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The Experience of Sparta ant
By J. M.
The subject assigned me for discussion
is one in which I have been profoundly
intereeted for a number of
years, and I have naturally given it
the most careful consideration of
which ! was capable. It is a subject,
furthermore, which has claimed the
?. attention of the best minds of this and
other great nations. What I shall say,
however, in the brief time allotted
iae, will be based not so much upon
what I have read on the subject as it
will be upon my own personal observation.
Some great and clear minds
> have approached a solution of our
Question, while other men, wise maybe
in some lines of thought, loaa
themselves in a wilderness of confused
ideas when they take u^> "Child
Of course, in such an audience as
Viie is nn one who does not j
readily realize that the prosperity of J
^ our country and the integrity of the :
nation will in a few years rest upon
the boys and girls of toda^' We hear
this so often that the mer^ petition
of the thought sounds commonplace
to us; and yet, gentlemen, it is
freighted through with a sacred truth.
And the sacredness of this truth, Mr.
President, is as dear to the hearts of
the men at the head of our great cotton
industries as it is dear to the
hearts of any other class of men on
God's green earth. If I can I want tQ
clear the atmosphere in the outset of
+v>? imnMaainn that the manasement
of our cotton mills is essentially the
enemy of the children. Some people
seem to think of us as a great
dragon that annually requires the
? sacrifice of hundreds of tender boys
and girle. We, together with all true
(forward looking men, desire to see
the younger generation develop into
citizens . of lofty ideals, with well
trained minds and strong bodies, and
able, wfoen duty or opportunities offer,
to fill places of honor and responsibility
in the industrial life of
j our nation. j
This ideal condition can only be
reached by the sane and honest
thought of all of our best men united
upon this one supreme task; and it
will never be reached by the ill-advised
and slipshod legislation of men
essentially ignorant of the ills they
would cure, and who are more iiker ested
in the retention of their office |
than they are in the permanent good
of any legislation. Those who would
contribute to the solution of the subject
must approach it in the light of
generations and not as if it could be ;
solved by some two-by-four politician
in some law-making body. Very little
^ of the legislation thus far on this
question has materially affected the
welfare of the children?though many j
of the States have laws of some kind j
I was interested in reading the
story of ancient i Greece a few days
ago. I find that Greece, long before
the imperial city of Rome was even
thought of, had her children's problem.
The two leading cities of this
^wonderful people dealt with this
? qp'^tion in exactly opposite ways.
(Sparta took the child from the parents
at the age of seven and made
trim the ward or child of the State.
The parent had nothing more to do
thp /?bild Hp. henceforth, owed
everything to the State. iAthens, on
the other hand, left ;he child in the
care of the parent. She conceded the
mutual duty and obligation of parent
and child, ar|i aided both. The wisdom
of this latter course has stood
the test of future ages; and Athens,
* the home of philosophy, art and
poetry, was wiser in nothing than in j
aiding rather than dogmatically dicH
tatinw tn thp narent what his rhilri
[should and should not do.
There are four requisites In the development
of an ideal citizen. First,
a strong and healthy body; second,
genuine moral training which imbues
the possessor with a high conception j
of honor and fair dealing with his fel-;
lows; third, a well trained mind,?en-1
abling one to weigh well all sides of |
?li o r\ in- .
*;very pruyvsiuvu, nuu, luuiiu-, em m
dustrial training which teaches him
the science of his particular vocation.
Some of the great nations of the
world today have advanced further in
one or the other of these four phases
of training than our own nation; but
no one of them has so united them all
HL or carried them to so high a degree of
development as has our own country.
IWlo in thic ^nnr.trv rnnsirier p?rh nf
r these important in a well rounded citIf
we consider these requisites concretely
and ap_ply them in our own^
i Athens Compared?Is the
line of industry to the children that
aie in a measure intrusted to cur
care, we find a nation-wide interest
in the development of the child along
all lines by men and women of means
and by large corporations. States
have passed laws affecting the employment
of children in mills, until at
present very few States will allow
children to be employed under four
teen years ot age.
