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VOL . 1,kIIF S ENS NON A1-1I
Turned to a -our- Rton to nd n -
Of Its Bi.:ii;:m. EiTeeC.
WAsut1(;rox, "Novembler 0.-'xm oh
time of John Adams unitheau;is
tration of Andrew Jackson, the Cabinet
was the stepping-stone tU the PIrIicen
cy. Jefferson, Madison, M&too and
John Quincy Adatms had been Sercre
ries of State. Tau Daren, though he
had the portfolio of the SNAI dCiart
miL..u-Ving ~ JacsoJ's fira term. steppe~d
from the Vice-President's clai: in the
Senate clamber to the head of the table
in the White House. With a single ex
ceaption of Buchanan, no Mni sinee ni
Buxen's time has been elected to the
Presidency who had lpreviously served
in a Cabinet, though Gueeral Grant had
been in charge of the War Department
tempomrily during Johnson's adminis
tration. A number of very aLe men
who had served as Cabinet o0jiCers were
nominated for the Presidency. Clay,
Crawford, Webster, Cass ad Blaine
were of this number, and w e all de
feated. Indeed, for very many years it
has seemed as much of a barrier in the
way to the White House to hae been a
Cabinet member as to have served in the
Senate. No man has ever been chosen
President from among the Senators, arda
since Lincoln's time no one has either
been nominated or elected who had at
any previous time in his career served in
the Senate. More and more the tenden
cv seems to be toward getting as neai!
the people as possible in choosing can
didates for the executive o~ice. The
history of the career of Cabin.t olicers
for the last half century seeis to indi
cate not only that the onice is almost
fatal to an- higher aspirations, but,
most remar Nbly, has culminated the
political careers of nearly all ihose who
have acted as advisers for the President.
If the record of those who have been
Cabinet officers shows anything, it indi
cates that a seat in the Cabinet is the
climax of the public life of those who
hold it. Not always. but in nearly all
cases, this can be shown to be true.
The historian, George Bancoft, is the
only living representative of an admin
istration prior to 1830. Bancroft was an
.original member of President Polk's
Cabinet, taking the office nearly forty
years ago. It was the clina- of an
croft's political career, although he
afterwards represented the government
at one of the European Courts, an honor
which he was induced to acce:t mainly
because of the opportunity i afforded
for historical research. Witi an excep- I
tion of one or two of the members oit
Mr. Buchanan's Cabinet, who espoused
the Confederate side, there are none
alive, and oi Mr. Lincoln': original
Cabinet only one is left with us. This is
General Cameron, who, though in his:
88th year, retains his keenness of intel
lect and his accurate power of judging
men and events. Ueneral Cameron
served in the Senate, it is true, for two
terms after he retired from Lincoln's
Cabinet, but had been a Senator four
teen years before he entered. H e had
been a possible candidate for the Presi
dency in 1860.
Who can tell to-day who composed
Andy Johnson's Cabinet? Everts, to be
sure, held the office of Attorney-General:
for a short time, and Evarts has since
served as Secretary of State under
Hayes, and doubtless regards a concat
enation of events as possible in the'
future which will permit him to deliver
an inaugural on the cast steps of the
capitol two and half years hence. But
where are the others? McCullough has
been temporary Secretary of the Treasu
ry again, but only to fill an emergency
that occurred during Arthur's adminis-.
Of General Grant's first Cabinet,
Washburn, who has since dreamed of
being President, cultivates a life of~
elegat leisure in Illinois. Hamilton
Fis is living in retirement in New York.
George Boutwell is practicing petty law
before the Court of Claims and in the
Treasury D~epartment, over which he
used to preside. Ebenezer I. Hoar is
practicing law in Boston. His career in
the Cabinet was such that the Senate
would not confirm his nomination fo
Chief Justice of the Supreme bench.
Secor Robeson is a political bankrupt
and a petty lawyer in Camden. Colum
bus Delano is a farmer in Ohio, Bristow
a lawyer in New York, and the only one
of them all who has now a place of con
sequence and honor is Don Cameron,
now a United States Senator, who for a
few months was General Grant's Scre-1
tary of War. Belknap was dismissed in
Wht shall be said of Hayes's bogus.
Cabinet? With the exception of Evarts
and Sherman, every one of them has
lapsed into obscurity. Even Carl
Shurz's whereabouts are unknown. Mc-1
Creery is a justice in one of the Western
United States districts. Devens is a
State judge in Massachusetts. Key is a
United States judge in one of the South
eraz districts. Schurz fizzled as a news
paper editor, flatted as a mugwump and
lecturer, and is b.lieved to be earning
an humble living in some railway com
pany's employ. Thompson is believed
to be earning a living as counsel for
Lesseps; little GofI, who succeeded
Thompson, is a member of the lower
house, and a very imconspicuous one.
Of Garield's Cabinet, Mr. Blaine, of
course, has a possible future; but poor
old Kirkwood is forgotten, except by his
neighboring farmers in Iowa, and they
are going to send him 1back to Congress.
