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SUPPLEMENT.] -MANNING, CLARENDON COUNTY, S. C, WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1888.
JOSEPH F. RHAME,
ATTORNEY AT LAW
MANNING. S. C.
OHN S. WILSON,.
Attorney and Counselor at Law,
MANNING, S. C.
F. NI LSON
F ISURRACE AGE T A
MANNING. S. C. .
ATTORNEY A' L AW,
MANNING, S. C.
A!-Notary Public with seal.
IN)L H. INGRAM.
ATTORNEY AT LA W
Office at Court House,
M . CLINTON GALUCHAT,
PRACTICES IN COrBTS OF
C4RLFSTON and CL ARENDO'.
Address Communications in care 6f Man
TOS. H. MONTGOMERY.
ATTORNEY AT L AW,
Main Street. SUMTER, S. C.
'"-Collections a specialty.
W. F. B. HAYNswoara, Sumter S, C.
B. S. DIsNsms, Manning, S. C.
H AYNSWORTH & DINKINS,
ATTORNEYS AT.LA W,
. MANNING, S. C.
R. G. ALLEN HUGGINS,
MANNING AND KINGSTREE.
Kingstree, from 1st to 12th of each month.
Manning, from 12th to 1st of each month.
' --0zCR HoURs
9A.M.to P.3f. and2to4P.M.
J. BRAGDON, -
REAL ESTATE AGENT,
FORESTON, S. C.
Offers for sale on Main Street, in business
portion of the town, TWO STORES! with
suitable lots; on Mannin and Rt. R. streets
TWO COTTAGE RESIDENCES, 4 and 6
roome; and a number of VACANT LOTS
suitable for residences, and in different lo
calities. Terms Reasonable.
Louis Cohen & Co.
284 King Street. a"
CHARLESTON, S. C.
Importers, Wholesale and Retail Dealers in
Dry and Fancy Goods.
WM Samples and prices cheerf y sent
on applicatiop. Orders en rusted to
me will receive my prompt personal at
tention. Will be pleased to see my
friends-rom Clarendon County.
TSA A C M. L4ORYEA,
With' Louis Cohen & Cg,,
CHARJESTO ,. C.
Win. Drmester & Co.
H AY AND GRAIN,
Red Rust Proof Oats, a Spe
Opposite Kerr's Wharf, .
-C-HARLESTON S. C,
Mhz G. Bryant, Jas. M. I.AND.
South Carolina. . ew York.
Oraid. Central Hotel.
BRYANT & TETAND, Pnorazarrons.
Columbia, South Carolinic
The grand Central is the largest and best
kept hotel in Columbia, located in the EX
ACT BUSIN'.FSS CENTER OF TilE CJ'T,
where aill Street Car Lines pass the door,
and ita M&VU is not exceled bynny in the
THE BEULAII ACAOEMY,
Bethlehem, S. C.
B. B. THOMPSON, Principal.
Fall $ssig Bogas Monilay, Oct. 29.
Instruction thorough. governmeniwt mild
and decisive. appeahng generally to thfe
student's sense of honor and judgment in
the important miatte'r of punctuality, de
portment. diligen~e, &c. Moral anud social
Truition fromi $1.O00 to $2.00 per month.
Board in good families 27.00 per month.
Board from Monday to Friday per month
pi-For further particulars, ad lra4 th
IO . Dinkins & Co.,
Druuists ud Phannacists,
PURE DRUGS AND MEDICINES,
FINE CIGARS AND
Full stock of -PAIrs, Ou~s, GL~ASS
VAnInBHE and WHrrE LIan, also
Pamr and WanrWASH BRUSHES.
SAn elegant stock of
SPECTACLES and EYE GLASSES.
No charge made for fitting the eye.
Physicians Prescriptions carefully
compounded, day or night.
J. 6, Diokins & Co.,
'Sign of the Golden Mortar,
M AI4NN SL C.
