The Austrian
invasion of Servia ended in failure.
Hn fVici "VTnn ton ^crrin .frrvnt thprp
been only desultory fighting. Boti3
Servia and Montenegro have recently
invaded Albania, with the object of obtaining
ports on the sea.
On Asiatic soil Russia is at war
with Turkey in the Black sea region.
Neither side has employed a large
number of troops in this campaign.
T"hprf> has heem fi 21'; tine in the Cau-1
casus and Persia, with no great accomplishments.
Further south, in
Mesopotamia, there has been sporadic
fighting between Turkish and British
troops. Turkey sent an army to attack
the Suez canal, but tice main
body of troops failed to reach its ob
In Africa French and British troops
anAnnioH and narf of thp
Kamerun, German possessions. A British
attack on German East Africa was
1 ne lliouiai yuascoaiuiio ui *jrciiiiauj'
in the Pacific were captured by Great
Britain and Japan.
Tsing-tau, the German fortress in
China, was captured by the Japanese,
aided by a British contingent.
No Great Sea Battles.
On tfce seas there have been no
?reat battles. Great Britain's supremacy,
owing to the overwhelming size
yf. her fleet, has not been disputed to
the ultimate issue, the main German
fleet having remained in home waters,
rwo German cruisers which were in
the Mediterranean when war began
went to tlbe Dardanelles, and were acquired
by Turkey. A few German
jruisers and converted merchantmen,
including the famous Emden, and the
Karlsruhe, Kronprinz iWilhelm and
Prinz Eitel Friedrich, raided shipping
)f the allies for a time, but were event-J
ually sunk or forced to intern in neutral
The Austro-Hungarian fleet has remained
in the Adriatic and the Turkis.
fleet has been kept from the Aegean.
Germany's merchant marine has
oeen swept from the seas.
There have been several naval battles
of importance, however. In the
first month of the war Rear Admiral
Beatty's squadron dashed into Helgoland
Bight, near the great German naval
station, and sank tr.ree German
cruisers and two torpedo boat destroyers.
In January occurred a battle in
tf;e North Sea between British warships
and a German squadron which
presumably was attempting a raid 011
the English coast. In this battle the
German cruiser Bleucher was sunk.
TTia fiprman Far F!a<5t cnnartrrm rta
feated Vice Admiral Cradock's Britisu
squadron off the Chilean coast on November
1, sinking the Good Hope and
Monmouth. The British obtained their
revenge in December when, off the
Falkland Islands, a powerful Britishsquadron
defeated the Germans, sinking
the Sc^arnhorst, Gneisenau, Leip
zig and Xuernberg.
German squadrons nave twice attacked
the English coast, causing somo
loss of life and damage to property.
English towns, including London, have
also been attacked by German aircraft,
which made several successful trips |
across the North Sea, raiding points |
An f 7i.o oocf ct
Chancres in ^Tetliods.
Metf'ods of fighting have been altered
radically in consequence of the
lessons learned in the first year of j
the war. It has been pre-eminently a |
war of machines. The resources af-j
forded by modern scientific develop- j
ment have been taxed to devise new
instruments of death and destruction
more potent than ever had been employed.
It has been also a war of
surprises. New problems have arisen
necessitating reconstruction of tfce
theory of war. Plans and methods
heretofore approved by authorities on
military affairs were discarded,
and the staffs of the various armies
were comDell^d to srraDole with sit
uations far which there was no precedent.
Ti e first great surprise of the war!
was the German 42-centimeter
(16 1-2 inch) gun, which hurls for
some 15 miles a shell weighing almost
a ton. The great fortifications which
were the pride of Belgium, and be- j
lieved to be almost impregnable, were'
battered into ruins by these guns in j
a comparatively short time. Two of j
tJhese guns, stationed 10 miles fromj
Antwerp, wrecked its elaborate defense
work. Leige and Narnur fell similarly.
The use of artillery and machine
guns, in fact, has been one of the principle
features of the war. Great execution
was done by the new Krupp
11-inrh howitzer, weishine nearlv 40
tons, with a six-mile radius. The'
Austrian 12-inch howitzer also Las,
proved exceptionally efficient. T.he
French 75-millimeter gun is regarded
as one of the most effective field j
On all the European battlefields ar-;
tillery has been the main reliance of
the various armies. Trenches bristle I
with marhinA o-iins whin'".- militarv i
^nen say bid fair to relegate tiie rifle:
to a secondary place. It was with ar- j
ti.llery that the Austro-German* forces j
blasted their way across Galicia a few j
weeks ago, making what #as said to j
be tUe greatest concentration of heavy
and light field pieces ever seen. Witu
artillery the British won at Xeuve
Chapelle, the Germans at Soissons. j
Every considerable movement of infantry
is preceded by a heavy artillery
bombardment, and frequently the infantry
has little more to do than occu- i
py the position of the enemy made untenable
by artillery fire.
Dig? Themselves In.