Wayne McVeag~h ispracticing law in
Philadlphia; General James is a bank
er in New York; Lincoln is a lawyer in
Chicago, and W\indom is trying to make
a future in New York. He suti'ered ab
solute political bankruptey on account
of his short career in the Cabinet. Hunt
General Arthur's Cabinet has only one
representative now in pulUe life. T'ller
was fortunate enough to step from the
Interior D~eparttaent into the Senate, bmn
with all the supposed influence of th<
Navy Department Secretary Chandler
three times fails t~o secure election
Lited States Sena r.
-llow 1ong do Stokers live?" asked a
rim uLe r(p)orwvr of an engineer of one
of the swiftest oecan racers th:tt plv be
twenthis eonury and England.
- Ms long as anybody," was the unex
o ' like their w(rk.?'
IV don t likc their work, they
Sut: ter, are 1lnty willing to take
their plac's" was tile anwer. But it
hard to per1u the average landsman
thai 'e Stokr's life is not siortened by
constant eq to the extremes of
temper" ature. Tiani._Uautic passengelrs;
who bare umaved the ilntense heat of tie
furnae-s and visited the tire room won
ler how m-.en can. endure such a life even
for a rovage. The stokers work four
h2our3 at a stretel, hemuned in between
two long lines of fur'nces that keep the
temperature ordinarily at 120 degrees
soletiies sendingr it as high as 160.
The snace between the furnaces is so
narrow that whlen the men throw in coal
they must take -c:'re when they swing
hac'k their shovels, lest they should burn
iheir arms on the furnaces behind them.
Tae only means of ventilation is one
large air pipe that reaches down into the
centre of the stokers' quarters, and on
a big steamer the men have to take the
air in batches. On a great ocean steam
er like the Umbria. the men come on in,
gangs of eighteen stokers and twelve
coal passers, and the "watch" lasts four
hours. The Umbria has 72 furnaces,
which require nearly 350 tons of coal a
day, at a cost of almost $20,000 per voy
age. One hundred and four men are
employed to man the furnaces, and they
have enough to do. They include the
chief engineer, his three assistants, and
ninety stokers and coal passers.
The stoker comes on to work wearing
snly a thin undershirt, light trousers
and wooden shoes. On the Umbria each
toker tends four furnaces. He first
rakes open the furnaces, tosses in the
coal, anid then cleans the iire; that is,
pries the coal apart with a heavy iron
bar, in order that the tire may burn free
v. He rushes from one furnace to
Lnother, spending perhap's two or three I
inutes at each. Then he dashes to the
air pipe, takes his turn at cooling off,
nd waits for another call to his furnace,
which comes speedily. When the
-watch" is over, the men shuffic off,
ripping with sweat from head to foot,
hrough long, cold galleries to the fore
astle. where they turn in for eight
ours. Four hours of scorching and
ight hours' sleep make up the routine
f a stoker's life on a voyage.
The reporter ran across a group of
tokers in West Street, and had a chat
with one of them. "I went to sea as a
oal passer when I was fourteen years
>ld," he said. "Then I got to be a
toker, and I am now twenty-eight."
he speaker was about six feet in height,
.nd weighed 180 pounds or r ore. His
race was ruddy with health, and his eyes
beamed with good nature. His robust
tppearance was in strong contrast to that
f some of his mates who had jast land
d from a voyage, a pale, streaked out,
stless-looking set of men.
"How do we stand the work? Well
nough if we get plenty to eat. But the I
work is terribly hard, all the same. It
omes hardest. of course, on those who
on't follow it regularly. They are the
ellow.s who get played out so badly. I1
eard once of a young English doctor
ho came over here on a visit. He got !
>ut of money, and was C'at proud that !
Le wouldn't send home ior some. Soil
Ie worked his way back as a stoker, and I
ot a sickness that he c..,uld never geti
id of. But if we get plenty to eat, andi
ake care of ourselves, we are all right.
ere's a mate of mine nearly seventy|
ears old, who has been a stoker all his
ife, and can do as good work as I can.
Stokers never have the consumption,
and rarely catch cold."
"Why do you appear more healthy
han the other men here?" asked the re
"Well, I have been on land now about
wo weeks, and these men lust came off
he ship. You see, when we finish our
watch at the furnaces, we are just cover
d with swcat, dirt and oil, and we have
to wash the stuff off with warm water.
Washing so much with warm water gives
s that streaked out look that makes
people think we are being killed with
:onsumption. But after we have been
on land three or four days that look dis
appears, and the men look naturalj
again. We get more ventilation than
the old timers used to get, but we don't
have any too much. I tell you, when I
used to go down into the tropics I
wanted to keep under the air pipe all I
could. Now 1 go to England and back,
and'have four furnaces to tend. Fourj
hours is just about as much as we cani
stand before the fires. It uses some of
the men up so badly that when the
watch is over they can just crawl io the
forecastle, and throw themselves on their
bunks without washing a bit. But oth
ers of us don't mind it so much. We
heat our water, take a wash, and then
have a pipe or two before turning in."
