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VO I.MANN( LAIE~O CLNY S ..WDNS)A.NO E ERI~MEN.N. 9
AT THE' H E 'T T 1T A.
A Pe:i-tnent Orgniz..Tijo--' - L
s-d of the Generna l e:a'
The State Yauner& Conv in met
in Agricultural Hall, Colum'bia. onTu
day, the 9th inst., and was ealied to
order by Capt. 1. R1. Tilbnan, of EIgc
Capt. Tillman 'cn p'roceeedi to rd
an address of w.hich the (oum'a i
ter mates the following y
Capt. Tillman stated fhiat ehig to
having been cdied upon froviny to
speak throughout the state tile pst tuu
mer, he had acquired somewmti a faei
ty for extemporancous spe a ing, but
that as he could not follow his suOject
with that force of statement and logical
sequence that he observed in his writ
ings, he would not attempt io, addrces
the Convention extemporancon y. .de
therefore, had written an addrss, ani
would read it before the Convention lie
then read the address, which, to begin
with, alluded to the suc wi which
the effort to organize fari ' move
mert ',.: met, uotwithstanding the op
position the undertaking had received
from the beginning. That oxpoition
came usually from those who had fast to
the public teat, and it was U' tuml for!
them to squeal when they felt it shppizg
from their teeth. [Applause He sad,
however, that desnite the c.6d water
thrown on the movement it l e a
success and world result in nbounded
benefit to the agricultural interests of
the State, which, he was sorry to confess,,
had gone down year by year until the
situation was appalling. The orgauiza-|
tion of the farmers would unite them,
and by their meetings and the decious I
plans'they would certainly dWvise the
gloom would be dispelled and the agru
culture of the State be put on a hea1thy
footing. If nothing else the n:.thods of
our agriculture would be chainged anu;
something done to avert absolite un.
The farmers, he stated, were ground to
powder between the millstones of West
ern competition on the one hau' ana
borrowing money at a high o interest
with which to make their cr;s on the
other. The organization of thi farmers
would go far towards remedying that,
mighty evil which threateni'. to over
whelm the agriculture of this mtate.
It had been charged, he said, that the
farmers' movement was a plcal oue.
but it had no more polities in it than tne
farmers of the State had a rigut to ab
similate with it. He himself was opp
to mixing politics with the me emen..t if
'he farmers could get their rights,
out it, but the farmers now L' tenued to
right their wrongs, and that w:s all they
asked. [Applause.: The polical fe.
tures of the movement were to all atten
tion to the needs of the far-uers aud
place the situation as it is before those
in authority. He felt pretty sure that
their demands would be heeded, and in
case they got what they watted they
would be satisfied, but should they not
receive the relief they ask at the proper
hands they would rise in their might and
take what they wanted. , Applause. 1 He
thought, however, that they would get
all they asked, and stated tlat as one res alt
of the movement numbers of members
had been elected to the L-gislature,
pledged to their ideas of reforu.
The principal thing the far''ter asked
was the reduction of the taxes whic
burden him, and the adoption of a less
expensive system in condiucting the gov
ernment of the State rIney wanted
abolished all onicees whiceh had been
established for old fossils and broken
down gentry, and he oredicted that
something' in this line~ would be done
when the Legislature meets. [Applause.j
He protested that his remaarks east no
reflection on present incuabents, but
were intended to call attention to useless
ofices now existing under our govern
Hie advocated the total divorce of the
Agricultural Department from politics,
and wants it placed in the hands to which
it properly belongs, namely, practical,
experienced farmers. The demands of
the farmers were that the Agricultural
Department, belonging by rights to
them, should be turned over to them.
[Applause.] He maintained that farmers
were intelligent enough to manage their
affirs, and that if the leauing men im
the ranks would come to the iront and
consult they would not have to go to
lawyers to know how to get their politics
and be told how to vote.
The establishment of an Agricultural
College, said he, would go far towards
giving educated farmers to the State,
and would disseminate thet scientifi and
practical knowledge wl .i the State so
much needed. He remarked that he had
a letter from General Stephen ID. Lee,
in which the Gerneral informed him that
a college similar to the Agricultural Col
lege of Mississippi would cost, exclusive
of the grounds and experimental farm,
$100,000. Captain Tifllman believed that
the $30,000 raised from the privilege tax
on fertilizers and the fund arising from
the land scrip~t, in addition to a small
appropriation from the State, would be
ample to support the college and h ave
all the work 'done that is now done by
the Agric1' Department.
In conclu.' a lie urged conservatum
upon the farmers in their demands, and
expressed his confidence in legislation to
remedy the evils they complain ot. It
these wrongs were not righted they
would be on hand two years hence. and]
see that they would not be bamboozled
in the next choice of oilicials. [Al
Mr. J. B. WVatson ot AndCers~on noun
nated Senator W. J. Talben, of l'dge
ield, for temporary presidenit ihe bein
the cauicus nommnee: and that gentlemuan
was unanim'ously elected by acclamation.