In this matter of legislation, the
thing I wish to call special attention
to is the gross misrepresentation
of conditions in the mills and villages.
Irresponsible agitation has also had
its effect. The question 'has at last
reached our national congress. A
bill is now before the United States
senate to prevent all children under
fourteen years of age from working
and those under sixteen years from
working more than eight hours per
day. I believe a great many of our
law makers are honest and sincerely
desire to support measures which
they consider best for the child and
the country,?but the average politician,
both State and national, cares
very little for the merits or demerits
of a bill or for the child and family
it may affect. If the bill is for the
time popular and if by supporting it
the politician can retain his office, he
is ready to give it his "unqualified
I can further illustrate what I mean
by referring you to the most common
pre-election scene. Who here
but has had opportunity to see the
small politician (the two-by-four
kind, and more are in this class than
is generally believed^ going around a
few weeks before election kissing the
babies, fondling the children, giving
the old man the glad handshake and
seeing something splendid to speak
of everywhere, and who, if elected,
i reverses his whole attitude toward
the very people he professed pleasure
in associating with. It is no pleasure
to refer to such conduct on the part
of office seekers, and the fact that
they can so conduct themselves and
get elected ought to bring a blush of
shame and a deeD feeling of contempt |
to every genuine American. But we
cannot deny that such conduct io
common among us. The point is: can
| we conceive of such a man genuinely
supporting any measure except for
the reasons already referred to? Is he
the one to solve or to have any part
in the solution of this deep and sacred
question? He must reform himself
before he can live comfortably in the
atmosphere in which the solution will
finally be wrought out.
' - ^
The very tning, to my way or tamping,
that has hindered a proper solution
of the question thus far has been
the paid hireling who misrepresents
conditions at the mills and the small
politician, who by loud words and
leather lunged speeches, proclaims
in glowing terms the oppressed condition
of the poor little factory child,
and proceeds to help it by the enactment
of laws which take from it its
daily bread. The Bible must have
meant some such thing as this when
it speaks of a stone for a loaf or a
scorpion for a fish!
We concede the right of a sovereign
State to enact laws for the protection
of her people and the devel
opment of her citizenship; but we do
question the wisdom of negative laws
which forbid the child to work without
any provision for those who by
some misfortune are more or less dependent
upon their children for support,
and, further still, to deny them
the right to work without proper provision
for their educational advancement.
The questions that come to every
thinking man and woman are: Is the
type of child labor legislation we have
necessary? Or is it helpful? Or
j again, do these laws aid in the dei
velopment of the child into a well
^ Tf thoca riTiocflAnc?
I i vuxiu^u vitjvi* i* ^uv>obivao
j cannot be answered in the affirmative,
then such legislation most certainly
has no place on our statute books.
The idealist and the dreamer has
the impression that the enactment of
negative laws such as most States
have now will transform the children
into healthy and well trained citizens.
iHow may we hope for such splendidresults
when, under the law, the children
are simply turned upon the
I streets without provision for training
them? The proverb, "An idle
brain is the Devil's workshop" ap
plies no more to the father than to
the son. no more to the mother than
to the daughter.
It seems to me that we would he
attacking the question from the right !
... i > If in of a child labor law.
i a y education law.
i lathe position tiiat the Stale
.-bouiu provide facilities for training
rhe child, and then by law force the
child in:o these training schools.
This would develop them into useful
citizens. But. at the same time, a
way should be found by which the
State might be able to render ai:l to
* 1* ~ ~ ~ ~/i.* * ??-? i rvf r*Viilrl*<2 1ft
must* lit awiuai kjl chu
: or fcr support.
If tL- State is not prepared to take
care of the children under fourteen
years of age, then it "has no moral
right and should be unwilling to turn
them upon the streets in idleness to
become moral- degenerates and a
menace to the commonwealth.
