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VOL. II. MANNING, CLARENDON COUNTY, S. C., WEDNESDAY, JUNE 2, 1886. NO. 25.
DR. TALMAGE ON LABOR.
A Sermon Diseussina the Ah.-orbin; Question
o0 the Day.
The announcement that Dr. Talmage
was about to discuss the absorbing ques
tion of labor and capital drew to the
Brooklyn Tabernacle last Sunday morn
ing an immense throng of people from
all classes of society. Scores were turned
away, being unable to get within the
vestibule. In the audience sat many
prominent Knights of Labor, and it was
evident from their looks that they were
in sympathy with some of the preacher's
remarks. After the congregation had
sung the hymn, "Arm of the Lord,
awake! awake'" Dr. Talmage expounded
a number of passages of Scripture. His
sermon is the beginning of a series of
labor topics. Among the subjects to be
treated are: "The Battle for Bread,"
"The Rights of Capital and Labor,"
"The Hardshipsof the Working Classes,"
"How Employers and Employees Ought
to Treat Each Other," and "The Great
est Foe of Labor."
THE CHAOS OF iAsCTv.
"That labor has grievances I will
plainly show before I get through this
course of sermons. That capital has had
outrages committed upon it I will make
evident beyond dispute. I do not under
rate the peril of those times. The ten
dency is toward revolution. The labor
quarrel is hemispheric-aye, a world
wide quarrel, and the whole tendency is
towaid anarchy. One way in which we
may avoid anarchy is by letting the peo
ple know what anarchy is. It is the
abolition of the right of property. It
makes your store, and your house, and
your money, and your family mine and
mine yours. It is wholesale robbery. It
means no law, no church, no defence, no
rights, no happiness, no God. There is
too much good sense dominant in this
country to permit anarchy. Within six
months there will be a kindlier under
standing between labor and capital than
has ever been known in this country.
They have demonstrated as never before
their absolute dependence upon each
ADVICE TO LABORERS.
"Meanwhile my brotherly counsel is
to three classes of laborers: First, to
those who are at work; stick to it., He
who gives up work now will probably
give it up for starvation. Second, to
those who have resigned work; it is best
for you and best for everybody to go
back immediately. Those will make the
most out of the present almost universal
strike who go first to work. Third, to
those who have been a long time out of
work; go now and take the vacated
places. Go in and take those places a
million and a half strong. My sentiment
is full liberty for all who want to strike
to do so and full liberty for all who want
to take the vacated places. Other in-;
dustries will open for those who are now
taking a vacation, for we have only
opened the outside door of this conti
nent and there is room in this coun ry
for eight hundred million people and for
each one of them a home and a liveli
hood and a God. I am not scared a bit.
The storm will hush.
"Workingmen of America, your first
step toward betterment of condition will
be an asssertion of your individual inde
pendence of dictation of your fellow
workmen. Do not let any man or any
body of men tell you where you shall
work or where you shall not work, when
you shall work or when you shall not
work. If a man wants to belong to a
labor organization, let him belong. If
hedoes not want to belong to a labor
organization, let him have perfect liberty
to sty out. I belong to a ministerial
association. I have a right to resign my
pastorate and say, -I am going. Good
bye.' But I have no right, after I have
quit this pulpit, to linger aroundl the
doors on Sunday mornings and evenings
with a shotgun to intimidate or hinder
the minister who comes to take my
"This day I declare the mutual de
pendence of labor and capitald. Smite
society at any one point and you smite
the entire communitiy. Relief will come
to the working classes of this country
through a better understanding between
capital and labor, through co-operative
associations, through discevery on the
part of employers that it is best for them
to let their employees know just how
matters stand, and through the ?eligious
rectification of the country. Labor is
uppreciated and rewarded just in propor
tion m country is Christianized. Our
religion i. a democratic religion."
THE CARE OF MOUNT VERNON.
W~hat One south Carolina Woman Has Done
For the Place.
