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"JACK FROST AS GOOD FRiEND
His Beneficial Effect Upon the Soil l?v
calculable, and He Perfcrirs
Let. those who will growl wftpn
icicles hang ou the wall. To millions
Jack Frost conies as a friend, and not
** 1 *???? ? *-* i f rv*iit?A j"ki+V\cN?*
o? >> ?vi i? ?u utoguiov;, cimti.
His influence on soil is wonderful,
says London Tit-Bits. Besides reducing
it to a much tiner state of tillage
than can be produced by any i.Mipltments
known to uian. it improves its
fertility and adds to its quantity.
The highest counts of bacteria la
soil- -and there may he lOO.OW.WO in
a grain?have been obtained in l:ar?i
winters, and it is during such seasons
that tt?e disintegration of roc', which
nrnHin-oe frovli njirti?*It>S of Soil CUSS
on most rapidly.
As water passes from the liquid tc
the solid state its expansive power is
about 150 tons to a square foot, which
is equal to the weight of a column of
rock about one-third of a mile in
height. Then comes the thaw, and as
the water contracts away crumbles the
surface of the rock, to go to make
the soil from which we draw our sustenance.
Out in the Cotswolds, when winter
Is coming on, they turn blocks of stone
grain upwards, so that the rain sh:?il
soak Into the layers. A thaw succeed-:
a frost, and then the blocks are tapped
with a hammer, whereupon they fall
Into flakes, ready, after a little trimming
for rooting houses.
So, too, you may see the slaters
working at Collyweston, near Stamford.
When there is a likelihood of
frost, the men dash water on the edges
of the masses of slate which have been
brought up from the pits or quarries
If there are two frosts In rapid suer^ssion.
with a auick thaw between.
all is well, as the slate splits into layers.
Hut a spell of mild weather
means that the material becomes useless
for anything except conversion
BIRD'S NESTS IN ODD PLACES
Remarkable Boldness Shown by Many
Species When They Are Engaged
in rearing r?*mnjr.
Every year some fresh discovery la
made by naturalists respecting the ,
curious habits of birds. The boldness
shown by even shy birds when domestic
duties are concerned is surprising.
Robins are especially noted for their
boldness, and a pair have been known
to build their nest and rear their ;
family on a beam in a school. enh'riiii; j
by the w'ndow which was left open, j
Swallows seldom build in odd pluces, |
but a pair y :ve been known to Viil-i |
their nest against a pane of wi?ui??u 1
glass. A swallow's nest In m f?:i'i.?-i ;
is an exceptionally queer p!;:c v '
a bird of this species to choose.
>\rens are vei;v lugiujuu;?, . . ?
dome-shaped nests, which :sre ?o '
beautifully woven, are ol'ten fouiu! id j
old kettles and tins, and even in the
pockets of old coats which have been
left hanging about. A hedge sparrow's
nest in a kettle was found in a hunch j
of nettles close to a public footpath, j
where school children passed every I
day, but the faithful bird, with no!
thought of danger, reared a family j
Circuiting the Earth.
A person making a circuit of the
earth will lo*e one day by going westward,
and gain a day by going east
ward. In going eastward rhe sun is
met before a complete rotation of the
earth has been made. Thus the
period from noon until the sun is
again met i& the meridian is shorter
than from noon to noon in on
locality. Going westward requires a
little more than twenty-four hours far
the sun "to catch up," so that from
noon to noon by sun observation
covers a period C more than twentyfour
hours. In order to keep dates
right, a day is dropped out of reckon*
onilinry AOOtU'Q U'hof
crossing the one hundred and eightieth
meridian?that Is, they live tlif
same day twice; and a day is adder
when they cross the same meridinr
going westward?for instance, arriving
at the one hundred and eightierl
meridian, -Saturday immediately he
comes noon Sunday.
The Human Gyroscope.
When you are dizzy things appeato
go round in a circle. However, tin
fault is not with the eyes hut in o
near the ear?an organ which
parently has nothing to do with sigh
or feeling. Close to tne ear is tocaie<
the little organ which gives us nu
po^er of balance, permits us to wall
upright without tottering, and. whei
properly trained, to assume posture;
which are distinctly outside the ra?ii
lar routine of our daily lives. Kecen
trie dancers, acrobats, athletes an<
others have unconsciously trained thi
"balnnce wheel" until they can <i?
Strang* :mngs wmioui,
ing their balance. When we spi;
around rapidly, this delicate median
ism is disturbed or thrown slightly on
of g<?ar. causing the eyes to move in
dependently of each other and to sen?
different impressions ?<> the braii
This causes tlie spinning riiVei we
^Charley, dear," said young Mr* I
Torklns. "the cook who ?-;iiue day b?
fore yesterday has left u<."