"What do we eat and drink?"
"We have hash, all the oatmeal we
want, coffee and other good things."
"H~ow about the grog?"
"Well, the fact is that the grog was
knocked off about eight years ago on
the English and American lines. The
truth is the men got drnk too much,
and grog did them much harm. When
I used to take my grog I'd work just
like a lion while the effects lasted. I'd
throw in coal like a giant and not mind
the heat a bit; but when it worked od,
as it did in a very few minutes, .1 was
that weak that a child could upset me.
Take a man dead drnk before the fires,
and the heat would sober him off in half
an hour or giv'e him a stroke of
apople:-:. The French lines still givec
their men grog. I have seen big tanks
on their ships filled with brandy, runm
and wine, all for the stokers. The
French are great fellows for thlat. Their
men look strong, but I think it must
hurt themi. We get grog occasionally
nlow whenl we are av~ing a race, and
then we 'plav\ it.' .1 remnembe one01 race
we had about a year ago with a D~omin
our cap~talin was mighty anxious to beat
her. So lie sent down grog to 'as, and
told us to tire up like mad. Well, we
did ntil we-learned that we were ahead.
Then we took a rest. Down conws the~
captain with another lot of grog. 'Fire
her up, b.oys,' yells lie, and we dlid lire
eup lm, m lios muni we were ahea1
again. We kept that up for three days,
and gof all the groe we wanted. But
tinallv we let her bcat us, as the grog
pLayed us out too much. Iut we Jon t
often have such fun a; tiat." the stoker
a'ded, as ie stroled aboard ship.
mFTHEII. "o I i DIL.
The Fe! Demmeir' imi of a 12 1;:4n Ei- Fa;er
-The E:d of the Varr'eide.
Frank H. Walworth has just died at
Saratoga, aged thirty-one.
The young man desceended from a dis
tinguished aucestry. and might liave been
very promnent hiimself had it not been
for a cloud which overshadowed his life.
His mother was a wonderfully beauti
ful woman at the time of her marriage.
but her hufslq and was a mau of dissolute
habits, and was very enie. The coming
of the babv "Fra-k" did not work a re
formation in the father. At hst a divorce
was granted Mrs. Walworth, and she
moved from Saratoga to Kentucky.
Jn tile course of time the divorced hus
Uand, who was no other than Mansfield
Tracy Walworth, began to make fame
and fortune as a story writer.
In 1873 Mrs. Walworth moved back
to Saratoga and established a girl's sc!ool.
Then her ex-husband began to pester her
with notes, making improper proposals.
He went farther, caused the poor woman
great annoyance. talked against the legit
imacy of Frank's birth, and threatened
to kill both mother and son.
Frank was then nearing manhood.
He had looked upon his father as only
the tormenter of his mother. and when
by accident lie discovered the real bur
len which was being heaped upon his
mother he grew desperate.
He went to New York, where his father
lived, sent him a note to call at the Stur
evant house and then waited in his room.
That was in June, 1873.
Just before dark his father's card was
ent up. "Show the gentleman up,"
said the son.
The boy returned with tile answer,
md Mr. Walwortli walked quickly up to
ais son's room, humming a tune as lie
lid so. When he was admitted to the
om, the young man placed his back I
igainst the door, and drawing his pistol,
>reserted it at his father's breast.
"For Heaven's sake, what do you
nean ?" the father cried. "Do you mean
:o murder me ? Think of what you are
The son shuddered. "I know you are
ny father," he said; " but now you must
"Die !" shrieked the father. "Have
Tou called me here to murder me-your
wn father ,"
"Yes. May God have mercy on your
soul, father, but I have none. You have
hreatened and insulted my mother."
The father sank on his ~knees and ap
Jealed for merey and promise.1 to leave
hem alone and never interfere with his
" You have lie -7 before and you would
ic again-I c,:ot believe you," was the
;on's cold answer. "Father you must die.
iay your last prayer.I
An instant later there was a flash, an
ther, and the father staggered back as
f struck by lightning. "My son!" he
>reathed, gave a gasp, and as three more
Lhots finished the work, the pallor of
ieath overspread his features. He had
lied at the hands of him to whom he
ad given life.
The young man gave himself up, and
as convicted of murder in the second
legree. Ile was sentenced to life iin
)risonmenit in Sing Sing, but in 177
as pardoned out. About two years ago
ie married Miss Corinne Bramlett, daugh
:r of the late Governor Bramlett, of
Kntucky, who, with one child survives
iin. He was a grandson of the late
hancllor Reuben H. Walworth, his
naternal grandfather having been Coi
>nel John .J. Hardin, of Illinois, who
as killed at Buena Vista.
WAMTED) IT' lIMELF.
I he x nonderful Pop ularitly of niteiaire'd
.loe Biron n DGown In, Geo~,ia.
(Carp ir. Cleveland Lta.tr.)
Senator Joe Brown is as strong in
ieorgia as eyer and I notice a Sunday
school story going around the press in
avhich one of the pupils, on being asked
who made the world, replied "God."