Another brazen defect of these child
labor laws is that thev do not affect
all children alike. A large part of our
child population is lost sight of in
this beneficent legislation. The little
fellow twelve years of age may still be
required to deliver papers in order to
support his parents or to earn change
for himself. Again, he may be required
to work in hotels, in stores, in the
Western Union or even as a messen2er
in legislative halls where bills
are passed against child labor. I will j
not undertake to enumerate all the
various kinds of work children may
be allowed to do under this socalled
child labor law. I merely take time to
call attention to its shameless onesidedness.
Are not the children connected
with all this different work
worthy of the succor of our law makers?
Oh, they will tell you the mill
is unhealthy and the children otherwise
engaged may get fresh air. Tliey
specially stress the fact that poor
cmiaren in tue cuunu y v?uu &ic ^v/mpelled
to aid in making a living can
get fresh air, but too often is it the
case with children of poor farm tenants
that fresh air is nearly all they
do get. Many of you gentlemen came
from the farm arid you are familiar
with the fact that the poor country
family is living under the most unsanitary
and therefore the most unhealthful
conditions. Many of them
live in houses of not more than two
rooms, with small openings in the
walls for windows. These windows
are insufficient in both size and number.
The water is from an old surface
well that possibly has not been
cleaned out for years. The only bath
room is the nearby branch, and it is
safe to assume that it is used only
during the few hot months of the
Yes, so far as the law is concerned,
the children of these families may begin
at any age, and in many instances
not later than ten years, and work
twelve hours per day for the entire
year. Our law makers simply term
them the "back bone of the nation"
and commend their labor. But let ono
of these families move to a mill and
in the eyes of our wise law makers
these children have at once assumed
a mythical sacredness and are the
special recipients of child legislation.
The further this question is analyzed,
the bigger farce it seems tQ be.
Especially does the incorrectness of
all the arguments about health and
fresh air seem to me to become plain
when it is pointed out that most of
the mills of today are doing 60 much
to safeguard the health of all their
employees. Our mills are well ventilated
and are equipped with the best
scientific humidifiers. Germs are kept
down by means of powerful disinfectants.
The child's welfare has been looked
after and safeguarded by means
of large expenditures of money by
the mill management. Today may be
seen in any up-to-date mill village
Mnwlrci fl ati'at* rrr? r^nno nit 7.
uan yai tvo,
grounds, swimming pools with hot,
cold or tempered water, good schools
with both day and night classes, reading
rooms, libraries, music, debating
societies and regular Sunday religious
service. These are not mere
word pictures. They are facts,?
facts we have worked out in our own
mill, and I know of them in many
other mills in our State and neighboring
Finally, I wish to say, the mill management
does not wish to work chil
dren under fourteen years of age and
in most of the cases where it is done
it is more for the benefit of the child [
and his parents than it is for any i
monetary advantage to the mill.
To sum up then, it seems safe to
conclude that the real friends of *he
children of the mills of the South a *e
not the ill-advised and loose-think:nu
politicians, but the management ot
our mills; for our destinies are "one
and inseparable, now and forever."
(Card of Thanks.
We want to thank all of our friends
and neighbors for their help to us and
attention to our dear little baby girl
during her illness and death. May
God bless them all. With sincere appreciation.
Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Dorroh.
j BARBHCL'E- We will give a lirstj
class barbecue at the Newberry lili, |
Friday, July 21. The dinner will j
be cooked by the old cook, H. )M.
Wicker. A good dinner is promised
to all. Every candidate is especially
invited. B. M. Suber and 0. A
BARBECUE?I will give a first class !
barbecue with the usual good dinner
at Mt. Pleasant on July 14,
campaign day, and will give good
service and make it pleasant for all
who attend. G. H. Cromer and Company.
WE WILL GIVE a first class barbecue
in iMrs. Maffett's pasture at Silverstreet
on Wednesday, July 12.