Mr. Talbert took his positon at ta
Reporters' table and brielly returned hi
thanks to the Convention.
Messrs. J. T. Duncan. of Newberry
and W. P~. Addison, of Abbeville, we
unanimously elected secretaries.
Capt. Tillman now moved that uw r
of counties be called anid th::t the eUa r
man of each delegation -announce tio
names of those sent to the Conventii
from his county, and that such nia::.
be enrolled as delegates. Adopted.
The enrolmlent toapiued some ti
No credentiaus were submitted. Ti i
contie of Aiken . Barnwell, Becaufort
est*7er'ii Georgetown, liorry, Haipf
iin and Yoirk were untere exnted, and
1Uin was oIly represented b0v one alter
n:i-. 1~ehlndl had a larg c d g'ation,
and Clarhston one above the average
The enirohlunLt lau1ted until 1.15 P.
M. When it hmd been comlaleted 3ir.
Shlcil, of Laurens, said that a nonber of
_qd.eit were absent at the Fair and he
tihaecfore prioposed that after selecting
a c.mmittee on credentials the Conven
tion take a recess until 8 P. "I. MIr.
ISels motion was carried, so amended
that the Convention should reconvene at
7.:;0 P. 'I.
\ir. Wari, of Laurens.moved that the
Lhair apoint a icmb;Zer from each
eountyt toserve on the credentials com
11ittee. Mr. Fishburne, of Colleton,
*ecured the adoption of an amendment
p*rviding that each delegation elect its
own committeeman, and in this shape
the resolution was carried.
The following members coustituted
the committee : Abbeville, A. W. Jones,
Anderson, J.*A. Hall; Berkeley, J. W.
L. Clement; Charleston. G. L. Homes;
Chester, E. P. Moore; Colleton, L. E.
Parker, Clarendon. j. E. Tindal: Dar
iington, W. E. McKnight; Edgetield, B.
1. Tillman; Fairfield. Samuel IcCor
miek; Greenville, H. G. Gilreath; Ker
shaw, G. W. Mosely; Lexington, Isaiah
Haltiwanger; Laurens, J. 31. Hudgens:
M.arion, T. C. Crawford: 'Marlboro, J.
B. Green; -Newberry, H. H. Folk; Oco
nee, J. .1. Keith; Orangeburg, F. 1).
Bates; Pickens, H. C. Shelly; Richland,
J. H. Kinsler; Spartanburg, H. L. Far
lev: Sumter, A. R. Sanders. Unon, Tohn
P. Thomas: Williamsburg, H. A. Eaddy.
At 1.310 the Convention took a recess,
and the committee on credertials, with
Dr. J. E. Tindal as chairman, began its
The Convention was called to order at
Dr. Tindal, of Clarendon, moved that
he temporary organization 'oe made per
nanent, and that afterwards the consti
tution be a-.opted and permanent officers
e elected under it. Capt. Tillman spoke
for this substitute, and it was carried.
The temporary officers having been
made permanent. the constitution for
the Farmers' Association of South Caro
lina was then read by Col. E. T. Stack
house, of Marion. A gentleman from
Wiliamsburg moved to vote on it by
ections. but by a vote of 34 to 31 the
onvention refused to do so.
Capt. Tillman statet that he and Col.
stckhouse had prepared the constitu
.ion, but he said he had no objection to
maving its sections voted on separately.
Lhe Convention adopted the constitution
s a whole, as follows.
We, the farmers of South C- :olina,
Cnvention assembled, recognizing the
visdom of the saying that in unio
there is strength, have determined to
form an organization for our mutual
>rotcction and benefit.
Its objects shall be the promotion of
dll branches of agriculture and the in-:
guration of a more rational and remu
nerative system of farming. . hese ends
are to be secured by organizing agricul
ural clubs throughout the State to meet
and discuss the situation, and then bring
the intluen.e of the organized farmers to i
bear upon the State governmen t so as to
obtain protection against fraud and im
position, and to secure that fosterig.
care so imperatively demanded by our
languishing agricultural interest.
While we shall as much as possible
eschew politics, legislation which affects
the farmers injuriously or overlooks
them entirely will be our first care till
a remedy be had. We claim the right
to do this as citizens and taxpayers and
invoke the.assistance of all classes and
professions in securing reform in our
government and in placing our agricul
tural interests on a more secure and
To this end we have adopted the
AnTLE I. This Association shall be
known as the Farmers' Association of
Anr. II. The officers of this Associa
tion shall be a President, seven Vice
Presidents-one from each Congression
al District-a Secretary and Treasurer
and an Executive Committre of nine
one from each Congressional District
and two at large-all to be chosen by
the members of this Association at th'e
annual meeting in November, and to
hold their offices for one year, or until
their successors are duly elected : provi
ded, that the Executive Committee hold
their oflice one, two and three years,
three being elected annually.