"And who made God?" was the next
"Joe Brown," was the reply, aftei a
This same state of admiration pre-|
ailed in Georgia while Brown was Gov-|
ernor of the State. He had been Gov
ernor for several terms and it was the,
question in the minds of the people!I
whether he would accept a renomina
tion. The other aspirants for the posi
tion were especially anxious to know. if
Brown desired to run they knew there
was no hope for them, and1 if not, the~
man who got the knowledge of the fact
first might gain in the start and win the
race. But Btrown is a very ticklish man
to handle. His fur is like that of a cat.
It doesn't rub wedll the wrong way, and
the candidates were afraid to ask him a
question. One of them, however, con
luded to try to worm it out of Brown's
wife, and, as the story goes, called upon
Mrs. Brown while the Governor was
away. After hemming and hawing about
for some time, he finally said:
"Mrs. Brown, I understand that the
Governor does not intend to rn again,
and that he is going to give the other
boys a chance. Now, if he wants the
otiice, of course we would not run against
him, but if he don't, we think he ought
to let us know."
Mrs. Brown, who is a very charming
old lady, and who has some of her hus
~and's ability, replied: "I haven't heard
Joseph say as to whether he is going to
be a candidate for Governor or not; in
deed, lie has not spoken anything about
it, but from what .[ know of Joseph I
rather think he wants it himaseh."
The new county rotary jail at Council
Bluffs became locked Monday morning
by some disarrangemnent of the machine
~v, and no prsnr could be taken out
nor any admitted. A large force of men
were at work all day on the machinery,
ut the trouble wvas not removed ntil
It happened to strike Mrs. Watkins
ronton, M~o., one day last week that her
h usband hadn't been home for three days
and nights. She decided that a search
ough'lt to be made, and he was found at
the bottom of an old shaft at tile base o;
Pilot Knoz, rather hungry, but still in
opsthat something would turn up.
TuiE MIDNIGHT SI .
1.% herv 'e .dG :0, 11-1 tit (ron.! DlA% Ilmi
% Cold Fourth ofl.Inly.
"I've been across the ocean more times
than I care to tell, and I know London
almost as well as I do Philadelphia, but I
have never bcen in Northern Europe be
fore this summer," said ex-Attorney
General Brewster to a Philadelphia
Times reporter. "I left here on the 12th
of June and arived in London on the
21st. I went up to Hull on the 23rd,
and on the 24th I joined the ship An
gelo, and after a very smooth and pleas
ant passage arrived at Christiin sand, in
lorway, on the following Suiiday. It's
a very interesting old place. I went to
church thcre. It's a clean, nice style of
Norwegian town. The people are very
quiet, nicely behaved. plain and simple.
Monday was passed in Christiania, a
town of considerable importance. I
staved there one day and went by rail up
to Throndjem, the old capital of Nor
way, which at one time was the largest
and wealthiest town in Norway. It had
at one timc many monasteries and
churches. I was there three days.
In Throndjem is the cathedral in all
Norway. It was founded in 101G by St.
Olaf, and on the ground where he' was
buried the present building was erected
in 1151 and completed in 1240, and was
enlarged in 1300. The cathedral is a
very interesting work of gothic archi
tecture. It was damaged three or four
centuries ago by fire, and in rebuilding
it large walls were erected. which
changed the architectural appearance of
the structure. It is now being restored
with very nch pains and care. There
was an annual fair being held in Thrond
jem while I was there, and it was filled
with specimens of farmers and working
people. It was held in an open street.
It was quite crowded, and everything
was orderly and quiet, and all of the
people appeared to be comfortable, well
dressed, sturdy, vigorous and simple in
their ways, and a very honest people.
The fair was held for business and
friendly intercourse. All the time I was
in Nor-ay I saw no dirty poverty, no
beggars, no tramps or idle, worthless
people. The farms all appeared to be
thoroughly taken care of. EverythingI
around the house was kept in good or-I
der. Farms were in perfect condition,
The houses were clean and comfortable
anyl small and unpretending. All the
women are plain looking but very vigor- I
ous, and they are quiet and clean and <
mild in their ways. They look as if they <
were expostd to hard work, and they ]
have a healthy, comfortable, satisfied
look. The men had a sturdy, manly
look. They look like people whio have
no wealth and they appeared to be all on
a social level. There seemed to be no
distinction between them, but they wear
an air of independence. I saw no drunken
people there and heard no noisy people.
