Newspaper Page Text
Entente Must C
United States in Vigorous
and britain Will Meet Ri
as Regards Inviolabii
Washington, May 26.?The United
5 nritVi I
Males, UtJLlOUliUllig iukuckuvo tt K.U i
neutral mails, has notified Great
iBritain a;.d France that it can not
longer tolerate the wrong which
American citizens have suffered and i
continue to suffer through the "law-1
less practices' those governments j
iave indulged in and that only a j
radical change in policy, restoring the 1
U ited States to its full rights as a ,
neutral power, will be satisfactory, j
The notification is given in the last
American communication to the two :
governments, the text of which was
made Dublic by the state department j
The text of the communication, ad-1
dressed to the British and French
ambassadors, to whom it was deliver- i
ed ^ Wednesday, follows:
"I have the honor to acknowledge
receipt of your excellency's rote of
April 3 last, transmitting a memoI
randum dated February 15, 1916, and j
communicated in substance to the
American ambassador in London on j
February 28, in which are stated the
contentfcins of'the British and French
governments i-i regard to the right
to detain and examine parcel and letter
mails en route by sea between the
"United States and Europe.
"After a discussion of the use of
the mails for the transmission of
'parcel' and of the limitations to be j
placed on 'inviolable mail,' the joint'
memorandum of February 15 closes
vjith the following assertic_
. Bights of Mails.
"1. That ;from the Standpoint of
their right of visitation and eventual
arrest and seizure, merchandise shipped
in post parcels need not and
.shall not be treated otherwise than;
' merchandise shippe-i in any other j
" '2. That the inviolability of postal
correspondence stipulated by the 11th i
convention, The Hague*of 1907, does ,'
HARLEY - DAVIBSO
A few second hand Moto
your old Motorcycle and g(
Harley-Davidson on install
H. O. STOl
1 . I
| AT C
Real Estate at 7 j
Fnr R pnt.. A
Jk V/* JL J
tage near Speer
and a five room
in a good neighfc
ft J. A. E
?r - " . . A
/Vote rroteszs /Against inuit
i Confident That France
lies of International Law
lily of Neutral Mails.
not in any way affect the rights of
the allied governments to visit and if
occasion arise arrest and seize merchandise-liidden
in the wrappers, oni
velopes or letters contained in ^he
, . i
! "'3. That true to their engagements l
and respectful of genuine "cones-'
pondence" the allied gover meats
will continue for the present to refrain
on the high seas from seizing
and co fiscatig such correspondence,
lett.ers or dispatches and will injure
their speediest possible transmission
as soon as the sincerity of their char~
-A ?1 " ~ n onnrtn i
cLCier Sllilll lltl V c UCCU aot^i iamu\4.
"l.i reply the government of the
United States desires to state that it
does not consider that the postal union
convention of 1906 necessarily
applies to the in terferences by the
British and French governments with
the oversea ^asportation of mails of
which the government of the United
States complains/. * Furthermore, the
allied powers appear to have overlooked
the admission of the government
of the United. States that post
1 - . .' > ?_~i?
p&rt?el? may be treated as mexciiaudise
subject to the exercise of belligerent
rights as recognized by interna- j
tional law. -But the government of j
tie'United States does not admit that
such parcels are subject to the sxer-|
cise of the rights of police supervision,
visitation and eventual seizure
'which belongi)to belligerents as to
all cargoes on the high seas' as asserted
in the joint note under acknowledgement.
Doesn't Touch Mails.
"It is .noted with satisfaction that
the British-French government do
not claim, and, in the opinion of this j
goverment, properly do 'Qot claim,
that their socalled 'blockade' measures
are sufficient grounds upon j
which to base a right to interfere with j
all clashes of mail matter in transit j
to 'Qr frcWthe- cehtrai powers. On the j
rcycles cheap. Trade in
it a new one.' Buy a new
nfents and pay while you
t . ...