Mount Vernon is the property of the
Ladies' Mount Vernon Association-an
association that saved it to the country,j
but which must inevitrebly transfer it to
the government, as the people of the,
whole country, not a mere organization,
should be the owners of the home of
Washington. The property was left by
Washington to his nephew, Judge Bush
rod Washington, and descended finally
to Colonel John Washington. In 1859
Colonel Washington, whose affirs were
very much embarrassed, was forced to
sell. Congress, with strange stupidity,
took no account of the place, and it was
left to a woman to save Mount Vernon
from the autioneers hammer. This
woman, Pamela Cimningham, was from
South Carolina. She had been an in
valid, well nigh bed-ridden, all her life
since her eighteenth ye-ar. When the'
news of the proposed sale reached her
she conceived the plan of rescuing the
place. She applied first to Congress,
but Congress would do nothing. Then
from her sick bed she organized the
Tah' Mounit Vernon Association and
got a charter from the State of Virginia.
She interested Edward Everett in it,
who agreed to deliver a course of lectures
as a nucleus for a fund to buy it. These
lectures were brilliantly successful. Mr.
Everett turned over $68,000 to the asso
ciation. Other contributions flowed in,
and at last the house and 200 acres of
land were bought for $200,000. The
original Mount Vernon tract, when it
was called the Hunting Creek estate,
comp:ised 8,000 acres, but it had
dwindled in the course of years.
The association is governed by one
regent, who is appointed for life, and
every State in the Union has a vice
regent. The last are selected, if possible,
from the descendants of Revolutionary
families. The place is maintained by a
fee of 50 cents charged every passenger
who lands at Mount Vernon. The asso
ciation lets the contract for carrying pas
sengers to a steamboat company, which
makes daily trips. The fare is $1, which
includes the entrance fee to the house
and grounds. But the feeling is general
and is loudly expressed that no admis
sion fee at all ought to be charged and
the government should be the owner.
This will eventually work a change. The
management has done much for the
place, but the authority of the regent is;
absolute, the appointment of the vice
regents arbitrary and things conducted
generally in a slipshod way. Once a
year, in the month of May, these ladies
meet at Mount Vernon. They spend a
week there and on Sunday they attend
Pohick Church, whic'- was General
Washington's parish church and sit in
the Washington pew. They look over
the accounts-but there is no real super
vision, the regent, Mrs. Macalister
Laughton, who lives in Washington, be
ing virtually supreme-and then go home
and see Mount Vernon no more until the
next May. It is obvious that this plan
cannot long last. Some years ago a
harter was granted a company to build
, railroad from Washington to Mount
Vernon. Lately the project has been
ctively revived. When that is built and
the time of a visit brought within two
ours instead of five hours, as it is at
present, and greater crowds attend, the
Ladies' Mount Vernon Association will
e a thing of the past.
THE QUADRE.NNIA L CONFERENCE.
biinssion or several important Matter%. Ad
journment Sine Die.
Several important matters were consid
red by the Methodist Episcopal Con
ernce at Richmond, Va., duringthe two
lays of its session.
A resolution was adopted directing the
>ook agent to pay to the bishops and
ishops' widows the amounts designated
ao be paid them annually, aggregating
26,000. A resolution was adopted that
nited States Senators Harris, Whit
:horne and -Morgan be requested to look
tfter the publishing house claim before
,ongress. The committtee on misssion
work reported approving co-operation
with the Woman's Missionary Society.
I resolution was adopted praying the
attention of the President of the United
states to the international treaty with
Dhinr., the disregard of which threatens
^ioence to the Missionaries of the Church
n that country.
The committee on temperance sub
nitted a very lengthy report expressing
>ppostion to the manufacture and sale
>f intoxicating liquors, except for medi
~inal and and mechanical purposes. The
~ommittee's report recommended that
~hurch members engaging in liquor I
rafic be treated as in cases of imprudent' 1
~onduct. Dr. Candler, of Georgia,
noved to amend the Discipline by insert
ng the word "immoral" in place of
'imprudent." The introduction of this I
uendment elicited a lengthy and ani- I
nated discussion, and when Delegate
Duncan, of Tennessee, in referring to per- 1
ons engaged in the liquor traffic remain-1
ag in the Church, said: "We must not
sanetion a traffic with the seal of Metho
lism on the barrels," there was a general
utburst of laughter. Dr. Bllackwell, of
Virginia, thought the less legislation had
n regard to morals the better. The re
orded vote on Dr. Candler's amend
nent resulted in 107 for and 65 against.
The report was then adopted as a whole.
A resolution was adopted, requesting
the Bishops to i~ut foreign missions in
their regular annual visitations, leaving,
however, such visits discretionary with
them. The Conference commended the
woman's missionary work by a unani
The question of the place of holding
the next General Conference was referred
to a special commnitte, to report at their
option through the Church papers.