It is a very peaceful place. Throndjem
is built of wooden houses, good broad!
streets, well paved, and has plenty of
The suu reaches its uppermost point
on the 21st of June. I got in Thrond-!
jem at 7 o'clock in the morning on the
29th of June. There was no night. It i
was broad daylight at midnight. There
was scarcely any darkness. The sun
shone night and day. The people went'(
to bed regularly at an early hour, with I
the sun shining, and closed their shut
ters and pulled down their curtains and
slept, and the town was as quiet as if the
night was totally dark. After leaving
Throndjem I took a ship named after
some ancient Norwegian king, and in
company with fifty or sixty other tour
ists, all people of respectability and in
telligence, and men from diff.erent na
tions. There were twventy-two Ameri
cans, the rest were natives of France,
Spain, Germany, Denmark, Norway,
Sweeden and England. We went up the!
coast to Tromso and then to IHammer- ]
fest, the most northern town in the'
world. I saw the high mountains and
the whlole coast all the way up to thep
Nrth cape, the extreme northern point
I arrived there on the 4th of July. It
was a cold, wet day. Tile climate is:
harsh, cold and wet, rainy and damp.
When it's not raining there is a heavy
mist. The North cape is on a point of
land at least 1,000 feet above the level of
the sea. When I was at the North cape
the sun was obscured with clouds. At!
12 o'clock at night the sun was visible
for a time. in winter it is dark there
nearly all day, as well as all night. I
returned by the same towns, but through
diferent waterways. The whole of the
navigation was protected by land, there
fore the sea was mild. We were suir
rounded by immense mountains, covered
with snow. On my return to Throndjem
I went across Norway through a country
which was filled with lakes, high moun-,
tains and green 'ialleys, cascades and
falls, and farms well cared for. It all!
had a solitary and bleak appearance.
People were 'making the most out of
what they had, but their life was evident
ly a hard one. The railway stations arc
supplied with eating houses that are
clean and with abundance of good and
wholesome food and fruit and wines at
reasonable prices. The traveler is treated
honestly. The women attend these eat
ing houses generally. They are all quiet
women, pleastnt and promlpt."
Frenchl Unilwayv .Men .Alarmeid.
According to the French press the
French railway companies are in alarm.
They have long had the monopoly of
English tourists making for the .diviera,
and in consequence. perhaps, there is no
Continental line miore illiberally man
aged tdan tha t wich connects Calais;
withl the Frenca capital. They have
had. too. almost amonopoly of the En
glish tratie with MIila via Rtheims and
the St. Gothaird, and this has developed
uexpectedlyV both 'in goods and passen
gers. They are miost annxous to retain
both. A couple of days ago the King
of th.ed eins arrived at C'alais incogni
to, haviing crossed over from D~over in
the V ictoria. Tile passage was made,
with' an adIverse tide, in 63 minutes.
The King's obje1ct was to judge for him
selft whe ther bietter boats might not be
pt onl the mail service between Ostend
and Dover. if this could he done part
of the throughl tralic that now takes the
route of Laon and Tergnier might be
deeted and the Aelgian lines divide it
with tihe b-'eneh. Competition is always
healy, and thle press is already callingr
on the' Gioverinment to pusih forward the
work of teien~eing th.p irt of Cal:&i.
Sousnt crUna n.1 ?-ouid---mi.:orli .
II Other an.
The election on the 2nd inst. resulted C
in a Democratic triumph in South Caro
lina. There was no opposition except
in the counties of Berkeley and Chester
field, where there was an Independent1
ticket, and in the Seventh Congression 1 0
District, where the contest was between a
Col. Wm. Elliott, the Democratic noni- C
nee, and Robert Smalls, the negro in- tt
The Democratic ticket won in Berke-!
lv, as also in Chesterfield. Latest re
turns assume the election of Col. Elliott
over Bob Smalls. T
Great interest all along cent-red on the t
city of New York. where there were three it
candidates for mayor. Henry George, b]
the well known writer on political ecoti- tl
omv, was nominated by the Irving Hall B
Denocrats. The Tammany Democrats g
nominated Abram S. Hewitt. whose ser- m
vices in the campaign of 1876, and for Ny
some terms in Congress, have made him ir
prominent in the party. The Republi- si
cans nominated Theo. R~ooseveit. a weal-' i,
thy young man who distiguished him- lo
self in his three years' service in the State
Legislature by active efforts and great tl
success in reforming long-standing abu
ses in the Government of New York ai
City. Few persons seriously thought L.
that Henry George would be elected, but pi
that he might receive votes enough to b<
make the contest close between other n
candidates. It was thought his votes hI
would be drawn principally from the N
Democrats. Both Democrats and lIe- d(
publicans were confident of success. in
The probabilities, however appeared to th
be in favor of Hewitt's election. Of the of
Mugwump papers, the Post has vigorous- w]
ly supported Roosevelt. Eighteen out
f twenty-four aldermen elected are fr<
Democrats. The city complete, with the r
exception of one elcetion district, shows
the following vote: Roosevelt (0,392. it
ewitt 90,296, George 67,699, Wardwell pi,
In other States the chief notable re- wl
sults are the changes in the Virginia
elegation, which will stand six Repub- fre
icans, three Democrats, and one Labor ti
man. In the eighteenth district of Illi- ra:
nois Iorrison is defeated by Jehu ric
Baker, Republican-owing, it is said, to c
lorrison's free-trade views. It was at an
irst thought that Speaker Carlisle was or
lefeated by George H. Thoebe, a wood- be
rver and Knight of Labor; but the be
ast returns give Carlisle the victory by jr
. few hundred majority.