"TaLo nnvthinfr with her?''
**S ne few artiH^s."
MVTo5!. I suppose ih" i-'.jvoii Hie !of
Us whs thut she <li<ln'i i:::vt? :my tiw
BF0 Daddy's j
Fairy Tale j
ayr\ary graham bonner ;
' CQTTBiOwl |t VI1TUN N|VWm ONlOW
"It's so nice," said the Australian
Monitor, "to sound rather important j
at first. 1 believe
- -> they liave monitors
sand that they are
things that are immay
think I sound j
important at nrst,
they may not be
, disappointed when
they find out I'm
"* a curious creature
even if I'm not
* ? ?? important in any
"A Curious Crea- school way.
ture n "I've never been
to school. No one
ever asked me to go, and no one ever
sent me. They didn't care if I didn't
go to school and by 'they' I mean my
"For an Australian Monitor learns
nil hp hns fr> Ip.qrn out of school YiiSt as
well as he would in school. Perhaps
he learns his lessons out 'of school better
and what he should do and eat and
"An Australian Monitor might be in
school filling ink-wells when he could
be making himself a stronger and a
better animal or reptile by being out
of doors and catching a small rabbit
or something like that.
"An Australian Monitor, of course,
is a lizard?and a good strong lizard,
too. We can eat small animais whole.
We are very large and very big and
grow to be eight feet long.
"We can run very fast and we live
in the dark jungles. We are fond of
meats in the way of food, or rather,
we don't care about vegetables.
"We are from India and we have
relatives in Africa and in Australia.
"But one of the most important !
things about us Is that we can eat j
eggs whole and that the sells dissolve J
themselves just like capsules or pills j
"Yes, eggshells ore alright for us,
and ni tell you the reason.
"We have fine digestions. We don't
have our tummies getting upset the j
way so many creatures do.
"Gracious, we don't have to go to !
..Oil and take bad medicines and say.
"'(>h dear, oh dear, why did I eat I
"Yes, we have superior digestions ;
and they are important."
"We are beautiful," said the Green
Lizard. "And our family came over j
from Europe. That is, we didn't com? S
of our own accord. You know what 1 j
"We didn't go down to the pier with :
our luggage and put our r>ames on the j
passenger list and then come across ,
in cabins on the big boat or anything ,
"But we were brought over.
"And when you speak about digestions
we agree with you.
"It Is most important and very
pleasant to have a good digestion. It j
makes a creature feel better and hap
pier and all of such things. I always j
enjoy my meals and I always feel j
happy. I feel so pleased with myself j
rhat I show off and folks coming to the
zoo quite enjoy seeing me." i
"And I," said the Chameleon, "have
been brought over here to join the
lizard family, for I have such a lot of i
interesting colors which I show at dlf- !
"I am a curious creature," said the ;
Gila Monster, "and I am really stupid. I
I came from the desert and I move j
slowly and awkwardly along, for my J
body is fat and brown.
"I look as though I were covered j
wftli black and brown and tan and j
yellow beads, but I'm not. It's just be- j
cause of the kind of a suit I wear that J
I look that way.
"I give a good hard bite and I make '
anyone suffer whom I bite, but I don't i
kill them. No, I'm
not mean enough "T" 7 jTy j
tsfied to make >
inem suffer, that's j j
^ "Well," said the |
would like to have
I'm really a lizard
and should talk -yj(*3r- !
with all <>f you,
though I look so i
much like a snake ?r"U
iluit creatures call
?II*7 ?.l X* u.. j ,
mist a k e \ ery " ;
often and my "Really a Lizard." i
n a m e, as you
know, is Snake.
"I'm a real lizard, but I look like a I
snake. That's pretty interesting. Now !
that is more than any child I ever saw, j
could do. I've seen a lot of them at [
the zoo. too.
'Tm sure none could look like pussy j
rats iud yet he children, or could 1
he pussy cats nnd Iook ilk*1 chiidreju
I'm an interesting creaiure, I ami"
SHED LIGHT ON OLD TIMES
Interesting Official Documents Recently
Found in the State House
Incrusted with dust, yellow with i
*ge, some nibbled by mice, a real
treasure trove of documents has been
discovered by'workmen restoring the
old state house, the last of the group
of Independence ball buildings to receive
the city's attention, says a press
dispatch from Philadelphia. The building
was the seat of the city government
One of the official papers relates
that Robert Wharton, once mayor of
Philadelphia, addressing the select
council on December 19, 1314, deplored
the increase of "tippling
houses," especially those that sold
"ardent spirits" to minors in one and
two cent quantities. Another record
? - i r c\ 1 Ol
showed mat as iare us iuay v, ioiu,
a resident of that city paid $23.50 as
a tax for being allowed to carry &
In the "tippling house" address of
Mayor Wharton he called the old-time
saloons "vile sinks."