A committe of five was appointed to
select from the Calendar such business
for consideration by the Conference as
may be deemed most important.
A resolution was adopted authorizing
the app~ointment by the Bishops of an
assistant editor of the Christian Advocate;
also authorizing the editor to draw on
the book agent for $2,500 annually to
The Conference fixed upon the first'
Wednesday in May, 1890, as the time for
the meeting of the next General Confer-'
The report of the committee on divorce
was adopted. It provides that no minis
ter of the Church shall solemnize the rite
of marrnage between parties when one or
both are divorced from a wife or husband'
still living, provided that the inhibition
shall not apply to an innocent party to a
divorce obtained on Scriptural grounds.
The Bishops were authorized to ap
point fraternal messengers to the North
ern Methodist Episcopal Church, to the
Methodist Episcopal Church in Canada,
and the Colored Methodist Episcopal
Church in America.
The Convention, just before midnight
n the 2+h uit adjoned sine die.
ie Admnitm all the Ex"sential Fnets Testillel in
liv Other Witnesses. but Clainm liat Hist Mto
the was not Murder.
MIaxwell, the alleged murdcam1 of
Preller, has testified in his own behalf.
His recital of his personal history shows
that he has been accurately traced in Ill
his movements. his account corroborat
ing all witnesses who have Itestifitd
against him, except the detective wh
was in Prison with him. He gave hi
name as Hugh 'Maxwell Brooks, aged 25,
born in England. His account of the
dleath of Preller is identical with his con
fession published a few days ago. He
had studied me(icine, but had no license
to practice as a physician. He had
treated Preller for trifling ailments pre
ious to coming to St. Louis, and at
Preller's own request undertook to re
nove a stricture. Preller 'was the con
-enting party to the use of chloroform,
iud the case was one which might and
loes sometimes occur in any physician's
practice. Preller died from the effects
>f the drug while under treatment. 'Max
xvell says his mistake was in not report
zig the circumstance at once, but lie was
h a strange land, ignorant of the cus
:oms, and unawqrc that his report would
erve him had he made it. Besides this
le was in great grief over the death of a
nan to whom he was much attached as
t friend. In this state of mind the
:hought occurred that he must hide the
aody and get away. He then packed it
n a trunk, as described, and took what
noney he found in Preller's trousers,
bout $600. He made a number of pur
hases and drank a great deal before
eaving for California.
Questioned by his counsel: "What do
-ou know about a piece of paper, read
ng, 'So perish all traitors to the great
The prisoner: "I wrote it. MIv idea
%as that the authorities would find it
md that it would puzzle them until an
Lutopsy should be held."
Counsel: "Was it your idea to delay
hem while you were getting away?"
Counsel: "Did you do anything else
vith the same object in view?"
Prisoner: "Yes. I shaved off the
Counsel: "Can you tell how that cut
:ame upon his breast?"
Prisoner: "Yes. I did it with a seal
el, but can assign no reason for it."
Counsel: "Had you, when you ad
ninistered that chloroform, any inten
ion of killing Preller?"
Prisoner: "I had not, sir." (The pris
mer spoke loudly and emphatically.)
Counsel: "Had you any intention of
Prisoner: "I had not, sir."
"Counsel: "Of doing him any bodily
The rest of the testimony was taken
ip with his trip to San Francisco, some
>f the events which occurred, and his.
,planation of some of the big stories
vhich he told about himself on -his trip
o that city.
THE RECENT CA.TACLI'SM.
'he Fenrful Worx of' Destrucgtion on the C'olni
bila and Greenville Railroad and uhe Probable
Co,'t (ir Raciirs'-Two week" Xcet serore
Traint ('an Run Over T'his [tud.
(Columib:a Daily lierrd, M.:y: 25
Yesterday afternoon a represtniative of
rim: ItxcoltD went upl the Greenvill :roadl,
bout eight mile's, where the workmen aire
msy repairing the damnage (causedl by the
ecent freshet. Though much work has
een accomplished in the past week the evi
lences of the fearful diestruction that this
oadl met with arc still visible and giVe., the
>bserver somei idea of the vast power of
ature's forces as compared with the insig
riclant wvortis of man. From near' the
ight mile post to Alston. seventeeO nmles,
he track is so badly damaged as to nc""
ate relaying. 'ind a quairter of a mile wdl
>e trestlewoirk. More than two hundred
aborers are at ivork under th~e supervkisin
>f Mr. RI. Southgate, Ass'istant Engrineer of
le road, and everything posisibile is being
lone to expedite the wo'~rk of repairing.