Further reports are given in the dis- )e
atches published below. ral
WASINGToN, November 4 -dlward ftt
Nlclerson, Secretary of tie Republican o
:ongressional Committee, makes the fp
owing compiiation from returns receiven
p to 9 o'clock this evening of the political ar
:omplexion of the House of Representa-,
ives of the Fiftieth Congress:
Returns so far as received indicate the h
letion of 154 Republicans, 159 Demo
-rats, five Labor and Independent, six is
oubtful and one vacancy: total, 325. Co
The "doubtful arc one in lilinois op
Landes), one in Kentucky ( ariisle: one to
n Ohio (Campbelib, ard three in Mississippi sai
Ciardy,.Glqver and 3!Iansur). The Labor a(d
Ind Independents are one in Florida (Pen- fir
lietom, one in Indiana (Marsh . one in tot
ow:n Anderson), one in Virginia (I iopkins'. So
nd one in Wionsin (SmitI. if the de
)em.ocrat'- get four of thei doubtful they
vill have 1ti, ora majority of the ioust.
3Mr. "McPherson savs the attituile of the
L)e:moracV toward thie present a(lniimsra
ion i similar to that of the Rlepublicans to- i
vard the administration of President HayeS
uid that many dissatisfied Democrats vote de
be Labor ticket. Labor, he thinks, will I d
n organized faction in the pol~iticatl contetts -b
) the futture. aud the labor vote miun be th
aken into serious consideration.
Phil. Thompson, Secretary of the Demto
ratic Committee, says the D)emocrat< will
ave a good working majority in thc House. n
Ni:w Yoit,~ November 4.-Considerable
incertainly attends the election in the Third
:ongressional District. Deaceon V. White.
epublican, has been cdited with the vie. en
oy until to-day. Bill, Democrat, now wi
cds Wbhite 19 votes, with two districtr to 0f
Coouna, N. 11., Novemtber -.-Thie e
ection of 3IeKenny, Democrt., to Cx.n- in
~ress in the First District over I !avne, bi
tepulican, is conceded by a plurality of hi
bout 150. This is a DiemocraueC gitm of nc
en nmember, and equally divides the New di
Impshirc delegation 01
I)rAx ni:. S in:
l~uaion, November 4.-Thec Seond o
ogressional District carried by the lbe.r
ubcans-Abbtot teolored) being elected.~
SrAuNroN, Va., November 4.-The 11I
>ublican majority continues to grow in the.
enth District. Yost, for Congrress. now st
laims 2,000 majority.
The following is a summary of the latte tr
returns, Labor lRepresentattives being count.
c,: with tihe Rep'ublicns. In Rhode Islanda
thre was no election in the Second Di- to
trit, the Pr ohibition candidate polling
nouah votestopeeteteDe crt a
rRepufblican catnd .dates fromt obtainingaw
n aority: al
L. Congeress. Gain-a
A ba a...-. ..- - -- -- a
Arkus-ts .--- -- - -U
California. . . . . --
Colorado.......... 1 .. - -
Connecticut .. .. . I1 .
Delaware.........1 -- - -
Florida. . . . . . - .. . -- r
Ge orai.......... 1.l .. -
lini'i........... 12 --
Indiana............ . a
Ketcky.. ... v
Lo usianai.. .... .. . .. I
M a ie.. . . . . . . 0 -I
\ rvlanmd... . . ...
1 ehinan .. .. ..
) inn ott. . . . .
Misur... . .. 12 2 1
.eb..k............ I ..
New I I-mp--hire... ]
New .Jersey.. . ... .2 0.
N York.........I 20 :
Noth Carnolina. . 1
i......--......- ' 15l
Oregon.. .. .. .- 1 3
Ihode iilndi... I
ennesse.. ..... 2
\ ermont.. . .. . -0 -
\ ig- \ini .. . .. . 1
- - 11
ill) 14. l
(iron tbe Atant-. Coztitutto,:.)
's it better to break up land before
bristmas, or wait until spring ? Mr.
avid Dickson, of Hancock county, a
onderfully close observer, states as the
'suIlt of hi's experience, that fall plough
g gave best results in about one year
it of seven. When the winter is dry
id cold, fall plowed land grew better
ops than spring plowed. 'Mr. Dickson
sted the matter by leaving strips
noilughl the middle of iall plowed fields,
hieh strips v;ere not broken till spring.
r Dickson's experienee was a local one;
ill it hold good for all climates and soils?
he prime object of plowing land is to
osen up the soil, to make it friable, so
tat gases may penetrate it, aud roots
ay grow and ramify and spread through
readily. Why does land have to be
:oken every year? Once loosened up by
LC plow, why does it not stay loose?
ecadse it is beaten down and run to
-ther by rains. Every rain drop ham
ers it down, and the earth, semi-fluid
hen wet, yields readily to this hammer
g. Moreover, the rain water. as it
nks in the soil carries down with it the
ier particles tparticularly clay) and
dges theni between the coarser particles
qlow. This also tends to consolidate
Now at the south our greatest rainfalls
e in winter and early spring. Hence
ad plowed in the fall has unusual op
>rtunities of being compacted again
fore planting time. But is this not
ore than compensated for by the up- 1
rving loosening effects of freezes?