The deadliness of mad:ine guns necessitated
recourse to trenches, for
no troops in exposed positions could
live within the range of the rapid
firers. Consequently trench warfare
has developed to an extent never be
fore seen. Whole armies moved into
underground quarters, with elaborate
labyrinths of passages and subterranean
living and sleeping quarters.
The result of machine warfare was
the use of ammunition on a scale for
wlhich the world was unprepared. England
recognized it as her greatest problem,
and made Dajvid Lloyd-George
minister of munitions, with power to
mobilize the nation's workers for the
production of war munitions on a colossal
scale. France took similar measures.
Italy, which had 10 months to
prepare iui" war, iuu^u n, uctcasai /
after two months of fighting to appoint
by royal decree a supreme committee
to increase the production of munitions.
The battle of Neuve Chapelle
alone is said to f:ave cost the British
the expenditure 01 more powuer man
the entire Boer war.
One result of the development of
this form of warfare is the eclipse of
cavalry as one of the principal arms 1
of service. Cavalry is still used to a
small extent on the eastern front, but
its employment in France virtually
iias been abandoned. The cavalrymen 1
have been dismounted and placed in
Almost as conspicuous is the de- j
velcpment or' submarine warfare. The.
remarkable exploits of submarines j
Vi.o.va nrrvvpH rbpir pffirMPnr1 v !a fhr*r_ I
oughly that already the supremacy of!
battleships has been challenged. Germany,
compelled to rely chiefly on
these crai't for her marine activities,
i as gained the greatest success with |
them. T.eir first large achievement:
was the torpedoing and sinking by j
one submarine witnin an nour or ine
British cruisers Cressy, Aboukir and
Hogue in the North Sea in September.
Since that time hundreds of vessels,
warships and merchantmen, have
been sent to the bottom in the North
Sea, the Baltic, the Englaish channel,
the Adriatic and at the Dardanelles.
From all causes more than 500 vessels
ihflvp hppn ripstrnvpri. F!nerlflnH !h?s
been tfce greatest sufferer, by reason
of her preponderance of shipping and I
also on account of the German government's
attempt to blockade that
country following the declaration of
a war zone around the British Isles j
In size, speed and cruising radius
the new type of submarines tar exceeds
the earlier small vessels, designed
primarily for coast defense. Germany's
new submarines are as long as
a good sized cruiser. C? pt. Otto Hersing
took the U-51 about 4,000 miles
from Wilhelmshaven, past Gibraltar,
4-V* - ? J ? AT- ?
luiuugu mc .ucuiici i aneciu tuiu it> Liie
Dardanelles, where it torpedoed the
British battleships Triumph and Majestic,
and proceeded to Constantinople.
The "voyage from Wilhelmshaven
to the Dardanelles required one month.
The aeroplane, almost an unknown
Quantity at the hesinnirt? of tlhp war
so far as its military value was concerned,
has proved its practicability
so thoroughly that it must be rated
with the submarine and the heavy gun
as one of the great features of the war.
In fact, it has exercised a dominating
influence over land operations, and to
its use perhaps more tf:an any other
single factor may be ascribed the deadlock
month after month in the principal
field of battle. It has rendered
princeless service in reconnoitering,
taking the place of cavalry. It has
caused a revision of the tactics and
strategy of war. Aerial observers,
flying over the opposing lines, are able
to discover movements of any large
bodies of troops, rendering mat form
of strategy based on surprise Stacks
or quick movements in force impossible.
Aeroplanes also have been of'
great value in locating enemy posi-1
tions, enabling the artillery to get tfte
range and fire accurately on the unseen
Dirigible balloons also are employed,
but to a much less extent; although
Germany still is constructing Zeppe
lins and has used them effectively fori
long distance raids they are generally
regarded as less valuable than tne
Automobiles are used to an enormous
extent, all private machines being
requisitioned in some of the countries
at war. In some instances great
numbers of automobiles f:ave been
utilized for rapid transportation of
troops. Their main service, however,
is in the handling of food supplies and
ammunition. Armored automobiles,
armed with machine guns 01 light field
pieces, also have been utilized.
>'ew War Weapons.
Many new weapons of war have been
tested with varying degrees of sue-1
cess. Poisonous gases, projected from
tanks in the trenches, are reported to
have enabled tJ':eir users to capture
opposing positions in several minor
engagements. Steel darts and incendiary
bombs dropped from aeroplanes,
and new types of hand grenades also
have been employed, while in France
hnt'h sirfpe: atp said to ihavp niadA n<s.p
of apparatus for spraying burning oil.
The political effects of the war, tremendous
as they must be, can not yet
be gauged. The principal result thus
far is the definite rupture of the traditional
alignment wuich divided Eu
rope for years into two alliances with
a theoretical balance of power: Great
Britain, France ana Russia forming
the Triple Entente, and Germany, AusTT
J Ti.i ?
iria-nuusai axiu iuuy c^iisuiuuug
the Triple Alliance.
