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PEOPLES OF THE WORLD. [
The Aryan or White Race and Its Numerous
The division of the earth's popula
tion according to race is as follows:
Indo-Germanic or Aryan race iwhite),
occupying Kurope. America. Persia, In
dia and Australia, about 775.000.000;
Mongolian or Turanian tyellow anil
brown), living in Asia, about (INi'.oOO.000;
Semitic (whi:e? living 111 Asia.
Arabia, etc.. about ?' mum JO. negro
and Bantu (black). ! ** i in Africa,
about lG0.0U0.0tHi. Malay and Polyue
sian (brown?. inhabiting Australasia.
about 3o,OOU.OiH>; American (Indian redi
found in North and South America,
number, including balfbreeds, about
The Slavs are one of the chief divisions
of the Aryan race. They are divided.
as a race, into two' leading families.
the eastern and western Slavs.
The eastern Slavs comprise the Rus- j
sians (Great Russians. Little Russians I
and White Russians); Bulgarians. Sor?
bo-Croats, including the Servians and
Montenegrins, and Slovenes in Carinthia,
Carniola and part of Syria. The
western Slav family is divided into j
the Poles, in Russia, Austria and Prus-1
sia, and the Kassubes; the Czechs, or;
Bohemians, and the Moravians, with I
the Slovaks in Hungary, and the Lusatian
Wends or Sarbs in Saxony and
Prussia. The theory is that tjieir orig- j
inal home was in Volhynia and White |
VICTIMS OF NIAGARA.
Water Birc? Go to Sleep and Are J
Swept Over the Falls.
Swimming too near the brink of the j
" A ? '!'? /vr? An
falls, hundreds or water unu*. c?cU|
swans, ducks ai.d geese, go over Niag- j
ara falls to their death each year in j
the migratory season. So many birds !
pay the penalty for their daring each j
year that bird lovers on both the 1
American and Canadian sides of tbe !
falls are considering steps to lesseu J
the annual toll of the feathered life. (
Since a majority of the victims are!
claimed in the night, the theory is ad- !
vanced that the birds go to sleep while |
cipimmin" :ind don't wake up until the,
C* TT _
rapids have carried them over the danger
line. Usually they are killed out-;
right in the fa'L Sometimes they are
only srunued ana are picked yut of the
river below th? falls and sold for food, j
- In 1012. so Ernest Harold Bayues,;
the nat lira list relates. 140 whistling
swans went over Horseshoe falls.
Boys and men tished the birds out. i
knocked thei-i on the head and sold
- ~ ?. i
"Jnrues Savage or tiuiraio. ah. :
Bayues says, "with some friends once
^saved a flock of swans by chasing
them in a power boat and making
them fly away just before nightfall.
It was a daring thing for these men to
do, for if by any chance the engine
had become disabled nothing could
have prevented their going over the
falls."?Philadelphia North American. '
African Marriage System.
You cannot fancy how deeply compli-,
fated the African marriage system is
nor how manv ramifications there may
be to a woman palaver. One day Mr.j
Heminger was sitting in a hut talking
' wirh two members <?f his congregation. J
wives of c?ne husband. He was talking
to them about their sins, which
were of an obvious character. The
?wnman )im<i hueri accused of
stealing fuod. Then be turned to tbe
elder, Wawa, she of the ten children,
five of them dead and five of them
"Wawa." said be, "why cannot you
live at peace with this wife of your
husband? Why are you always quarreling?"
(They are notorious scrappers.)
"Well," said Wawa. "she was
bought with one of my children, and I
cannot forget it."?Jean Kenyon Mac.
'kenzie in Atlantic.
Antiquity of Shorthand.
Shorthand is apt to he looked upon,
as an essentially modern art. The
predecessors of Pitman?Byrom in the
eighteenth century. Mason in the seventeenth?are
dim and distant figures
beyond which it seems useless to veu-;
ture. Cicero dictated his orations to
liis freedman. T. Tullius Tiro, and
'was inconsolable when temporarily de-?
prived of his services. He complained j
in a letter to a friend that, while "Tiro !
takes down whole pnrases m a tew j
signs. Spintharus (his provisional sub-J
Btitute) only writes in syllables." We;
need not. however, suppose that the j
"notae Tironianae" were actually invented
by the. freedman in question.
As M. Guenin points out, the Romans
treated very few of the arts of peace,.
contenting themselves, as a rule, by >
* i.u. /i?n/vi.c> If flnonin. '
copying irorn me uicc^.
however, indicates the banks of thej
>?ile as the cradle of the art.