['he entire road force of trackmen. trenstle
>uilers and bridge carpenters oif the Co
unmbia and Greenville Rloadt, andi fortesI
'rom the Charlotte. ('olumbia and Augusta,
tr Line anid Richmoud andi Ihmaville
lo:ads are concentrated be'tween C'oai
nd Alston, andl notwithstanding the large
orce engaged it is thought that fully two
veeks more will elapse before trains can
ass over the road. It is estimated that the
ost of repairs wvill reach $50.00, not in'
luding the large revenue the compiany
oses daily by their non-ability to run trains
bouit 8400 per day is required to pay those
ngaged in the work of repairing.,
tin consequence of the unlooked for ex
raordinary work the date of ehanging the
auge of the main line of the Colubia
nd Greenville Road. which w'e' to have
een done June 8. w"ill very likely have to
2e postponied to a later td:te. There are
several trestles and considerable of the
oadbedl on the Spartamnburtg, Union and
Dolumbhia Railroad washed away, and our
~epresentative was informed that it would
)robaly~ be about July 1st before trains
~an run'to Spartanburg.~ The Spartanburg
[oad will be repaired and the gauge
hanged at the same time.
This washup m-'ikes the third time that
his particular portioin of the Greenv'ille
[oad has met with au similar fate. thle same
ling hav'ing oiccurr'ed in 185's and agrain i
1865. One of the section masters superin
ending the present work says that he
helpedl to repair the damagie causedl by the
freshet of 1865 and the sane process has t
be gone through with now that was necs
sary then. In a few' more decaides lie will
prbably become reconciled to these aqatie
invasionis and be an authority as toethe best
methods of repairing the damages they
Cat parties are the latest. A young girl
gives a party and each friend invited brings
her cat along with a ribbon about its neck
co'responidtng to that worn by its mistress.
There's lots of fun at such parties, especially
when the felines come together.
President Cleveland was born on the 18th
of March, 1837. H~e is no spring chicken.
But he will "commit" matrimony all the1
EVOIXTIONANDI THE CHfURCHI.
An Earnest Con-ideration of te ulbject in the
G-neral -.emehv orthue ,szouthern Preshvterians.
The General Assembly of the Southern
Presbyterian Church recently in session
at Augusta, Ga., had under considered
the subject of evolution in its relations
to orthodox Christianity. The commit
tee to whom the matter was referred
mande the following report. signed by
nine out of the thirteen members:
"To the several overtures on the sub
ject to the evolution of man, sent up by
the Presbyteries, the General Assembly
retumL answer as follows: ThLe Church
remains at this time sincerely convinced
that the Scriptures, as trily and author
itatively expounded in the 'Confession of
Faith' and 'Catechism,' teach that Adam
and Eve were created, body and soul, by
the immediate acts of the Almighty pow
er, thereby preserving a perfect race
unity. That Adam's body was directly
fashioned by Almighty God, without any
natural animal parentage of any kind,
and of matter previously created of noth
ing, and that any doctrine at variance
therewith is a dangerous error, inasmuch
as in the methods of interpreting Scrip
ture it must demand, and in the conse
quences which, by fair implication, it
will involve, it will lead to the denial of
doctrines fundamental to, the faith.
"Geo. D. Armstrong, chairman; Wm.
F. Jenkins, R. K. Smoot, G. B. Stricken,
L. C. Vass. A. N. Hollifield, 3. Von
Lear, R. B. Fulton, D. N-. Kennedy."
The minority presented the following
"The undersigned, members of your
committea on overtures. on evolution,
would recommend the appointment of a
special committee to draft a pastoral ret
ter to the Churches and Presbyteries of
the Assembly, embodying the followingi
"1. A recognition of the alarm and un
easiness pervading the Church on account
of the evolution discussion, and that this
larm and uneasiness are not unfounded.
"2. An intimation of our loyalty to the
symbols, as tihe correct interpretation of
the Holy Scriptures, and determination
to defend them against any interposition
which would mar the historic sense or
aontradict any traditional doctrine of our
"3. The original application of the
octrines contained therein belongs to
the Presbyteries, and the Assembly con
siders them competent for their fune
tion; neither would it usurp or forestall
this function, or hamper them in its per
formance. by granting any in thesi de
liverances which could be construed into
in anticipatory exposition of the law, but
ould not be of binding force.