The first committee shalil determine
by- lot the length of their respective
Aar. III. The President shall have a
general supervision of the afl'airs of the1
Association ; shall preside at its meet
ings, preserve order, and regulate its
discussions according to ordinary p~arli
amentary rules, and shall be ex officio a
member~ of all committees. In his ab
Thne one ot the Vice-Presidents shall
TeSecretary shall attend all meet
ings of the Association. keep a record
of its proceedings. as also those of the
Executive Committee, and attend to the
The Treasurer shall receive and keep
an account of all funds, and pay out the
same by order of the President, counter
signed by the Secretary, making an an
nual report of such receip~ts and expen -
ditures to the Association.
Ajir. IV. The Executive Committee
shall have the general management and
control of all business of the Association,
shall prepare and issue a programme for
its annual meetings, and make all needed
arrangements therefor. They shall take
whatever steps they may deem proper to
secure the organization of farimers'
clubs in evecry County of the State, every
Tow1nship if possible, and until this is
done they may appoint organizers to do
tAn. V.i The regular annual meet
igofthe Association shall be held iu
thityo Columbia the second Tues
day in' November. anid speciad mieetings
m iiT be called by the Executive Commit
tee whnen d-emed necessary.
AnT. VI. Each Couinty Centra:
Farmers' Association shall lbe entitled ti.
ive rep~resentatives, who shall 1,
elected by said Associations at their Oc.
tobe-r ntietings in each year. W.here hi
organizationi exists a mass meeting io
farmers may elect delegates, but ti
shall onlv be aVlowed once, .s the valiu
of this asocidion will depend on its
Eah Cow ty Association shall deter
niue for Otle q I -lietions of it
members, d sladl:neet at least four
times a year, ind the% snal not charge
more than ifty cents per :ihber for an
The Governor of the Siate sIall be
ex oficio an honorary member of this
ART. VI1. There shall 1 a standing
conunittee of one for each County, elec
ted by its delogation imnediately after
the orga-ization is completed, to whom
all resohtjions or Lusincs propositions
are to be reflrred without debate, and
this comiluittee 5hdla2 preplare business
and be e dr powcred to make such recoi
miendatious as it shall see fit, to be acted i
upon by the Associatien.
Ar. VlI. This constitution may
be altered or amended at any annuall
meetiug b a vote of two-thirds of the
We also adopt the following:
First. The President shldt app oint all
committees, unless the Association shall
Second. The Exceutive Committee
may till :ll vacancies occurring in any
A1lce, as also in their own number, until
the next annual meeting.
Third. Elections for officers shall be
Fourth. A fee of five dollars shall be
paid annually by each County Associa
don sending delegates, and the delegates
Erom no county will be allowed to vote
ntil this fee is paid.
Fifth. The regular order of business
1st. Roll call and enrolling delegates.
2d. Reading minutes of last meeting.
4th. Report of special committees.
5tn. Report of standing committees.
ath. Unfinished business.
7th. New business.
Sixth. These by-laws may be altered,
imended or suspended by a two-thirds
ote of the members present.
ELECTION OF OFFICERS.
The election of otlicers followed. Mr.
[Boyd, of Darlington, nominated Capt.
B. R. Tillman for president. Capt.
riuman said that he felt that he could
lo more for the cause he had at heart by
serving in the ranks or in some other
:apacity than in the presidency; he.
:herefore, begged to dceline.
MKr. Farley, of Spartanburg, nomi
iated Mr. ). K. Norris, of Anderson. A
lelegate nornminated President Talbert,
:ho declined. On notion of 3r. Fish
Jurne, the Chair east the unaiimous
ote of die Convention fo- 'Mr. Norris.
Lhe announcement of the vote Wasi'
'reeted with hearty applause, which was
esumed when Mr Norris was escorted
xo the chair by Messrs. lloyd, Tillman
On taking the chair MIr. Norris ex
)ressed his high sense or the honor which
iad been conferred upon him in his
election to preside over so representa
ive a body of South Carolinians. It:
vould be t'he privilege of the members;
f the Convention, as citizens, to con
sider the th.ings that afi'cted them as
yitizens, and looking to their interests as
Igriculturalists to advance them without
mntagenizing other interests. It would
je their duty to consider as farmers and
:0 suggest to the General Assembly
neasures for the relief of the farming
nterests. They had gone to the practi
!al walks of life for a man to fill their
,hair, and with a knowledge of his in
xperience he relied upon their indul
genee of his shortcomings as an officer.
The other officers elected were as fol
Vice-Presidents-Col. R. S. Bedon,
>f Colleton, for the First Congressional
District; Hon. W. J. Talbert of Edge
deld, for the Second District; Capt. Joel
Beard, of Oconee, for the Third Dis
trict; G. W. Shell, of Laurens, for the
Fourth District; WV. A. Ancrum, of Ker
shaw, for the Fifth District; Gen. E. T.