In using the word "blunderbuss" we
unconsciously imply a sense of disparagement
for the shooting powers of
our forefathers contrasted with the
precision of the modern rifle. The
word Itself has, however, a terrible
enough meaning and disdains all consaecton
with "blunder." "Blunderbuss,"
In fact, as we have it, is a
strange corruption?peruaps uut altogether
untinged with the sense and
sound of "blunder"?of the old Dutch
word "donderbuss," which can be literally
translated into the English
"thunder box" or "thunder barrel."
Cures Old Sores, Other Remedies Won't 'ura.
The worst cases, no matter of how long standing,
are cured by the wonderful, old reliable Dr.
Porter's Antiseptic Healing Oil. It relieves
Pain and Heals at the same time. 25<:, 50c, $1.0fi
Subscribe for The Herald and News. 1
OUR ARMY RIFLES
There Are None Better Than
Those Made at Springfield.
IN UNCLE SAM'S BIG ARSENAL
Processes by Which a Billet ot tne rmest
Steel Is Turned Into One of the
Famous 30 Caliber Weapons ? The
Manufacture of Small Arms.
Had Longfellow lived until today and
visited the Springfield arsenal be would
find that the famous old gun racks
which inspired bis verses bave vanished.
Also be would discover many
other changes. The double tiers of gun
racks that the New England bard compared
to hu.ue pipe organs are gone,
save for a small section which has been
preserved in the museum. The "bur
nished arms" with their highly olish
ed barrels are among the things discarded.
too. and as for the pattern of
the rifle?well, there have been at least
a dozen different styles of firearms pru
duced at tne famous armory since
Records have it that there have l>een
sixty distinct types of sma farms man
ufactured at Springfield since its estab
lishment during the Revolutionary war.
These ran ire from the old "I>ro\vu
Bess" and Charleville type with their
flint locks and smooth bored barrels to
the famous "Springfield" of the war
between the states period and the still
more famous oO caliber rifle of today,
which has been pronounced the most
serviceable small arm in the world.
The Springfield armory, with its various
foundries, factories, carpenter
shops, barracks and storehouses, has
cost the United States government in
the neighborhood of $00.000,000. This
expenditure has enabled the ordnance
department to supply its enlisted men
with the best type of army rifle, revolver
and saber at a very small cost.
Moreover, in periods of pressing need
the government has never been ham
pereu Dy rea tape, contracts auu special
legislation in order to arm its
forces. During five wars Springfield
has been able to turn out enough arms
for immediate service, or at least j
enough to take care of emergencies,
though of course the government has
purchased rifles from private firms, j
During the Spanish war this was nec-1
essary because of the quick formation
of volunteer troops.
The manufacture of a rifle entails i
dozens of separate operations and con-1
sequently dozens of different kinds of
machines are necessary. Indeed, there
are ninety-three component parts of a
rifle, fifty different operations being require#
to manufacture the barrel alone.
And as for the bayonet, there are
twelve separate parts to that simple j
looking portion of a soldiers equipm
It is difficult to decide which is the
most important, the lock, stock or barrel
of a rifle, but from the amount of j
work involved in all probability the j
barrel is considered of more conse- j
quence by the Springfield jrunmakers.
The material from which the barrels
are made appears first as short billets
of steel. These are placed in a furnace !
and subjected to intense heat, and i
when they become deep orange in color |
they r.re removed and placed in anoth- j
er furnace where the heat is even |
greater. By means of long tongs the
steel is removed from this heat and put :
into a peculiar roller equipped with
grooves of eleven different sizes.
These rollers are operated under tons i
of pressure, and gradually the billet is
formed into a tapering "blank."
In this process the man in charge of
the rolling mill passes the billet
through eleven different grooves, running
it twice through the last groove,
thus executing twelve distinct operations
before the barrel is even shaped
The rifling machine is a long, ugly
looking affair that moves very slowly.
Four riflings are put into the barrel of
a gun and six are cut into the short
barrels of the automatic revolvers,
which are also made at Springfield.
f ?^ . .K ~ 4. 1 ... AM * I- lli J %-%-? > tK/N Kn M.
jmiueuiaieij* aner iue uuiu^ iuc uui rel
is chambered and sights are put on.
Then the glint of polished sreel is killed
by a process of "browning'' the
In the old days the soldier's rifle was
polished and buffed until it fairly glittered.