_ c r*
ry j . w* I
OOto $2,500 on
. four room cot- ,
s Street School j
cottage in High
ghty acres land
contrary their contention appears to f
be that though genuine correspondence
is under conventional stipulation
'inviolable mail matter' other
classes are subject to detention and
examination. While the government
of the United >States agrees that 'genuine
correspondence* mail is inviol- j
able, it does not admit that belliger-,
nrtvyiT nthpr n'rivatp> sea
ciius ma* ton; ^?? x,._.
borne mails for any other purpose
tha: to discover whether they contain
articles of enemy ownership carried
on belligerent vessels or articles of
contraband transmitted under sealed
cover as letter mail, though they may
intercept at sea all mails consigned j
out of and going into ports of the \
enemy's coasts which are effectively <
blockaded. The governments of the
United States, Great Britain and
France, however, appear to be in su'd
| stantial agreement as 10 pmtiyic,
The method of applying the principle
is the chief cause of difference.
Continue Their Coarse.
"Though giving assurances that
they consider 'genuine correspondence'
to be 'inviolable' and that they
will, trito their engagements, refrain
on the high seas from seizing
and confiscating such correspondence,
the allied governments.-proceed to de-!
prive neutral governments of the
benefits of these assurances by seizing
and confiscating mail from vessels
in port' instead of at sea. They
compel neutral ships without just
cause to enter their ow.jj .ports., or i
they induce shipping lines, through'
some form of duress, to send their
mail ships via British ports, or they
detain of (vessels merely calling at'
British ports, thus acquiring by force
of unjustifiable means an illegal jurisdiction
.the authorities remove all
the mails, genuine correspondence as
well as. post parcels, take them to
London,.. where every piece, even
though of neutral origin and destinaton,
ds opened and critically examined
to determine the 'sincerity of their!
- 1- - 5? I
character' in accordance vun .me interpretation
given that undefined
phrase by the British and French
censors. Finally the expurgated remainder
is forwarded frequently after
irreparable delay, to its. destination.
hips are detained en 'route to
or from the United tSates or to or
tion. Ships are detained en route to
mails are held and delayed for several
days and in some cases for weeks
of from the United States or to or
routed to ports of north Europe via*]
British ports. This has been the procedure
which has been -practiced
since the announcement of February j
15, 1916. To some extent the same J
practice was followed before that \
date, calling forth the pritest of this I
government on January 4, 1916. But j
to that protest the memorandum under
acknowledgment makes .no reference
and is entirely unresponsive.
Can't Recognize Claim.
"The government of the United
States must again insist with emphasis
that the British, and French
governments do not obtain rightful
jurisdiction over ships by forcing or
inducing them visit their ports for
the purpose of seizing, their mails or
thereby obtain \ greater, belligerent
rights as to such ships ' than they
there is, In the opinion of the govern ther
is, in the opinion' of the government
of the United States, no legal
distinction between the seizure of
mails at sea, which is announced as
abandoned and. their Seizure from
vessels voluntarily or involuntarily
in port. The" ?ritjsh and (French
practice on the use by neutrals of the
world's highways for the transmission
for correspondence. The pracootiiaiiv
followed bv the allied
powers must be said to justify the
conclusion, therefore, that the announcement
of February 15 was
merely notice that, one illegal practice
had been abandoned to make
place for the development of- another
more onerous and vexatious.
"The present practice is a violation
not only of the spirit of the announcement
of February 15, but of
the rule of The Hague contention
upon which it is based. Aside from
? , ? / +
tTiio if !c o vinlatirvn r?f thfi Drior
It 10 U ? W?. A- ^
practice of nations which Great Brit-!
ain arid her allies have in- the past
assisted to establish and maintain
notwithstanding the statement in the
; i iv
memorandum that 'as , late as 1007
the letters and dispatches .themselves
could be seized and confiscated.'
During the war between the United
States and Mexico the United States
forces allowed British steamers to en
ter av.d depart from the* port of Vera
Cruz without molesting the mails intended
for inland points.
A War of iSecession Case.