Stackhouse, of MIarion, for the Sixth
District; Dr. E. J. Rembert, of Sumter,
for the Seventh District.
Secretar-J. T. Duncan, of New
Treasurer-W. P. Addison, of Abb
The standing committee was elected1
as follows: Abbeville, J. Thorrton; An
derson, J. B. Watson; Berkeley, F. Y.
Legare; Charleston, W. H. Kinsman;
Chester, C. W. 3Mefadden: Colleton,
F. C. Fishburne; Clarendon, J. E. Tin-'
dal; Darlington, ,J. W. Beasley; Edge
field, B. R. Tillmnan; Fairtield, W. R1.
Rabb; Greenville, W. B5. Buist; Hamp-'
ton, Geo. MIosely; Lexington, H. J.
Seibels; Laurens, John W. Hudgens;
Lancaster, Ri. L. MIickler; Orangeburg,
J. E. Wnnamaker; Sumter, A. K. San
ders; Union, John P. Thomas; Wil
liamsburg, F. 31. Britton; MIarion, E.
T. Stackhouse; MIarlboro, RI. W. Pegues;
Newberry, J. C. Goggans; Oconce, J.
J. Keith; Pickens, H. C. Shirley; Rich
land, J. H. liinsler; Spartanburg, H. L.
A number of resolutions, touching
upon various matters, were now intro
duced, and referred to the standing com
The Convention then adjourned till
9;. o'clock on the morning of the 19th
The Convention assembled at
o'clock, but took a recess till eleven
o'clock, in order to hear the report of
the committee on resolutions. Capt.
Tillman read this report, as follows:
After due consideration of the various
resolutions referred to us, and taking
into consideration1 the power invested in
us to make independent recomnmenda
tions of our own volition, we submit thec
follow~ingt llationa as embodying the
substance. of such resohttions -as were
acted upon favorably by the commflittee,
and as indicating the refoims a2nd mecas
ures which we deem of great importance
to our interests as farmers and citizens:
We, the farmers of South Carolina iu
Convention assembled, after muature de
liberation and after all the light and ex
perience gained since our last Conven
tiion from the fullest discussion among
ourselves as to the gen'eral objects to l e
attained, hereby express our continued
and unshaken contidence in our Farmaers
Association as now organized to nccom
plish great good for the State if p~rop~erly
couducted and kept within legitiniute
bounds, and we hereby reiterate our de-*
ternmination that there shall be hence.
forth in South Carolina an organization
for the protection 'nd advancennt of
our agricultural interests.
In furtherance of this purpose and as
embodying the present views of the
State, we respectfully urge upon our
General Assembly the necessity and ad
visability of the following measures:
1. The estalblishnient of a real agricul
tural college. separate and distinct from
the South CarolinaCollege, and modeled
after those of 'Mississippi and Miehigan.
We believe that the necessary funds to
build and equip this institution can be
secured b y lopping oil needless expendi
tures, aid abolishing or cons-din
useless oiices without increased taxation.
We further recomnmend, as a means to
asSist in building the institution, that
the ditTerent counties of the State be em
powered to bid for it by oflering bonds
2. That -.7 vxnerimuental station should
be estaliA:ed at or in connection with
said Am;ieultural and Mechanical Col
lege, the same to be under the charge of
its faciivY, and that we memorialize Con
gress t' pass the bill introduced by Mr.
Hatch anid 1ow pend:ing, which appro
priates ' !.0 annually to each State
for the pm-pese, and that we ask our
Senators and Congressmen to use all
legiti-.m means to secure its passage.
. '. t i order that our agricultural
admin tratin rap% be divorced as far as
possil. from politics and politicians,
and the: men best <qualified to perform
these anportant duties be selected by I
those mno.-t competent to judge, in order
that we ny secure a board of agricul
ture a , e efficient, zealous and repre
sentate, o lnow our needs and will
try to supply them, we urge that instead
of being chosen by the Legislature they
be elected by thiisiarmers' Association.
The board of agriculture should consist
of ten members, five elected annually.
They should have the power to elect
their own secretary, whose duties would
correspond with those of the present
commissioner. Their duties would be
the same as the law imposes on our pres
ent board, except as the collection of the
phosphate royalty, which should he
given to the comptrollQr-general. In ad
Jition they should have control of the
gricultural college and experimental
tation, and should by means of iarmers'1
institutes build up and keel) alive coming
4. That the system of inspection of
ertilizers is now defective, and iio ade
quate punishment for frauds provided.