"4. The Assembly assures its Presby
teries that the highest Court of the
Church will be ready at the proper time
to uphold and endorse any judiciakaction
of the Presbvteries founded on the con
stitutional law of the Church."
This report was signed by the Rev
Wm. Flinn, the Rev. F. L. Ferguson,
the Rev. T. E. Smith and Ruling Elder
V. H. Henderson.
The Rev. Messrs. Wm. Flinn and F.
E. Smith presented the following addi
tional minority report:
"We the undersigned, members of the
specal committee on evolution, recoin
mend that the General Assembly declineI
to make a deliverance on the subject,
because the answer which is invoked by
these overtures, if granted, would violate
rur constitution. (Note Confession of
Faith, chapter 31, p)aragraph 4)
"Second. Because the Word of God,
is interpreted by our standards, gives
the faith of the Church.
"Third. Because before one of our
lower Courts a concrete ease is pending1
involving the matters of those overtures."
The matter was discussed quite at
length-two days being consumed in the
The motion was then put that the mti
nority report be; substituted for the ma-1
iority report, but it was lost. It wast
moved that the vote be next taken on the
majority report and that the yeas and,
nays be called and recorded. Adopted.t
The roll was called and resulted in a vote
of 137 yeas to 13 nays. So thme major-ity
report was adopted.
The following resolution was offered
byeconmittee on foreigncorsn
Resolved, That the committee appoint
ed to confer with a similiar committee of
the Genexal Assemnbly of the Presbyterian
Church in the United States of America
for the purpose ~uf arranging for a cen-1
tonnial celebration, shall also constitute I
the Committee of this Assembly for carry
ing out such arrngements.
Dr. Richardson read letters from col
leges in the different Presb yteries as toK
their conditions, which show them to be
rather short of funds. -
Dr. Snmoot said that they should edu-,.
cate their boys to be ministers-that if
they had no ministers there could be not
church. Fathers shoul press upon their i
sons that the great object in this life ist
not to make money, but to glorify God.
The afternoon was spent in discussing
the report of the committee on theologi
cal seminaries, which is as follows:
The standing committee on theological
seminaries presents a report on Union,
Columbia and Tuscaloosa Institutes.
The remarks on Columbia Senmisary are
A very brief report from the board of~
directors of this institution fills us with1
sorrow and amazement. It tells us thatt
this beloved seminary, with its assetst
amounting to 3270,000 and an annual
cash income of $11,784, closes this term
with only eleven students, and that live
of these are in the session class, leaving
only six as the prospects for next yeur.
It tells us further that twenty-two stu-,
ents matrcated; that U)r. Woodrow t
resumed his <duties as its Perkins profes
sor about the middle of last December;
that eleven students were dismissed and
Dr. Girardeau has resigned. Therefore,
in view of these facts, especially the small
number of students and the large amount
expended in training them, your com
mittee recommend the following:
Resolved, That this Assembly recom
mend the four Svnods controlling that
seminary to suspena it for the present
until the Providence of God shall indi
eate that it should be opened again
Addresses were made by Drs. Mosely,
W\oodrow and Peters. The evening ses
ion was devoted to the discussion of
TIlE (;REA' LABOR COUNCIL.
Or-anizaior of Husine-4 in tlie Ceveland Con
The Knights of Labor met in Cleve
land, 0., last Wednesday. It was 9.20
o'clock when Powderly left the hotel,
nd it was 10.40 o'clock before the Gen
eral Assembly was rapped to order by
the chief executive. In the meantime
the delegates congregated in groups in
the hall and corridors, discussing labor
When the call for the Convention was
ssued by Powderly he only enumerated
ive causes of complaint that were to be
kdjusted. These were boycotts, strikes,
he Southwest troubles, the relation of
:be Knights of Labor to other organiza
:iois and the instituting of new assem
>lies. Since the delegates have arrived
iany of them have plans that they
,vould like to spring upon the special
ession. Whether these will be dis
mssed or laid upon the table cannot be
letermined as yet. One of these plans
s to agitate the subject of Government
-egulation of railroads. A member of
lhe Order from Alleghany, Pa., has pre
)ared a long address upon this subject,
mad a delegate from his district will try
o secure a hearing for him. The gen
leman's address also deals with the
>roject of the national arbitration board.