(?!...ling houses also came in for his
attack. He declared that many such
houses were being operated in the
city openly for the destruction of the
unwary, and lamented that there
were no laws against them. A reference
to a fine of 10 shilling for the
unlawful discharge of firearms was
mentioned by Mayor Wharton.
lie criticized the filthy condition of
"certain footways" and recommended
fixing the pavements on many city
A police flyer was also found near
where the old rogues' gallery used to
be, and in those days this was an
actual frail cry around the police court.
The flyer was d?ted about the middle
of the last century, and with it were
photographs or a prominent i>ew jlwia
merchant and society man who had
run away with another man's wife.
The names might surprise their descendants,
now numbered among New
York's "four hundred."
The documents date from 1775 to
1fir>3 tiio mnioritv belonging to the
years of the last decade of the Eighteenth
century and the first two decades
of the Nineteenth.
John Home Tooke.
A renegade priest, who openly
scoffed at his calling and who led a
life, to say the least, which could not
be called respectable, would not be
well esteemed as a private citizen, notwithstanding
his learning and the ingenuity
of his own generally admiredwork,
"The Diversions of Purley."
John Ilorne Tooke was born on June
25. 173G, and it was not so many years
after that he was looked upon as one
of the political pests of the era. It is
rather startling that all tlie public
questions on which his opinions were
d<*med mischievous have since been
settled in his favor. 1
Tooke was fined and imprisoned for
his opposition to England's war with
ber colonies. Twenty-three years after
h?s doarh reforms in the house of coin
mons which he strongly advocated
were brought about. He was the tirsr
prominent Englishman to proclaim the
advantages of free trade, and his
biography may well be kept in view aa
a monument to the futility of intolerance.?Chicago
Rock Has Great History.
A report on the Dome of the Rock
of Jerusalem is shortly to be published
and will be of great interest to
the Mohammedan world. It may not
be generally known that this place is
the third in sanctity of all the sanctuaries
of Islam, and indeed for a
short period it actually formed the
Kibla toward which all Moslems
prostrated themselves in prayer.
Among the m?.re important religious
associations of this rock we may mention
that it was here that David and
Solomon were called to repentanc.?,
and on account of a vision David
chose this site for his temple. From
this same spot Mohammed ascended
to the Seventh Heaven after his night
journey from Mecca, and lastly it is
to he the scene of the Great Judgment.
The historical associations are
not less striking, and such famous
names as Omar. Akwmaieic. ?>am<iiu
and Suleiman are all connected with
the rock.?Zanzibar Gazette.
Wireiess Triumphs Over Mountains.
The Point Grey and Victoria wireless
stations were in communication
with the High River (Alberta) air station
on a recent ni?ht. This is the
first time that Canadian wireless
plants have made connection across
*v~ A./mrfoinc *5ovt>rnl covornment
liltr niuiuiuuu.i. -
reports were kicked across the peaks
during the night and when improved
receiving sets are provided the coast
stations and more power given High
River tbe service will be regular, it 13
May Make Use of Volcano.
Tnree expeditions have h^en sent
from this country to Kilauea. The flaming
firepit of the island of Hawaii, to
investigate the practicability of tapping
the earth's interior for heat ro
furnish power to ail the Hawaiian islands.
It is proposed to bore at the
volcano on "safe ground" some distance
away, transforming subterranean
heat into electrical energy.?
-- - * ? if,. 1 ^ ^
Use Up Valueless Trees.
The fuel value of wood ought to
induce any one to cut down detriment.*]
trees. They vary a great deal
In iLho fuel value for heating purposes.
Hirhter woods?cotton-wood, l>ox
eldor, soft maple?have less value
than the hard woods such a? oak,
ash, and hickory.
GEM LONGJRIZED |
Emerald Figures Largely in History
5r\/'c I o\y#? Atrm* Wac in. I I
" I I O W J w -W? V WV..V ..vw ... spired
Both Saints and Poets?Referred
To in Scriptures.