We therefore urge such additional legis
Lation as will secure the needed protec
tion without imposing unneces:,ary re
straiuts upon the manufacture and sale of
rtilizers. Cotton seed meal, whether
sold :s a fertilizer or as feed for stock.
hould be inspected and its adulheration
5. We urge the Legislature not to
squander the State's property by allow
ing the wholesale exportation of phos
phates at merely nominal prices, and
that with a view of lessening the burdens
f taxation, they Lke into consideration
the adivisability of increasing the phos
We~1ecommiend the passage of such
legi'sla'ion as will protect the farmers of
the State pgainst imposition and fraud
in the weiging of cotton.
7. We respectfully urge such legisla
tion as will protect us against forest tires
. The equalization of taxes demands
arnest consideration at the hands of the;
Legislatuie, and we urge such action as
cal best secure it.
9. We urge such alterations of the fee
bill as will guard the estates of dead per
sons against abuses and provide protec
tion for widows and orphans.I
.!0. In order to secure the needed re-'
forms in our county governmeins and to
reduce the burden of taxation, as well as
to secure such changes in thme judicial
system as may be needed, we earnesily
request our legislators to consider the
advisability of celli.1g a constitutional
convention, unless, in their judgment,
the necessary changes may be better ob
taed by amendment.
After the reading of the platform a
motion was made to take it up by sec
tions. This excited some discussion,
and a division was demanded on the
question, resulting yeas 39, nays 2:3.
The platform was then read by see
tiojis, and was adop~ted. During the
progress of thme reading there were one'
or two short discussions.
The platform was then adopted as a
AN A(;RieULTU~iAL eoLLD:..
The following resolutions, adopted by
the Anderson Farmers' Club. were re
fered to the committee:
llesolved, TIhat the Novemb Conven
tion be urged to demand of our next
Legislature the establishment of an agri
cultural college separate and distinct
from the South Carolina College.
Riesolved, That we ask for a reorgani-1
zation of the department of agriculture
in the interests of economy and of the
farmers of the State.
THE FAC~~oRs AND THE USURY LAw.
MIr. H. R. Thomas introduced the fol
lowing resolution, which was also re
Whereas the usury law has had no
en'eet in cheapening money, but has
shut the farmers out from obtaining the
same and turning us over to the outra
geous charges of the cotton factors and
merchants, amounting to from :30 to 100)
And. whereas. these laws force the far
mes to exchange cotton for goods, ena
bling the merchant to fix the price of the
farmers' produce and to exact the price
of his goods, thus doing away with the
circulation of money among the farmers.
to the detriment of the whole country:
Therefore we recommend the repeal
of th usury law.
The following was introduced by a
delegate whose name could not be ob
Resolv ed, That plaintin's in referee<
C ourts be req1uired to give bond for siif
ficient amount to cover probable cests of
TheC committee on resolutionms reported
a piaper, submitted b.y Dr. IRembert,
with the recoimmnendation that it be pub
lished and that its consideration be de
ferred until the next meeting.
A fter some debsate, an assessmnm of
onie dollar was laid upon each delegate.
to pay the expenises of thme Convention
whieli thme treasar proceeded to collect.
( a Timnmm timen imoved that a com
mittee of live be appointed to take steps
to have the legi.,lation recomindended by
the Convention presented to the ( General
AssemOly and passed, if possible. This
evoked another discussion.
Capt. Stackhouse thought that the
executive committee should be entrusted
with the work.
Another delegate thought that a coia
nittee of three would be solilcient.
Their expenses would ha -e to be paid.
and as the farmers had been preaching
retrenchment it wold be as to well prac
tice it right here.
Finally it was agreed that the com
mittee should consist of three menbers,
to be selected from the executive con
THE NEW oRIlULTI1AL Ao\RD.
Capt. Tillman next suggested that it
would ie necessary to be prepared with
an agricultural board in case the Legis
lature drcial to turn the bureau over
to the Associ It a, as recommended in
the platform. e moved that the com
mittee on resl tions be instructed to
name ten members of the Association,
who by reason of their character. ability,
earnestness and zeal will command the
respect of the farmaers ot the State as fit
to be tl:e first board of the reorganized
This 'evoked a long discussion, in
which Capt. Tilhman took an active part,
explaining his views and intentions.
The motion was finally adopted with an
amendment ro1'niring the names to be
submitted to the Convention for confir
Capt. Titinni'.i next, with an apology
for the frequency of his occupancy of
the floor, stated that it was known thet
in some of his letters published last win
ter he had used words in reference to
the State Agricultural Society which
might be considered too strong. He
said he had been honest in what he had
said. It was stated by many of the
members of the State Society that this
Association was antagonistic to that
body, and was intended to supersele it.