Today eveiy metal part is dulled,
first because the old time glint reflected
the sunlight and made the soldier
a better mark for his enemy, and
also because the browning process protects
the metal from the weather.?Edison
Provoking a Husband.
A Mohammedan woman cannot or
herself separate from her husband
without his consent He may divorce
her with a few words spoken by himself.
If she is clever, however, she
will take him by surprise at an unguarded
momeDt and contrive to do or
say something which will make him
so angry that before he can exercise
sufficient self control to stop himself
he has uttered the wished for words.
When I had a caller one day my lit *-?
A ~ li.? nrUk h(a
lie suii came iulu tut; iwiu mm uu
cap on. I s:ikl. "Why. John, don't yon
know you should take your cap off
when you come into the house?"
Quickly tilling it off, he said. "Oh,
yes, I know, but I left it on so I could
tip it to the lady."?Chicago News.
It is not what you lose, but what yos
hare daily to bear, that is hard.?
TRACED IN FIRE.
Glow Pictures Are Spectacular and
Easy to Make.
To make glow pictures forty parts of
saltpeter are added to twenty parts of
; gum arabic. and the whole is dissolved
j in forty parts of water. An ounce or
j two of this mixture will be sufficient
! to prepare a good many pictures. A
I few sheets of white paper should next
j be secured, and this should be rather
! thin, similar to that which is used for |
Now take a clean pen and draw the
i picture on the paper, using rhe solu'
tion, which should be slightly warmed j
bv standing the bottle in hot water.
I Anything may be delineated, the only
' essential point being that all the lines j
' must connect. The final line should be j
! ^r-iwn Hawii tn the corner of the sheet. I
; and this spot may be indicated with a I
' pencil cross. Hang the sheets up to I
I dry, and when the process is complete j
| the lines are practically invisible. i
To bring up the picture first of all ;
turn down the borders of the sheet of
paper in such a way that it is raised
above the surface which will not be in
jured by the slight smoldering of the
paper. Get a match and light it. plac- j
ing the glowing end of the point where I
I the pencil cross was made on the sheet.!
A trail of red fire will at once start j
| to burn out the picture, following the
j lines which have been drawn. No other |
j part of the design catches on fire save!
I that which has been treated with the j
j solution. Finally the picture stands j
j up in strong black lines, and the effect j
i is very curious. There is absolutely no j
! danger from tire in this little experi i
ment?Cleveland Plain Dealer.
| INTENSIVE WHEAT GROWING.'
Startling Results Claimed For a Russian's
Some yer.rs ago, says an English pub- I
; lication, a Russian farmer discovered
j a method of increasing the yield of
| wheat in so startling a manner that 110 j
I one believed he was telling the truth. '
! The Russian declared that it was pos- ;
! sible to get seventy pounds of grain
from one seed and to make an acre j
! oarrv forty-five tons.
; That does sound like a miracle, and !
| we do not vouch for it. but here is th?
method, and if any. farmer has the .pa- i
tience to try it he will certainly be stir J
i prised at the result
i Each grain is planted separately in a !
sunken bed about fifteen inches deep :
and three and a half feet in width.
As soon as the grain sprouts the little
I blade is covered with a thin layer of
earth about an inch and a half in
| depth. The result is that you get three
stalks instead of one. At the end of
three weeks the hoe comes into use
again, and the three stalks beint; cov ;
i ered with earth, turn into nine/stalks. 1
i This process on being repeated a third
time results in twenty-seven stalks,
and the Russian in question repeated
| it ten times in all. so that at last each
grain produced 50.040 stalks. If the
seed is first sown in the ordinary fash|
ion and then transplanted to the pit be|
fore mentioned you get an even stronger
growth, so that after only eight cov- ;
erinirs more than 105.000 stalks have
been produced from a single grain.?
Pegasus ("born near the source or
the ocean") was the winged horse of
Apollo and the Muses. Bellerophon
rode this animal when he charged the
Sleipnir ("the black horse of Odin")
had eight legs and could carry his master
on sea as well as land. This aniI
mal is believed to typify the wind, :
| which blows from eight different
Al Borak ("the lightning") was the
horse commissioned by Gabriel to car
ry Mohammed to the seventh heaven.
| He had a human face and the wings
of an eagle. Every step he took was (
i equal to the farthest range of human :
I According to Thessalian legend, the
; first horse was miraculously brought
forth by Neptune striking a rock with
| his trident.