"During the American Civil war
Lord Russell endeavored to induce
the United States to concede that
maipst.v's mails on board a pri
vate vessel should be exempted from
visitation or detention.' The exemption
of mails was urged in October,
18G2, in the case of British mails on
board the Adelia. On October 31 [
Secretary Seward announced that
'public mails of any friendly or neu- ?
tral power duly certified or authen- ;
ticated as such shall .not be searched i
or opened, but be put as speedily as :
mar be convenient on the wav to .
their designated destination.' In ac- :
cordance with this announcement the <
government of the United States, in i
the case of the British steamship
Peterhoff, which had been seized with
her mails against the protest of her i
majesty's government, had her mails
forwarded to destination unopened.
"The same rule was followed "by
France, as I am advised, in the Franco-Prussian
war of 1870; by the
United States in the Spanish-American
war of 1898; by Great Britain in
the "South African war, in the case of
the German mail steamers Bundesrath
and General; by Japan and substantially
by Russia in the Russo- '
Japanese war of 1904. And even in
the present war, as the memorandum
of Great Britain and France states,
their enemy, Germany, has desisted
from the practice of interfering with
neutral mails even on board belliger- j
ent steamers. This is illustrated by j
the- case of the French steamer Flor- j
ide, captured by tne auxiliary cruiser i
Prinz Eitel Friederich, cited by the j
British and French governments in j
support of their argument regarding j
-parcel mails. In this case the . letter j
mails of the Floride, amounting to!
144 sacks, were forwarded to their i
destination: by. the commander at the ,
first opportunity open arriving in the '
United States. It would seem, there-!'
fore, to be conclusively established ]
that the interferences with mails of
which this government justly .. com
plains are wrong in principle .and in ]
Hardships on Americans.
"The arbitrary methods .employed
by the British and French, govern- j
ments have resulted mp^t disastrously
to citizens of the ...United States. J
Important papers which can. never ba
duplicated, or can be. duplicated only*
with great difficulty, such as United > (
States patents for - indentions, rare ''
Inorol nonOrC rolatinpr tii!
UUCUlllCUlo, icgBi' Jiayvcu a .w |
the settlement of ..estates, powers of';
attorney, fire insurance claims, id-'
come tax returns and similar matters i
have been lost. .Delays ia receiving,
shipping documents have caused
great loss and inconvenience by pre-!
venting prompt delivery of goods. Inthe
case of-the Mac's iff Horticultural!
company of iXew Vork large ' ship-;
ments of plants and bulbs from Holland,
were, -I am informed, frozen on
the wharves because possession could
..:ot be obtained in the absence of!
documents relating to them-' 'w^ich
had been removed from the New Amsterdam,
Oosterdyke and Rotterdam.
Business opportunities are lost by
*. * 1
failure to transmit promptly bids,
specifications and contracts. The
Standard Underground Cable company
of Pittsburgh, for example, sent
by mail a tender and specifications
for certain proposed electrical-:works
to be constructed in Christiania. After
several weeks of waiting, the pa1
pers having failed to arrive, tne Amercan
company was told that the bids !
could not be longer held open and the
contract was -awarded" to a 1 -British
competitor. -Check's, drafts, money
orders, securities and similar property
are lost- or detained for week6
ar.d months. Business correspondence
relating to legitimate and bona
fide trade between neutral countries,
correspondence of a personal nature
and also certain official correspondence
such as money order lists and
otner matter iorwaruea oy guveiumerit
departments are detained, lost
or possibly destroyed. For instance,
the postmaster general informs me s'
that certain international money 1
lists, from the United States to Germany,
Greece, and other countries,
and from Germany to the United
States sent through the mails, have
not reached their destination though
dispatched several months ago. Itwas
necessary to have some of these
lists duplicated and again dispatched
by the steamship Frederick VIII,
which ^sailed from New York on April (
19 and from which all the mails intended
for Germany have been taken
and held in British jurisdiction. As a
further example of the delay and loss
consequent upon the British practice
the postmaster general also sent me a .
copy of a letter from the British ,
postal administration admitting that
J * ~
the mails were removea irum me ^
steamer Medan in the Downs on Jan- ,
uary 20 last and not forwarded until
some time '"between 'February 2 and ]
March 2, and that 182 bags of these
mails 'were lost during transmission
.to Holland on the 26th day of Febru- ,
ary by the Dutch steamship Mecklenburg.'