He for one remembered that during the
lark days of Radical rule in the State,
the State Agricultural Society was pe
haps the only organized body of white
men in the State. He desired to deny
that lie had the least feeling of resent
ment or distrust for that society. He
desired that harmony and concert of
action should exist between the two
bodies, and with that view he moved
that a committee of three be appointed
to invite the State Agricultural Society
to mcet this Association in joint eonven
tion-a kind of lovefeast-this evening at
7.30 o'clock, in order that there might,
be a union of the two wings ol :he gr-td
army of farmers. 'Applause.j Tie i
tion was unanimo'usly adopted, and t.,
Convention then took a recess until
At half-past 7 about one hundred
members reassembled at the Hall and
the meeting was called to order by the
president, Mr. D. K. Norris.
The first business before the expected
lovefeast was the announcement of a
new b oard of agriculture in case the:
Legislature should adopt the recoimmen
dation of the Convention and transfer:
the m anagement of the bureau of agri
culture to the Farmers' Association.
The appointments, as announced by
the committee on business, are: D. 1
Norris, Anderson; M. L. Donaldsun,
Greenville; E. T. Stackhouse, Marion;
B. B. Tillman, Edgefield; D. P. Duncan,
Union; Allan Johnson, Newberry: John
son Hagood, Barnwell; B. A. Love,
Chester; E. L. Reeves, Charleston; A.
E. Davis, Fairfield.
(in motion of MIr. Shell, of Laturens,
the report of the committee was adopted
and the appointments were confirmed.
The members of the Convention were
then requested to occupy the chairs on
the left of the hall, leaving those on the
right for the members of the State Agri-!
cultural and 3Mechanical Society, who
had been invited to attend a joint meet
ing, and a recess was taken until 8
At twenty-eight niinutes past $ o'c'ock
Captain Tillman moved to adjourn. A
delegae asked what had become of the
lovefeast at which the State Ag,.cultura
and 3Mechanical Society was to have as
sisted. The chairman replied that the
Convention had expected them at 8
o'clock and had waited for them; that
much to his regret they had not ap
peared, and as the hall hadt been promised
to the Survivors of the Wallace Hous
at half-past 8 o'clock he didn't see how
the Convention coul wait.
On motion, the Convention then ad
journed sine die.
-The reporter of the News and Cou
rier adds this statement : "V Wihount
being informed as to the. cause.s wich
prevented the attendance of the State
Agricultural and 3Mechanical Society, I
venture to say that the joint meeting
proposed was imipracticale for the rea
son that the Society was not in session,
its annual meeting being appointed for
the next night. No doubt the p~roper
explanations will be made.
Proe-edin;;' of te l'tj-(.erte .
The convenltion of third and feairth e:IMs
potmtr of Sou1th Caoina was held
lt nirht at Stanl.ey's llall. The conven
tion! or'izti/ed at- ft lows:
PrelSillut-F. A. Schilicy postmaneger at
Urn'ebulr:: Vice-P~residen t-D I).( lleri
bl~rt 01 Nedboerry, WV. C. lose of i 'n'nols
vile W. '. Varner of (reeleyv~ille. Se
rtrv and Treasurer-li. E. Bonner of
Re sohltins wer~e aop ]ted asingani
erase of compen!1l:tatin.
Th le followiou delegate-' \0t ef
repeenlt Sothtl Carolina 't ib N:a
(onvenion~ of Po,-inaiter- i. I e m
Iil. I1 . Bi on r no itd o re:
r.-:ent Sout Carlin u the aiond' Li
A. resoliutiona 0a adopl*e:1 *.diing .
oranize/ con y ' I coVenin'.
ter(, Gne ral ack nowleing the. reci.
an nvtratin to~l aned th meetin.th a
1Tlat i,: all very wll. bt whatistb
I oue when~ a man'II. hir b.eio Io i '1 ni
..rii e'. marrltiiellI
;&- rg.s a~aisVr-.tenec6a sRve% are!
'I Te current niumber of the Pelmal's
Art .Jouirnil contains complete a paper
on "Di.pted riandwriting," prepared
bY its editor, '. T. Ames, the well
1u.wn penmanship expert, and read be
fore the Business Educators' Conven
tion. The subject is of such broad and
genrral interest as to warrant the repro
duction of the article in these columns:
"This is a sublject that has been grow
ing greatly in importance during the
past few years-that is the legal investi
gation of questions arising from hand
writing in our courts of justice. With
reference to the value of such labor as
experts are ab1)le to perform in this re
spect there is a wide difllerence of opin
ion. "Many of the jurists of our day
esteem it highly, and many not quite so
highly. The question really comes to
be-is there any such a thing as scientific
and satisfactory investigation of the
various phases under which handwriting
appears in our courts. We all know that
forgeries are very numerous-that
scarcely a week passes in this city that
there are not tried causes involving in
son manner the genuiness of hand
writing. Most of those present are
familiar with the methods resorted to by
forgers in producing their work. The
great majority of forgeries are not by
persons who are skilled in the art of
penmanship; many of them are of so
imperfect a character that a good judge
would wonder that there had been any
question raised respecting it. I have
been called to investigate forgeries
where there was scarcely a semblance to
the genuine writing sought to be imi
tated, others where there would be a
general outline, but the character of the
work would at once stamp it as spurious.