Another matter has been made public.
For some time past the executive board
ias not been satisfied with some of the
rganizers of the Order, and several
iave had charges preferred against them
nd had their commissions recalled.
The first business of the morning ses
ion was the acceptance of the report of
he committee on credentials. The new
telegates were then admitted to the hall
nd the obligations administered. Pow
erly's address was then delivered ex
emporaneously. He referred the dele
ates to the call to learn what business
as to be brought forward, and taking
ip the five subjects of strikes, boycotts,
abor troubles, difficulties with trades
miions and increasing membership one
y one, he advised most careful thought
d full discussions upon all questions.
e asked that harmony, prudence and
liscretion should predominate in all
atters, and that the affairs of the Con
'ention should be acted upon with con
ideration and dispatch. The best part
f the address, treating of matters entire
- within the province of the Order,
annot be made public. Powderly re
umed his seat amid prolonged applause
and upon motion appointed standing1
ommittees of five up)on each of the fol-1
:wing subjects: Laws, strikes, boycotts
nd relation of Knights to other organi
The usnal committees were then ap)
Delegates to the General Assembly ex
ressed themselves as highly pleased at
he action of the Cleveland Typographi-1
al Union in instructing its delegate to
he annual convention to vote that the
nion go over to the Knights of Labor
a a body. The Convention will meet in
ittsburg June 1, and it is confidently
,sserted that it will adjourn as a district
ssembly of. the Knights of Labor.
hot thirty- five thousand members will
> added to the Knights. of Labor by
his action, and it is claimed that com
ositors in small towns where there are
1 unions will swell the numbers to fifty
The Assemiblv met at 8.31) o'clock
'hursday morning. The committee on
zws presented a proposition that the
xeutive board should he increased from
ive to eleven memb ers. There was a
eneral sentiment in favor of increasing
he membership in the board, but the
uestion as to whether it would be prop
r for a special convention to take action'
the matter met with some difference
f opinion. The report was referred
>ack to the committee on laws without
A large number of local Granges, and
a some States the body of the farmers
Lave gone into the Knights of Labor as
istrict assemblies. Farmers' Orders
rgely assisted the Knights in the late
trikes in the Southwest, and to show an
.ppreciationi of the brotherly aid the
teneral Assembly app1oinlted a commit
e to p~rep~are an address to the Granges
o be resented at its national conven-1
Powderl's plan, as it is called, of State
tssemblies will do away with many un
ecessa-y strikes. It provides, among,
ither things, that no assembly but State
.d national shall have power to order
ither a strike or boycott. If a local
.ssembly wants to order a strike it must
irst get the consent of the district and
hen of the State assemblies.
One of the most important subject.s~
nder consideration by the Assembly is
he breach between the Knights and the
rades union. An agreement or treaty
aay be formulated, whereby each side.
vill lose nothing of its princip~les and
nable each other to work in harmony.
Blanit ilugins, colored, was drowned a
>ok .1-unt Frre, Laun-aster, last San
PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS.
A Statenent of Some of Their Needs and Their
(From the Philadelphia Times.)
"I do not see what she has to com
plain of. Works only six hours a day,
five days out of the week, and the rest
of the time she can do as she pleases.
She is paid by the public, so there is no
chance of money loss, and, take it all
together, she is as well off as anybody
can be who works for a living."
The above is the opinion, not of one
or a dozen persons in a community, but
of a majority. Because the school be
gins at 9 o'clock it is taken for granted
that the teacher's duties date from that
hour; because it closes at 4 or half-past
four in the afternoon it is supposed that
nothing remains for her to do, but
she can don her wraps, go home, shop
and visit ad libitum until the hour for
retiring has come. During the hours of
confinement in the school-room she can
sit in her chair by a desk or walk quietly
around the room, looking after some two
or three scores of bright-eyed young
sters who are busy studying (?) and real
ly need little attention. That she earns
her money easily is a foregone conclu
sion. But does she?