Nice shady grove. All arrangements
for the candidates to speak. Stand
for the speakers. Seats for the
listeners. All candidates are invitexA
Clr\r\d i^innor P "R Rprrv
BARBECUE?We will give a first
class barbecue in front of B. B.
Leitzsey's .residence July 27, 1916.
Everybody invited. B. B. Leitzsey,
A. G. Leitzsey, J. F. Lominack.
BARBECUE at St. Pauls?Under the
auspices of the ladies of the St.
Pauls Lutheran church a barbecue
will be served at the church
grounds on July 15. The dinner will
be cooked by that famous cueist J.
D. H. Kibler.
The iS'chool Improvement association
of the St. Phillips school will
give a barbecue in Mr. T. E. Halfacre's
grove near the school house
! on August 4 for the benefit of the
school. Everybody and the candidates
are invited. There will be entertainment
arranged for the young
I will furnish a barbecue at Pomaria
on campaign day August 1.
Good dinner and pleasant day promised
J. Walter Richardson.
We the undersigned will give a first j
class Barbecue at New Hope churcn,
Saturday, July 29, 1916 for the benefit
of the Broad River circuit parsonage.
Everybody is invited to come
out and enjoy the day with us and at
me same time neip a gu*-ru v-auoc.
<S> CAMPAIGN SCHEDULE <8>
The following is the schedule of
the itinerary, opening at Spartanburg
and closing at Winnsboro on August
Columbia, Tuesday, July 4.
Lexington, Wednesday, July 5.
Saluda, Thursday, July 6.
Edgefield, Friday, July 7.
? '' J ~ ~ T?? 1 _ O
AiKen. saturuaj, juij o.
Barnwell, Tuesday, July 18.
'Hampton, Wednesday, July 19.
Beaufort, Thursday, July 20.
Ridgeland, Friday, July 21.
Walterboro, Saturday, July 22.
Charleston, Tuesday, July 25.
St. George, Wednesday, July 26.
Bamberg, Thursday, July 27.
Orangeburg, Friday, July 28.
St. Matthews, Saturday, July 29.
Sumter, Tuesday, August 1.
Manning, iWtednesday, August 2.
Monrks Corner. Thursday. Aug. 3.
Georgetown, Friday, August 4.
Kingstree, Saturday, August 5.
Florence, Tuesday, August 8.
Marion, Wednesday, August 9.
Conway, Thursday, lAugust 10.
Dillon, Friday, August 11.
Darlington, Saturday, August 12.
'Bishopville, Tuesday, August 15.
Bennettsville, Wednesday, Aug. 16.
IChesterfield, Thursday, August 17.
Camden, Friday, August 18.
Lancaster, Saturday, August 19.
"Union, Tuesday, August 22.
Gaffney, Wednesday, August 23.
York, Thursday, August 24.
Chester, Friday, August 25.
Winnsboro, Saturday, August 26.
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;>*:r Lo'.cii Ones.
The following verses were written j
by a little II year old girt 011 the j
death of her grandfather, Mr. Thomas !
.1. Boozer, who died last Tuesday at j
his home near Smyrna church.
The angels came .it last.
When my dear grandpa's life was1
And took him t;> his heavenly home, j
There to live but not alone.
15*13 and 16 have been very sad
For two of our laved ones we have
lost with many tears."
My dear lil.tie sister. Yennie May, left
>re s<i'! May Jay
Some day, I, too, shall go,
Where I shall grieve no mure:
Tender, yet rough, wers my grandfather's
But that did not mai.ter, God needed
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him among 'lis
A e hope to see oar loved ones some
When all of our sorrows shall float
And our sins be forgiven,
So we may all livein heaven.
All administrators, executors, guardians
and other fiduciaries, are required
by law to make an annual return,
on or before tie 1st day c* July
I of each year.
All persons failing to do so, will
under the law forfeit their commissions
for handling the estates and
will moreover be liable to be sued for
damages by any person or persons inin
| C. C. Schumpert,
Judge of Probate.
I June 1st, 1916.
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