The great proportion of the forgeries of
signatures are perpetrated by means of
tracing-the parties making an outline
with a pencil and then writing it in with
ink-forgeries of that class are very
easily detected when carefully exc mined
with i good glass, and especiaiy with a
good microsozpe. Another class, and
the most dangerous, are prepared by
skillful writers taking a signature and
practicing upon it, as upon a copy, until
it can be reproduced by the forger with
a tolerable degree of accuracy, some
times to an astonishing degree. i have
seen such signatures where it was impos
sible to determine with any degree of
certainty whether the signatures was
.spurious or genuine. Forgeries executed
by the tracing process are insariably
demonstrated to be such, I believe, be
cause no man can at the first following
of a tracing make a .gnature which will
deceive a person who is familiar with the
gnuinie-the shades will be different,
and the strength of the lines will be
different, and where thcre are short
comings in this respect they have to be
covered by retracing. These will appear
under the glass in over-lapping layers of
ink. This will also be true of ferged
signatures that are traced by holding
them to the light, as to a pane of glass
or to a light, but there is also a diil'erent
movement, and hence different quality
of line-there is that in the writing
which shows it is not wri'ten with the
ordinarv and natural motion of the
hand. ' There will also be a nervous
-emor, and the slower the hand is
moved the more apparent will this be.
If one signature is placed over another
and found to cover it in every respect, it
is inevitably the case that one is a forge
rN. Most forgeries are unskilfullv exe
euted by a professional, or by one who
might be called a pen artist. Many are
made by elerks who get an idea that they
cin reproduce their employer's signa
ture; they have had very good opportu
aities to get acquainted with the genu
ine, yet rarely fail to be detected.
One of the most frequent phases in
which these investigations arise is in
disguised handwriting in the form of
abusive, black-maihing, threatening or
obscene letters. Persons unfamiliar with
this matter can scarcely realize the ex
tent to which this species of crime is
carried. I venture to say that during
the past year dthere has not been one
week in wvhich packages of anonymous
letters have not been brought to my
olice for investigation. MIany of them
are of the very worst character-many
threatening the lives of people. many
abusing p~arties, and many growing out
of the strikes. Only recently letters
have come from the proprietors or man
agers of a railroad who have been threat
ened with death by supposed employees.
All manner of means are resorted to by
writcrs to conceal their identify-some
times the letters are even hand printed.
Sometimes they are so skillfully executed
that no trace ofi the identity of the writer
is left. These cases, however, arc rare,
for very few persons can write to the ex
tent of a page of any sheet and impart
to it some of their own characteristics.
The worst of all hand-wrsiting to inves
tigate wold would be that of a school boy
who had no characteristics to his hand
writng-who has not practised under
cirunmstanees which imparted any indi
idultwo orpersonality to his writing.
Iftoteachers of writing should write
a letter and bring it up absolutely, ac
cording to principle. to the standard of
any system, there could be no compari
son as to the personal characteristics of
the writers. As we go into business,
however, we depart from the standard
forms of the school-room, and each of
these departures constitutes the peculiar
personality of the writer. lHere was
ulustated" upon the blackboard numer
ous specimens of these habitual changes.)
T hese departures are mostly unconscious;
a person gradlually drifts into these varia
tins in hi prasctice tillustrated by the
ltter L on the board .
- short time :ago t had occasion to
examine a dozen long letters. whi I
prononced forgeries, in the genue
iadwriting the crosses of thle t witu
rare exceptions were slauted down, hut
in the simuliatedt writing they invariably
ra m>. To hese letters were presented
b pa rties~ making a claim against anes
tate, and were uifered in evi' enea
soiin" a consideration. All the ero.r
iags of'the t in the forgeries ran upward
wihI found to be trute of the writing
0f the p'arty on'ering the claim
It was the lttle unconscious habit which
had nti~ been uuted by the forger.
in disguising writing, it would be um
cessarv' that~ a person shiouldl know all
his littie pec'uiariti's, but as they do not
these iuv aiably creep into the forged or
dsuised writing. -\ lot of disguised
lee~~,..s iit ns,, bands ashorttimle
since that were printed in Gothic letters,
nniformly at first, but, after a while, the
party fell to printing the main part of it
in lower case (illustrated on the board),
and by-and-by the writer came, uncon
sciously, to make the i and t exactly as.
in script-and finally a word appeared
in script-generally persons in printing
the lower case will make i's, c's and t's,
unconsciously, as they would write them.