The fact is, the honest, earnest, faith
ful teacher works harder and more con
tinuously than almost any other laborer
in the community. Mind, I say the
"honest, faithful teacher." That there
are those in this employment, as in all
others, whose only object is to get
through in some way, it does not matter
how, only that they are sure of their
pay, I do not deny. The result of their
work, or the lack of it, shows how much
f thought and enthusiasm entered into
its doing. Their duties are left behind
them when the school-room door closes
in the afternoon, and "a good time" is
the watchword until they enter it in the
morning. That is not the kind of teach
ar I am taiking about. It is the kind
that soon finds no place unless political
nfluence interferes to make and keep
The position of a conscientious teacher
is no sinecure. Far from the labor be
mg confined to six hours a day, it fre
luently extends deep into the time which
should be given to sleep. Present
nethods require quite as much brain
6vork to be done out of school hours as
L. There are weekly, monthly and
rm examinations to be conducted.
!ost of them are written, and this in
volves the careful examination of as
nany papers as each teacherhasscholars,
nultiplied by the number of studies pur
mea. You who think this is a small
natter, try it for one time with one sub
ect in your own family. I have known
nany teachers who spent every evening,
hose of Saturday and Sunday included,
or weeks at a time in this kind of work,
intil body and mind were utterly ex
1austed. And these were not exception
a cases. I cannot see where the "easy
ime" comes in for them.
Aside from this is the absolute necessi
y of keeping abreast of the progress in
1l matters pertaining to education. Each
rear brings its changes. Science d'oes
iot stand still. New discoveries are con
tautly being made and what was thought
o be true yesterday may be proven false
o-day. No severer critics exist than chil
Iren." Let a teacher be found lacking in
nowledge or making a misstatement,
nd her influence is shaken. Repeated,
Lnd it is gone forever.
It is easy to see then1 that the success
nl teacher miust lbe constantly studying.
)nce mastered, always mastered, is not
rue in her case. To be even decently
repaed to do her work, she must be
etivelv alert; to he all that is demanded
s an educator exacts hours of vigorous
~pplication to study, and these of neces
ity- fall into the evenings and holidays.
)ly a few weeks ago, a butcher told me.
hather vacation was to be given to at
ending a course of university lLetures in
nother city, in order to prepare herself
nore thoroughly for her work in a given
irection. She had no time to give to
est or recreation, and I knew that for
reeks she had been "burning the mid
uight oil" over the examination papers
>f her pupils.
To keep the control of the pupils of. an
xerage school requires the expenditure
f no small amount of nervous force,
jow much one who has never undertaken
t has no more idea than of the strength
>f wing it would take to balance the
verage man and hold him in the upper,
ir. A mother is often worn out with
he effort of keeping her own children
imited perhaps to two or three-in
rder. What would she do were that
mmber multiplied by ten or fifteen and
he strain kept up for days and wek
Ln months and years? Of course I
mow that the mother is taxed in very
nany other ways, but the reinark that
'the care of the children is wearing me.
>ut'" is a very frequent one.
In almost every other employment
dchic demands as many high qjualifica
ions there is a chance of advancement
a sadary suflicient to enable the worker
o lay as~ide. something for sickness and1
ld age. In this there is little or none,
orI the woman who ever receive over
0l. 'I) a year for their labor are few in
jnuber. Very many hav-e families de
ending upon themi for supp1ort. The
ost pinching economyv will not more
han make both ends meet without re
ard to the future. There is no pension
or themru when disabled, or superannua
i fund when their day of work is
"And yet," you .say, "there are n~ot
>laces enough for those who want to
>cupy themi. For every vacancy there
.re swarms of applicacants, and the sue-1
t*sfl one is always regarded as very
True enough, and it is easy to see why.
%Tcess+t i. a taskmaster thai reks little 1
of one's likes or dislikes. Each year the
number of women who must earn their
own living increases, to say nothing of
those who choose to be independent.
Teaching has always been regarded as
one of the most genteel ways open to
them for self-support. Itgivesabetterpo
sition in society, presupposes a good
education and the bringing up of a lady.
The salary may be small, but it is cer
tain. Then, too-a thing to be regretted
-a large munber of the girls who be
come teachers do not look upon it as a
life work, but only a temporary make
shift which will not affect their position
in society until they marry. The conse
quences or possibilities of long years of
such wear and tear does not enter into
their calkulations. With youth and
energy, a probable drain upon the nerv
ous forces often counts but little.
Besides this, to the earnest teacher
there are pleasures in her work that
physic pain. The feeling that she is
opening new worlds to young minds,
that she is showing them much that is
worth living for, that she is teaching
them to become strong, brave men suc
cess, it is necessary for parents to give
her their coniidence and sympathy, to
regard her as their friend and helper and,
while demanding of her the best work
that can be given, treat her not as the
hireling hardly worthy of her hire, but
with the respect and consideration due
to one who has the highest interests of
their children in her charge.