A Voracious Monster.
The most voracious of all marine
beasts of prey is the orca, or killer
whale. It reaches a length of twentj- i
five feet, and its jaws bristle with
teeth from four to six inches long and
?- on o /liVL' L?n!fa Tfra ^itfocHva
I iiS suaip ao a. una uun.&< iw u^vuwi v
; power is proportioned to the tremenj
dous efficacy of its jaws. It seems also
to be an atrocious glutton, as one specimen
examined contained in Its stomach
thirteen porpoises and fourteen
"Call that art!" exclaimed a would
! be critic, pointing to a painting in a
[ studio. "If that daub is a work of art,
then I'm an idiot!"
"The latter part of your statement,"
. no-irtlnar? fho artist Ofllmlv. "would seem
IVJViUWU VMV V??v J
to furnish conclusive proof that It is a
work of art"
A Lovers' Quarrel.
She (turning at the door)?I think
you are just hateful, and I'm never
going to speak to you again, so there's
| no use coming into the music room
after me, because I'll be on the rustic
bench at the far end of the conservatory.?Smart
Drowned His Voice.
Teacher?Tommy, I asked you to
spell candy. Why don't you do it? His
Sister?Please, miss, his mouth's wa
tering so he can't talk.?Boston Transcript
It is better to begin a good work la
the evening than Dot at all.?Old Say\
i COLOSSAL GRAVEYARDS.
I . .
Imposing Mountains That Are Built o'
Many of the must imposing mountain
| ranges of tin* idohe are largely made
| up oi limestones composed aimosc eu
j tireiy of the hard parts of animals
! which once lived in the sea. the most <
I important of these rock building forms
i being of * very small size. The solid
| earth is. iv fact, a colossal graveyard. 1
! and m;my of its most imposing eleva
' tions are stupendous tombstones.
The chalk making tip the white cliff*
to which England owes her name o\ :
Albion (I*atin. aihus. whitei is chietl\ |
j romposed of microscopic shells closely j
resembling those now found at the j
| bottom of the sea. iliils and tnoiintaii ;
i ranges largely made of this chalk ex
I tend from Britain and Trance round
the shores of the Mediterranean and
away into. Asia and arc largely jepre f
I sented in other parts of the world
Even more remarkable is the limestone
of which the pyramids are built;
This is chiefly made up of coin shaped
shells im.umiuulites). partly r<*spon
sible, uo doubt. for eastern legends of }
magic money. The limestone contain- I
Ing them attains a thickness of sever
al thousand feet and is the materia! of
which many mountain ranges are
largely built. Beginning on the west,
we have the Pyrenees and Alps, fol
lowed by the Carpathians. Caucasus,
mountains of Asia Minor, north Africa
end Baluchistan and. lastly, the Suleiman
mountains. Himalayas and ranges
in China and Japan.
THE JUDGE'S CHARGE.
It Dazed the Culprit's Lawyer, Who
Felt He Had Won His Case.
The following experience of a Mississippi
lawyer was related by himself
yea is ago. lie said:
I was defending a prisoner for Liorse J
stealing, and seeing no other means of j
* ** H * 1 1 - - I * ~ nn/)Aa I
tetenuing mm uuucr iui;v;iivuuisiauvc-> i
I set lip the ple;i of insanity. I argued
it at length, read many extracts from
works of medical jurisprudence and
had the patient attention of the court
The prosecuting attorney did not attempt
to reply to my argument or controvert
my authorities. .. i seemed to
have things my own way and whispered
to the prisoner that lie needn't be
Then came the judge's charge, in
which he reminded the jury that
there was no dispute between counsel
as to the facts of the case. Indeed,
there could uot have been, for several
witnesses had sworn positively that
they saw 1113' client steal the horse.
"But." concluded the court, "the p.lea
of insanity has been set up, and I j
charge you. gentlemen of the jury, j
thar it should receive your very grave!
and serious deliberation, but I must be j
allowed to say. gentlemen, that for j
myself, upon a review of the whole !
case, I can discover 110 evidence of in- |
,??, tho nsirt of the prisoner, ex- !
cl JLH LVII tuv %
cept perhaps in the selection of his!
This Country of Bigness.