After going over pages of the writing
the identity of the writer was fully dis
"Probably the most difficult class of
cases arises where a writer copies or
makes use of another handwriting to
disguise his own. Now if I should at
tempt to simply disguise my own hand
without any copy or ideal before me, I
should endeavor to use forms outside of
my own hand, foreign to myself, and
thus avoid identity; but where I take
another handwriting and, by imitating
that, supply myself with new material,
my disguise would be all the more difli
cult to penetrate and explain. I now
have a case in hand where this has, as I
allege, been done. On the one hand it
is alleged. that a certain party has written
blackmailing letters in a disguised hand;
on the other hand, the accused claims
some one has simulated his hand. Ex
perts have been called in to show that it
is his handwriting disguised, and others
to show that it is not but rather a manu
factured imitation of his writ~n.
" At this point Mr. Ames ed upon
one of the members to write his auto
graph upon the blackboard, and called
upon a skilled writer to imitate it as -
nearly as possible, which being done,
Mr. Ames instituted a sharp anysis of
the original signature, indicating its
personalities and pointing out wherein
the copyist had failed to reproduce
these personalities, but had unwittingly
incorporated, through foree of habit,
those of his own hand. The exercise
was listened to with marked attention
and apparent interest."
NIGHT GLO1Eb REVIVED.
Modern Beautie, Said to Be Returning to Fash
ions or the Last Century.
The remarkable discovery has recent
!y been made that " white hands are
oming into fashion again," says London
Queen. It would seem that hands have
been growing less white than they used
to be, and have suffered from too great
ttachment in ladies to lawn tennis and
oating and other masculine accomplish
ents. Chal d and red hands are
aever pretty, ud these, of course, inva
ciably follow on outdoor exercises. The
evil is, happily, not beyond remedy, and
:o offset this purpose "the daughters of
Eashion," as many of them will learn
with surprise, now have dishes of hot
ivater shaped like a flower leaf on their
toilet tables, in which they steep
-heir hands for a while before going to
bed, then anoint them with vaseline and
put on gloves lined with a preparation of
old cream. These gloves should be of
wash leather ard several sizes too large
[or the hand.
Before the paragraph has gone its tardy
round in print these night gloves will
murely be made an instance of the amaz
Eng luxury of our degenerate days, and
point, we may be sure, a very doleful
noral. In the absence of any general
knowledge on this point, the ladies of
ashion will be looked upon as having
riginated a perni-tious practice, which,
ogether with the toilet masks of which
ive recently heard so much and saw so
ittle, might indicate a lamentable degree
>f oveirefinement, such as we should
ertainly be reminded has invariably
receded the decay of empires.
The old receipt for perfuming gloves
uns : Take amber grease a dram, civet
lie like quantity, orange flower butter a
luarter of an ounce, and with these well
nixed and ordered daub them over gent
y with 'inc cotton wool, and so press
hie perfume into them. Other devices -
or making them "richly redolent"
oint generally to the use of oil or fats
s being the 'best available and most
argely employed means to secure a
~oc d and lasting perfume. As for such
loves being considered excellent for
Sight use we have the lines in Swift's
goem on "The TAdy's D~ressing Room,"
ihowing on the itable :
?here night gloves made of Tripsey's
Bequeath'd by Tripsey when she died.
Where a lady's maid is reassuring her
nistress in a poem of 1790, as to her own
mperiority over a rival, the maid say's:
[ know the arts she labors to disguise,
[ know whence all her boasted graces
?hose charms which gained the creature
re culled from every quarter of the
Sh buys her beauties at a price immense,
Her breath from Warren and her teeth
from Spence ;
Each night her face is wrapped in greasy
and Chinese gloves enfold her arms and
If such a madeup thing can rival thee,
Let park canals strive with the fonaming
Let Oxford hacks with Pegasus compare,
And broad St. Giles' vie with Portman
There would be some suspicion of
chemical treatment about such gloves.
Although a French philosopher some
time ago asserted that glovers, of all
artisans, were the most mild and amiable,
owing to the soothing intluence of leath
er upon tempera aient, this discovery had
not been made when Chinese gloves
were in vogue, and more direct agencies
acting upon the outer man or woman
were all that were sought after. " Med
icated " gloves are used by Dr. Johnson's
born beauty in the 120th Rambler, the
doctor probably not knowing much of
toilet mysteries. This young lady is
represented as always most carefully ten
ded and put under rigid cosmetic disci
pline at night, never permitted to sleep
until thoroughly anointed with "beau
tower water and May dew." her hair
pefumed and oiled, and the softness of
her hands secured by medicated gloves.
A .'peial dispatch fromt $an Autonio,
'T-exas, says B3. P. McMahon, w'ho escaped
f'oml Las \acias. Mexico, Monday, when
lwtlehtt i ier and his party were attacked
:m kld tay" that Griner was killed by
r1.:rCpoice('L'rs who wer~e hired to com
nIh Ii blvi 0w brothers unmed Ar
miao.) Thet A riho professed friendship
f'1 d riner, but turnedt .n the Amnericans
wi h t reahrus \tenge'ance a. o n as)Ur the
I" lice" be'gan the attack.