From the day Austria-Hungary became
involved in serious difficulties
with Servia there was little doubt
Germany would support her ally in
case Russia adhered to her traditional
policy of defending her Slavic kinsmen
in the Balkans. The entrance
in tl.e war of France followed as a
natural sequence to her alliance with
Russia and Great Britain joined in
after Germany's invasion of Belgium.
Italy was thus the only one of the
six nations concerned in the two alliances
which was not involved at the
outset. Proclaiming ner neutrality,
she utilized the opportunity to seek
from Austria the territory to tfoe north
of her border which she has long de
sirec!. Failing to ooiain run satisfaction
of her demands she denounced
the Triple Alliance and joined the al
lies. The Triple Entente was thus j
converted into the Quadruple Entente,
as it is sometimes called now. ?
Germany and Austria-Hungary
were strength ened by the adhesion of
nr,~ , in .-i.i.
iuiacj iu me luiorm^i auiance wiuu
Germany which had sprung up in recent
years and in November Turkey
entered the war. Montenegro took up
arms with the Serbs, and Belgium, on
being invaded, joined the allies. Japan,
Great Britain's ally in the East, opened 1
war on Germany, following Berlin's
refusal to surrender Tsing-Tau. There
are thus 11 nations now at war, of
wtiirt'r oiorhf fnrm a-Viat ara UnAwn aa
*.v? kAl " U?v. V ?l u M?kJ ^
Sot Reto.1 Canse.
Historians are agreed that the as- y
sassination of the Austrian archduke.,
Francis Ferdinand, in Sarajevo, Bos*
nia, on June 28, 1914, while the immediate
cause of the war, was not the
determining influence. Europe had
been on the edge of the precipice for
a decaae. fer:aps tne cnier underlying
factor was the development of
the national idea, demanding that po- I
litical divisions should be made to '
correspond with the territory inhabited
by the various people of Europe;
that each people, wifc'.i common language
and customs, should have political
independence and a "place in
the sun." The struggle to attain this
nnlUinn1 + n
CIIU ivcyt CiUIUpC 111 tUIiilVil.
France aspired for Alsace and Lorraine,
Italy for Trieste and tne Treatino;
populated largely by Italians;
Servia for Bosnia. Roumania for
Transylvania and Bessarabia. Austrfk
Hungary, within whose boundary is
a complexity of races with varying
claims and aspirations, was particularly
menaced by the growth of tiMs
idea, and it was one phase of this agio ^
tation?Servia's desire for Bosnia^which
brought on the crisis. The same
motive brought in Montenegro and
Italy and influenced Russia ani
France to go to war.
The growth of the national idea was
attended by ft. e growth of militarism
as a means for securing these desires. **
The greatest standing armies in history
were built up, compulsory military
~ A ~ ^ i A rv r? r* A ATI/NT*
SCfVltC UCCCLUit; n tau, auu tuvi mous
navies were constructed.
Out of it all, with the mutual suspicion
engendered, grew the situation,
which kept Europe in fear of war.
Armed to excess, the nations awaited
the war which finally came.
Barbecue at Pomaria August 13.
??* - ? xi n
rne tnree cnurcnes 01 tue oruau
River circuit will gire a barbecue at
Pomaria on August 13 for the benefit
of tlie Methodist parsonage. Speeches
suitable for the occasion will be made.
Dinner 35 cents and 40 cents.
J. L. Graham,
M. H. Kinard,
We will give a first class Barbecut
at the Newberry Fill, near B. M. Suber's,
August 14. Come one and all
and spend a pleasant day.
Dinner 35 and 45 cents.
B. M. Suber.
7-9-td 0. A, Felker.
The board of registration for Newherrv
pountv will be at Wnitmire on
August 10, 1915, &nd at Prosperity on.
August 13, 1915, for the purpose of
registering voters. And at the office
in Newberry on the first Monday in
August, which is the last day for reg
istering for the general election la
Board of Registration for
A meeting of the stockholders jot
The Farmers' Bank, Silverstreet, S. C.,
will be held in ti':e bank building at
Silverstreet, S. C., on Tuesday, the
j 101- ?+ A r?V>1/\^lr
OJLSL Uciv ai "x v viwu
p. m., at which meeting the matter of
liquidating, winding up the affairs and
dissolving the said bank, a corporation
under the law of the State of South
rnrrvlina. will cosidered and -voted
on. Stockholders may attend in person
or by proxy. This meeting is ordered
by the terms of a resolution of
the board of directors of said bank.
H. 0. Long,
President of The Farmers' Bank,
OllVClOUCVWf -w. u.
POLICY HOLDERS' SHEETING.
The policy holders of the Farmers'
Mutual Insurance iAssociation of New
berry Comity will meet in annual session
at the Court House on the Ttflu da j
of August, 1915, at 11 o'clock A. M. A
full attendance is desired.
R. T. C. Hunter,
L. I. Bp-ting,