The Medan arrived safely
at Rotterdam a day or two after she ,
left the Downs.
Many Complaints Heard.
"Numerous complaints similar to
the foregoing have been received by <
this government, the details of which
are available, but I believe 1 have
cited sufficient facts to show the unprecedented
and vexatious i.ature of
the interference with mails persisted
in by British and French authorities.
Not only are American commercial
interests injured but rights of property
are violated and the rules of in
ternational law and customs are palpably
disregarded. I can only add
thai tlie continuing offense has led to
such losses to American citizens and
to a possible responsibility of .the
United -States to repair them that this
government will be compelled in the
near future to press claims for full
reclamation upon the attention of his
majesty's government and that of the
"The principle being plain and definite,
and the present practice of the
governments of Great Britain and
France being clearly in contravention
of the principle, I will state more in
detail the position of the government
of the United States in regard to the
treatment of certain classes of sealed
mails under a strict application of1
the principle upon 'Which our governments
seems to be in general accord.
The government of the 'United States
is inclined to the opinion that the
class of mail matter which includes
stocks, bonds, coupons and similar securities
is to hp resarded as the.!
same nature as merchandise or other
articles' of property and subject to
the same exercise of belligerent right. J
Money- orders, checks, drafts, notes
and : other negotiable " instruments
which may pass as:the equivalent of
money,, are, it is. considered, also to
be classed as merchandise. Correspondence,
including -shipping documents,
money order lists and papers
3f that character, even though relating
to enemy supplies or exports, unless
carried .on the same ship as'the!
property referred to, are, in the opinion
of this gbvernment to be ."" '"re
garded as genuine * correspondence, [
ind entitled to unmolested passage. .
Must Define Bights.
i k'The government of the United
States, in view of the improper rnethDds
employed by the British and
French authorities in interrupting
mails passing between the United
States and other neutrals and between
the United States and the enemies
of Great Britain, can no longer
tolerate the wrongs which citizens of
the United States have suffered and
continue to suffer through these"
metheds. To submit to a lawless j
practice ot tnis cnaracter wouia open ;
the dcor to repeated violations of in- 1
ternational law by the belligerent.;
powers on the ground of military ne- i
cessity of which the violator would |
he the sole judge. Manifestly a neu--|
tral nation can not permit its rights j
an the high seas to be permitted or .
cieij^'ed arbitrarily by the government
of a warring nation. The rights of,
ueutrals are as sacred as the rights 1
of belligerents and. must be strictly
"The government of the United j
States, confident in the regard for inlernational
la** and the rights, of neu-:
trals, which ?he British and,French*j
governments have - so often. proclaim
Bd and; the disregard of- which- they |
have urged so vigorously against'
their enemies in the present war, ex- j
peots The present practice of the
British :ind French authorities in the'
treatment of mails from or to the
United 'States to cease and belliger- j
ents' rights, as exercised, to conform
to the principle government the
passage of mail matter and to the!
recognized practice of nations. Only J
a radical change in the present Brit-!
ish and French policy, restoring to J
the United States its full rights as i
a neutral power, will satisfy this!
"I have, etc.
(Signed) RoDert Lansing."
A Bad l^care.
A southern man t^lls of a darky
j mi t>? .,f IrtiAiirn i
namea lneopimus ?x>aaici, am* ^,
as "the champion banjo player of j
Wishing to afford a northern friend
an example of real darky music, a
Mobile woman went to Baxter's house
with a view to enlisting his services
at. a musical function. She found, his
"Very sorry, Missy," said Baxter's
spouse, "but Theophilus he ain't playin'
de banjo any more. He jest puts
in all his time fishin' now."
"What led him to give up his playinor?"
oci-oH thp disaDDointed caller. J
ttwiwv. ^ ^
Has he got relgion?"
"No, missy, he- ain't got religions,
but he's done got skeered."
"Scared? Of what?"