Emr S. Bourox.
THE EX-(:ONFEDERATE GENERALS.
What tIhe uriiing Chieftains of the South are
Engagted in Now.
(Washington Dispatch to incinnati Bnquirer)
Gen. Marcus J. Wright, an ex-Confed
erate officer, who has charge of the pub
ication of the rebellion records under
the auspices of the war department, gives
the following as to the whereabouts and
occupations of the more prominent gen
erals of the Confederate army. Of the
six full generals appointed by the Con
federate Congress only two survive
Joseph E. Johnston, now United States
mormissioner of railroads, and G. T.
Beauregard, adjutant-general of Louisi
ana and manager of the Louisiana Lot
tery drawings. Of the twenty lieutenant
generals appointed to the provisional
irmy several are living. E. Kirby Smith
is professor of mathematics in the Uni
ersity of the South, Tennessee, which
is an Episcopal institution. James
Longstreet is keeping a hotel down in
Georgia, after serving a term there as
United States marshal under President
Rays. D. H. Hill, of. North Carolina,
was till recently president of the Agri
:ltural School of the State of Arkansas
md now earns a living chiefly by maga
tine writing. Richard Taylor, son of
President Taylor, is engaged in building
canal near New Orleans. Stephen D.
Lee is a farmer and president of the
tate Agricultural College of Missippi.
Tubal A. Earley practices law at Lynch
3urg, although his chief support is de
ved from his connection with the
Louisiana Lottery Company.
Of the major generals, A. P. Stewart
s now president of the University of
sfississippi at Oxford, where Secretary
amar was a professor at the time of his
lection to the United States Senate.
Wade Hampton is in the Senate. Joseph
Wheeler is in Congress. He is very
vealthy and one of the largest planters
n Alabama. John B. Gordon is a mil
ionaire railroad man and figured cn
picuously at the- Montgomery celebra
ion. Gen. Loring, of Florida, was
mgineering in Egypt until a few years
go, when he cameto New York to work
Lt the same profession. B. F. Cheatham
vas recently appointed postmaster at
Washvile, Tenn., by President Cleve
and. Sam Jones, of Virginia, is in the
udge advocate general's office. Lafay
~tte McLaws is postmaster at Savannah
?a. L. B. Buckner lives in Louisville,
Ky., where he own a great deal of real
state, the revenue of which supports
iim. L. B. French earns a scanty sub
stence by engineering in Georgia. C.
U. Stephenson is in Fredericksburg, Va.
ohn H. Forney, brotller of Congress
nan Forney, is in an insane asyltm at
elma, Ala. Abney H. Maury is in
Washington, agent for a New York life
nsurance company. John G. Walker is
also in the insurance business here.
saac R. Trimble lives in retirement in
altimore on a fortune derived from the
'rimble whiskey. Gen. Heth is em
loyed by the Government to do en
;ineering on some Southern rivers.
admus Wilcox was formerly employed
bout the Senate Chamber, but is now
n retirement, writing a history of the
Iexican war. Fitzhugh Lee is Gov
~rnor of Virginia. Extra Billy Smith
>ractices law at Warrenton, Va. Charles
W. Field, oncc doorkeeper of the House,
s superintendent of the Hot Springs
.eservation. William B. Bate is Gov
: or of Tennessec. W. H. F. Lee is a
fairfax county farmer. C. J. Polignac,
vho came over from France to espouse
he Confederate cause, is back in Prris,
>usied with immen-se railroad operations.
. F. Fagan was marshal of Arkana
mder Grant. He is now at Little Rock.
illiam Mahone is in the Senate, as is
.C. Walthall, of Mississippi. John S.
darmaduke is Governor of Missouri and
a aspirant for Senator Cockrell's seat.
?erce M1. B. Young has gone to Rnssia
s United States consul general at St.
?etersburg. 31. C. Butler is a Senalor
>f the United States. Thomas L. Rus
ell, after making a fortune as attorney
or the Northern' Pacific Railroad, has
ettled down at his old home, Char
ottesville, Va. (G. W. Curtis Lee is
resident (f WXashngton andl Lee Uni
ersity tat Lexihngtr n. Va.
The small grainu (erop il Aibbeille Coum
y is norer than it hns ben for years..