ear the surface it may be, but how sel
>m is it that our soils are frozen four i
ches in depth ? Plow in autumn that i
c soil may be pulverized by the frosts ]
winter is frequently urged by northern i
iters. In their climate the advice is
od. With them the ground is often i
>zen eight to twelve inches deep-the i
ntle falling snow settles down quietly
>on the upturned furrow-does not pelt
like the falling rain, hence, land there, I
wed in the fall, is almost in the same
ndition iheu spring comes as it was I
ien freshly plowed. The rain has not
mpacted and run it together, and the I
ezes have made it, if anything, lighter i
an it was left by the plow. Such is I
cely the case in our southern expe- i
1nee. In very dry. cold winters, the ;
aditions approxinate those at the north t
d the results are somewhat similar; but (
linaril- land is none the better for i
ing pl6wed in the fall. ' Breaking just
fore planting, if the ground is not too t
v and one has the team and time to do s
is the best plan. An exception may t
made in fiavor of sandy soils, these are I
her too open and loose immediately T
er plowing, and it is well to give time i
: them to be settled by rain before t
mting a crop on them. t
But, it may be asked, if sandy lanas t
too loose after they have beenplowed a
ty plow them at all? Sometimes r.
llow turning is desirable to bury and
x with the soil vegetable matter which
on the surface. B, inasmuch as de
niposition goes on more rapidly in an
en soil than in a dense (clay) one, the
:ning in of vegetable matter on light
idv soils should never be done long in
vance of planting a crop. After the 8
A of January would be ample time for
ning over sandy soils. Again it is
etimes desirable to turn over a soil t
ply, to -bring back to, or near, the
face fertilizing substances which have
ik down in the soil. There is a con
ut tendency for such sinking, espe
1v in wet seasons ; and it is greater in I
afv than in clay soils. An occasional c
p turning of eh former is, therefore, C
3dedly beneficial, provided it does not
4g some objectionable raw subsoil to
Ssurface. W. L. J. ~
. \OMEN AND MONEY.
n Many ana old .Mnad lDoes as Much Good as
,1romn the Conte:Mrorary Rev.iew.:
Every girl who is not entirely depend
t on her male relations-a positioni
dic, considering all the ups and downs i
life, the sooner she gets out of the .
tter-ought by the time she is old i
ough to possessS any money to know 1
actly how much she has, where it is
este:1 and what it ought yearly tor
ing in. By this time also she should
e acquiredl some knowledge of busi-t
ss-bank business, referring to checks,
ridends and so on-and as much oft
hinary business as she can. To her
ormation of a practical kind never
mes amiss, especially to three golden
les, which have very rare exceptions:
)investment of over jive per cent. is
dy safe; trust no one with your money
thout security, which ought to be as
-ict between the nearest and dearest1
ends as between strangers, and, lastly,
ep all your aflairs frem day to day int
accurate order as if vou had to die
-morrow. The mention f dying sug
sts another necessity-as .,oon as you1
e 21 years of age make your will. You
11 not die a day the sooner; you can
:er it whenever you like, while the
s of mind it will be to vou and the
,uble it may save to those that conic
ter ou are'beyond telling. It cannot1
too strongly impressed upon every
r who has or expects that not undesir
le thing, "a little income of her own,'
lat a fortunate responsibility this is
L how useful .ihe may make it to oth
s. Happier than the lot ot many mar'
ad women is that of the "unappropri
ed blessing," as I have heard an old
aid called, who has her money, less or
ore, in her own hands, and can use it
she chooses. generously a~s wisely,
ithout asking anybody's leave and be
accountable for it to no one. But]
n she miust have learned from her 1
)ath upward how to use it; she must
spare any amount of trouble in the
ig of it and she must console herseli
r mnc n oely regret-we are but
imn'lio s-with the thought that
te has been trusted to be a steward of
(. Great 3&'uter. Such an Old maidi
1en doe as~ much good in her genera
na twenuty married women.
''calf wa ied in Zionville, P'a., one
orning. the skin was at tihe tannery by
o, was tannedl :tud turned over to a
toe-maker that evening, and by the
't mornin"g was made into a pair of
>ots which were worn by the man wvho
'ied the cali that had worn the skin
ec day befr'e.
--Men arc ingt1 paid $& ier day to
.uLiate pe~tiions for~ the pardon of the
nvxictdl Chicago Anarchists. and they
WITH A NEEDLE.
Ilow it is Ion.,ible. With Practice. to Foretell
From the Rocheter Democrat.)
The magnetic needle is quite as sure
an indicator of the condition of the sun
as storms or telescopic observations.
There should be observers throughout
the country. They will appear in time.