Emeralds will he set in the most
fashionable engagement ring* of the
future, for Princess .Mary had an emerald
The emerald of average quality is
^nuch more valuable than the diamond
of equal- quality, observes the London
The tinest emeralds are worth .?12.."00
a carat, while a good-sized gem might
l 1.:? f
weign au\ uuug iiwm iwui iu oii
carats; ?.T>0 to $400 a carat is a minimum
price. The output of emeralds is
j The emerald is given a place of
honor in history and literature. The
beautiful gem was most praised among
the ancients, not only fur its beauty,
! but also on account of its rarity. It
! was a favorite stone with the Roman
emperors and, later, with high (lignij
taries of the church. It is named
! twice in the book of Exodus as one of
the 12 jewels in the high priest's
j hrenst plate of judgment, ranking in
j the second row with the sapphire an^
j the diamond.
The best-known scriptural references
are in Jtevelarion, where the rainbow
11 round the throne is compared in its vivid
greenness to an emerald; while
I the same jewel forms one of the 12
| foundations of the new Jerusalem.
i (Jeorge Eliot. in "Middlemarch," refers
to the singular beauty of thes<J
passages. "It is strange," she says,
"how deeply colors seem to penetrate
one. like scent. I suppose that is the
reason why gems are used us spiritual
emblems in the Revelation of St. John.
They look like fragments of heaven."
In Tennyson's poem, "Columbus,"
the discoverer used the passage in
I r>r,i t-lio Snn Snlva
dor as he first descried it.
In contrast we may mention the
"emerald monocle" through which
Nero, whom the latest commentators
regard as the "Beast" of the Revelation.
gazed at the agonies of his vic|
tims in the arena.
i A more pleasant lpjjend may be
! quoted from Montalembert, the famous
! French author. He describes how in
i the early ages of monasficism a cerI
fnln I.inniiitorr vcn C tpfl nsfni'llipd bV
I IUU1 iinuiuoivi,' ?? _ ^
Its founder into a hospital for lepers
and cripples. "Behold." said he, in
showing the ladies of Alexandria the
upper floor, which was reserved for
women, "behold, my jacinths"; then,
in conducting them to the floor below,
where the men were placed, "See my
The most celebrated medieval gem
was the so-called "emerald" of Genoa,
known as the Sacro Catino. It was
presented early in the Twelfth cenfurv
to the cathedral tey the crusader <
Embriaco, having oeen orougni uy nuu
from the siege of Caesarea.
The relic, a huge single stone, was
; said to be the dish from which our
i Lord ate the Last Supper. It was
I believed by some to have been givei
I by Solomon to the queen of Sheba.
j The Sacro Catino was removed to
J Paris during Napoleon's wars, and was
I discovered to be only an ancient piece
of Venetian glass. It is still shown,
murh mended, in the cathedral of
Genoa, to which place It was restored
by the French.
In the Fifteenth and Sixteenth ceni
- i-r 1 I
j runes tne emeraia is ineuiiuueu ne!
qnently among inventories of crown
j jewels. Mary Queen of Scots pos!
sessed at one time many specimens of
| this regal gem.
Causes Deep Depression in Plateau.
When the railway was oppned from
j a point near Luxor into the Libyan
] desert there was rendered easy the
approach of the oasis of Khargeh.
which is regarded as a typical example
of these isolated centers of
lifp. For some years a British scientist
and explorer made a study of tills
oasis, observing the phenomena of
springs, moving sands, wells, etc.
i tlP i.lDvail ojisp.n are ort*[> ur!
presslons in a lofty plateau which has
i fi maximum elevation of nearly 2.000
feet, hut the bottoms of the oases
are only from 100 to 300 fecV above
sea level. They are underlain by beds
of sandstone, whlcu are the sources
of the water supply. Artesian well?
400 foot deep form practically inexhaustible
means of irrigation and such
deep wells have been used from
ancient tinier. The depressions were
once the beds of lakes, and the water
In the sandstone probably h.is its
sources in the Abyssinian highlands.
Amusing the Natives.
The marine recruit had just arrived
' in Haiti and the serjreant was giving
I him s:>nie instruction in outpost duty,
i As they walked over r high ridge,
i there were two sharp r ports of a
j rifle and little clouds of <lust spurted
i:;> that, to the recruit seemed unconi!
"What's that, sergeant?" asked the
"()ii, only a couple of those spicks
trying to hump us off," returned the
srrcreant. as he trudged calmly ahead.
"They take pot shots at me every time
1 pass this spot."
"It's a bit dangerous, isn't It, sergeant?"
"Well, it might be dangerous." explained
the non-com, "if those birds
could come within twenty feet or'so
of hit tin' a guy. Rut as long as they're
such rotten shot*, 1 figure they might
as well mmise themselves that wav,
as not. It he-ips to keep them out of
jaiscliifcf." t ;
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