"Of dat minstrel show,- honey. De
boss learns dat my ole man kin play,
an' he offers him a stiddy job doin' it.
Vassum. an' it skeered Theophilus so
bad dat he quit banjo playin' right
<<THF BATTLE CRY OF PEACE"
GERMANY WOI LD WELCOME
HOUSE AS PEACE ENVOY
Merlin Thinks Teutons' Position is so
Good They Can Afford to Stop
Berlin, Tuesday, !May 23 (via Lon/'am
?* Oik \ 4 W Af V> /M* t ri f* 1V K f? 1
UUli., jUI.?AUVtUCl Visit uj Wi.
E..*M. House to.Europe would come as
no surprise to initiated "quarters here.
The American rumprs to this . effect
ai;e. regarded as having a certain
basis in t'aci,.* although the opinion
prevails that the trip would naturally
be postponed until after the national
conventions. It is hoped, here
that shoiild-Col House pay such
it, he will come this time as a harbinger
of peace, or at any rate, to
prepare if possible the foundations
for a peace proposal difficult as this
task is recognized to be.
During his last previous visit to
Europe, Col. House made no effort
and conducted no investigation in the
direction of peace, in Berlin at any
event, having perhaps found absolutely
adverse conditions in capitals
of nations hostile to Germany. 'Presumably,
also be had previous information
that . American mediation
would not be accepted as long as tke
Jl'nited States continued to supply
Germany's foes with cannon, shot,
shell, cartridges,-powder and a thousand
and one other war requisites.
.'Moreover, no intimation had 'been
given at the time of this visit -that
irascibility in high quarters here on
the munitions questions was in any
Change In Berlin Sow.
The situation, it miy be said, now
has changed. Apparently there is no
harm, from either a political or a
strategical standpoint, in saying that
Germany would welcome peace. As
Arthur von Gwinner, the managi-g
director, of the Deutsche bank in Berlin,
stated to the Associated Press
correspondent receutly^ Germany is
in the* nnsition nf a noker Dlayer who
has gathered in all the mon?y on the
table and naturally is willing to break
off an all night session and retire
with his winnings, white the others
persist ia continuing in..hope of-recuping
some of ther losses. The cards,
however, to continue the . simile are
running strongly .Jin. .the Germany's
favor, it is poiit'dfa out, as shown in
renewed postponement in the
long heralded Anglo-French offensive
in the west, the steady though slow
progress of the crown prince at Verdun,
the victories of.the Turks and
.finally the crushing results of the
nffono!, c> in tho TrPilt.inO
AU311 1C111 uutaoi- v/ in ^ . w -v. ? -.
"Whether these events are enough
to induce the entente allies to retire
from what is looked upon liere as a
lcsi.g game and whether the changed
tone of the utterances of Premier
Asquith and Sir Edward Grey, and
what is considered a disavowal of
their intention to crush Germany as a
. ation and a commercial rival or dis
member the empire are indicative-or
receptivity toward reasonable peace
proposals is- an uncertain factor
"The "best posted neutral observers
here are i nclined to "give an evasive
auswer to these Questions and to hold
that something else must take place
to convince the entente allies that
the expulsion of the German armies
from occupied territory and the com
pletion of the "on to Berlin" campaign
are impossibilities. An one
possible means of bringing about this
receptive attitude in entente capitals,
one of these neutral dplomats, who
is not suspected of partiality for
either side, recently suggested the
presentation of evidence gathered by
neutral, impartial agencies of Germany's
ability to continue the struggle
OLD TIME FAITH
Washington, May 20.?"I do not
want my share of the stealing in this
bill; and while South Carolina has
items in it announcing to $300,000 I
shall vote against it and hope it will
not become law."
In these words Senator B. R. Tillman
began his remarks on the senate
floor when he arose today to say that
he would oppose the passage of the
T.endine rivers and harbors bill.
r ? o
"We need the money so much
more for more important things that
it is criminal ia my mind to hesitate
tor one moment or to discuss this bill
at all," Senator Tllman continued.
The senior senator thea said that if
the bill should pass $40,000,000 would
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