They will find it the most interesting
study they ever entered upon. We
would advise all to provide themselves
with a large magnetic needle. If observ
ers do not care to obtain anything elab
rate, an old file that is not too heavy,
say fourteen inches long, may be em
ployed. The cutting portion may be
ground off if it can be done convenient
ly. The pointed end for attaching to
the handle may be broken off up to the
point where the cutting portion begins.
This file should be thoroughly manet
ized and suspended in a box turned on
its side, the open side being covered
with a glass, although this is not neces
ary. A tube of brass or a long wooden
box, say twelve or fourteen inches long, -
an be fastened on the top of the box
aver the centre of motion of the needle
ad through this the thread for suspend
Eug or balancing the needle should run.
Loosely twisted silk is best, as there is
ittle torsion. The string is made quite
ong to avoid torsion. The point of sus
ension should nearly correspond with
he middle of the file.
The box with the needle inclosed
;hould be placed where it is not subject
:o jarring. If an iron rod is placed in a
perpendicular position to the right or
eft of one of the poles of the needle the
ieedle may respond more readily to the
mrth currents. The rod of soft iron has
olarity, acted upon by the earth cur
-ents, and becomes an electric magnet
When the earth currents are strong it
ttracts the pole of the needle strongly,
nd when the-current falls release it.
Che rod is not necessary, but its ordina
-y attraction is a constant force, so only
he changes in the earth currents can
hange its attraction. Iron in the vicini
y of the needle should not be disturbed,
aid iron articles should not be carried
tear it. A small glass mirror, say a half
nch in diameter, may be cemented upon
he centre of the flat needle so motion.
uay be detected by the shifting of the
mage of a distant object reflected from
he mirror to the eye. It will be inter
sting to watch the behavior of a heavy
Leedle as above described before and
luring an advancing storm. Great dis
urbance may be seen in the needle for
everal days before a storm approaches
he place of observation. There will be
egular motions of the needles at sun
ise, at the time the sun crosses the mag
tetic meridian and at sunset. Observa
ion will show what are usual and un
zual motions if proper precautions are
%ken. Until the "habits" of the needle
re observed for some time there is dan
er of false alarms.
CAPTURING TUE CROWD.
din Booth Improve on Shaikspeare to the
Delight of a Virginia Audience.-_
(From the Buffalo Times.) .
Once, during the days of his earl
truggles, Booth was ." barn-stormig'
own in Virginia, at a place called Lee's
Janding. The improvissd theatre was a
bacco warehouse, and it was crowded
v the planters for miles around. Booth
Ld his companions had arranged to take
lie weekly steamer, expected to call late
t night, and between the acts were busy
acking up. The play was "The Mer
hant of Venice," and they were just
oing on for the trial scene when they
eard a whistle and the manager came
nning in to say that the steamer had
rrived and wouldleave againin ten min
.tes. As that was their only chance for
week of getting away, they were in a
"If we explain matters, said the mana
er, " they will think they are being
heated and we shall have a free fight.
he only thing is for you fellows to get
.p some sort of natural-like impromptu
nding for the piece and ring down the
urtain. G.o right ahead, ladies and gen
[men, and take your cue from Ned
ere,"' and he hurmed away to get the
Ned, of course, was Bassanio, and he
esolved to rely on the ignorance of the
rirginians of toedy opl i
lrough all right. So when old George
luggles, who was doing Shylock, began
o sharpen his knife on his boot Booth
alked straight up to him and solemnly
"You are bound to have the flesh, are
"You bet your life !" said Rluggles.
" Now, I'll make you one more offer,"
ontinued Booth : "'In addition to this
>ig bag of ducats l'il throw in two kegs
f niggerhead terback, a shotgun and
wo of the best coon dogs in the State."
"I'm blamed if I don't do it !" re
ponded Shylock, much to the approba
ion of the audience, who were tobacco
aisers and coon hunters to a man.
"And to show that there's no ill-feel
ng." put in Portia, "We'll wind up with
When they got on board the steamer
he captain, who had witnessed the con
lusion of the play, remarked :
i'rd like to see the whole of that play,
entlemen. Ym blamed if I thought
hat fellow Shakespeare had so much
nap) in him."
Fell Eromn tire Great Pyramxid.
The accident which recently occurred
tt the Pyramias was very shocking. A
orporal in the Army Hospital Corps,
vho, poor fellow, was just going home,
v~ing served his time, had a picnic to
le Pyramids with some of his comrades.
Ee ascended to the top of the Great Pyra
nid, and was seen to pause when about
quarter of the way down, and make a
signal as if for help. Suddenly he wa
seen to slip back against the step or
~lok below him, and then to rebound
:rom each successive step. The peculiar
v of the accident is that the body did
~t roll or tumb~le from each irregularity,
ut bounded into the air as it struck
:hese in succe ssiou as if attracted thereto;
n fact, a series of parabola were per
ored. The corpse when it reached
:he 1base was a shapeless miass.-Londoni
A brakeman on the Delaware and Hud
son 5aluted an excursion party with the
warning, "Gents, take partners for the
The government pay., i nt s7,000 ia