America is a quarter section, not a
square foot country. It is the land of j
the biggest lakes, the longest rivers, j
the fastest trains, the tallest buildings, j
the land of the huge corporation and J
the spacious farm and the prodigious I
Industrial enterprise. The inhabitant I
of this country of bigness feels the j
urge of these immeasurable interests; j
therefore his fascination for large tigures
and enormous scales of measure- j
mpnf. He feels that he must keep up!
to the pace of business or get out of I
the game or be run over. One advance!
step necessitates a longer stride to!
follow. He must always have his
"next." Big and swift busi- j
ness always fascinates the American j
mind.?From "American Ideals, " bji
Clayton Sedgwick Cooper.
Habits of the Wildcat.
To say that a dog can "whip hia
weight in wildcats'' is to pay about tha
highest tribute to his strength, cour
age and activity, ana tnere are ?cij
few dogs that would care to earn such
a tribute if they understood all it implied.
Not that a wildcat is of a specially
aggressive disposition." On the
contrary, he would sooner mind his
I own business any time than tight. So j
anxious is he as a rule to keep out j
of trouble that he has often been ac-1
cused of cowardice, but he has on so;
many occasions given evidence of the j
most desperate courage that it is |
| doubtful if the accusation is a fair |
| one. When wounded or at bay he is i
perhaps as dangerous as any creature
of his size.
The Orkney Islands.
"The member from the Orkneys" Is
~ i,'~ hnneo nt
titie only man m iur uiiuou -commons
who can say he sits for 200
! islands. Only sixty of the islands are
; Inhabited, but the constituency embraces
more than 60,000 people.
The Orkneys were once given by
Norway to England as security for &j
queen's dower and never redeemed. In i
the islands the voters must go to the j
polls by boats, and in some cases the
distance to be traveled is eight miles.
Madagascar possesses the only oxen,
cavalry regiment in the world. The i
fni? hnrSM thflt
j Cliiua Ltr 10 aw imucaiiuj ivi Uv.~v~ -?
J some substitute had to be found. The
j oxen have been trained to maneuver
I with surprising skill, but of course are
' not speedy.
"Hicks has a job I wouldn't care for
?pouring molten metal In a foundry."
1 "Must be hot worfc."
"You bet! He perspires at every
| pour."?Boston Transcript
I The Firesii
1 Comes Wi
I'VT QU needn't
room, a colc
your house, O]
moment in the <
have a Perfect
less Oil Heati
Just take it wherever
is needed. In fivi
I changes chills to ct
It's no trouble and
a single gallon of ker
start a big coal fire
oil heater will do?
The Perfection is sn
less and absolutely s
Use Aladdin Security <
White Oil to obtain be
Stoves, Lamps and Hea
(New J rseBALTIMOf
Washington, D. C.
R Norfolk. Va.
3 Richmond, V*.
BT V\^ Look
BllllllllHlfl^^ Sold ii
Br Highest an
0 f Y*, WwiMI
J9 I I 1 I A
I J ^ Hi
Wjmr JK Ski c
>w ^BJLAJ K t
v A i
f WHHB In i
i H 1 r
Vs. 1 I ? 1 "niHwan^1
ii Great |i|
| The year 1916
) will be crowded with
< the very best reading in
j 11IV lVlillllS VVJ
I ;j 9 Great Serials 25
' S" CUT THIS OUT
and send it (or the name of this paper)
with $2.00 for The COMPANION <lren
for 1916, and we will send provi
7?Pi?|7 All the issues of TOE COM- Twit
F IvfjL PANION for the remaining
weeks of 1915. EPVCi
CD 1717 THE COMPANION HOMt
r KTXi CALENDAR for 1916. Send
n-TFlM The 52 Weekly Issues of P311"
1 rliUN THE COMPANION for 1916. ^
de That I
-m ~W T~
til You I
have a cold 9
i corner in I
r a chilly .
ion Smoke- I
the extra heat
3 minutes it
Leery warmth. I
it's very little I
of comfort on
when a little
Oil or Diamond
ist results in Oil
Charlotte. N. G.
Charleston. W. Vi.
Charleston, S. C.
for the Triangle
i many styles and
t all hardware and
7ard PcBMuta-Paa&c Exposition
II x In , rtr>/\/TT^KT HS
/t1 ?,. YinB * VBfA
^ i,t iVHRmi S3
* ', A - "
? III I WEKSMSSm
>?st shina wfljP^WnHK
)oes it easiest I|7^H
he F. F. Bailey C&, UA, Hh||H
1 ffula H V
=3=-^-^'- 1 ' ""sa *
A ai n. !
u onort atones >
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