1RANSMITTED TO CONGRESS
BY THE PRESIDENT
AN IN'DERESTING DOCUMENT.
URVIEW OF .TE COUNTRY FOR AN
Pride and satisfaction at the Picture of
Our Growth and Prosperity-His Views
on the Tariff as Related to 'W Eonom
Cal Administration-He Speaks of the
Sackville Affair in Sorrowfuli Terms.
His Plans for the Abolishment of Trusts.
Wasanteo'ro, Dec. 3.-President Cleve
land's message was presented to Congress
to-day. The document contains about ten
thousand words. The main points touched
are herewith given:
To the Congress of the United States.
As you assemble for the discharge of the
duties you have assumed as the represen
tatives of a free and generous people, your
meeting is marked by an interesting and.
impressive incident. With the expir
of the present session of the Congre
first century of our constitutio -
tence as a nation will be complete
Our survival for one hundred rs is not
sufficient to assure us that we no longer
have dangersto fear in the maintenance,
with all its promised blessings, of a gov
ernment founded upon the freedom of the
people. The time rather admonishes usto
soberly inquire whethbr in -the past we
have always closely kept in the course of
safety, and whether we have before us a
way plain and clear which leads to happi
ness and perpetuity.
When the experiment of our Government
was undertaken, the chart adopted for our
guidance was the Constitution. Depart
ure from the lInes there laid down is fail
are. It is only by a strict adherence to the
direction they indicate and by restraint
within the limitations they fix, thatwe can
furnish proof to the world of the fitness of
the American people for self-government.
The equal and exact justice of which we
boast as the underlying principles of our
institutions, should not be confined to the
relations of our citizens to each other.
The Government itself is under bond to
the American people, that in the exercise
of its functions and powers it will deal
with.the body of our citizens in a manner
scrupulouslyhonest and fair and absolutely
just. It has agreed that American citizen
ship shall be the only credential necessary
.to justify the claim of equality before the
law, and that no condition in life shall give
rise to discrimination in the treatment of
the people by their Government.
The citizen of our Republic in its early
days rigidly insisted upon full compliance
with the letter of this bond, and saw
strotching out before him a clear field for
Individual endeavor. His tribute to the
support of his Government was
measured by the - cost of its
eeonomical maintenance, and he was se
cure in the enjoyment of the remaining
recompense of his steady and contented
toll. In those days the frugality of the
people was stamped upon their Govern
ment, and was enforced by the free,
thoughtful, and intelligent suffrage of the
etizen. Combinations, monopolies, and
aggregations of people were either avoided
or sternly regulated and restrained. The
pomp and glitter of Governments less free,
offered no temptation and presented no de
usion to the plain people who, side by side,
in friendly competition, wrought for the
ennoblement and dignity of man, for the
solution of the problem of free govern
ment, and for the achievement of the
grand destiny awaiting the land which
God had given them.
A century has passed. Our cities are
the abiding places of wealth and luxury;
our manufactories yield fortunes never
dreamed of by the fathers of the Republic;
our business men are madly striving in
the race for riches, and immense aggrega
tions of capital outrun the Imagination in
the ~magnitude of their undertakin.
We view with pride and satisfaction this
bright picture of our country's growth and
prosperity, while only a closer scrutiny de
velops a sombre shading. Upon more
eareful inspection we find wealth and
luxury of our cities mingled With poverty
and wretchedness and unremunerative
toiL A crowded and constantly increas
g urban population suggests the impov
erishment of rural sectionb, and discon
tent - with agricultural pursults. The
farmer's son, note - satiaded with. his.
father's simple and laborious lifer joins
eaercase for easily-acquired wealth.
We discover. tat the .fortunes reabzed
by ounr manufacturers are ho longer solely
the reward of stm-dy industry nnd en
lightened 'for'esight,.but th'~t they result
from the discriminating fav.r nf the Gov
ernent, and are largely tua upon undue
exactions from the masses of our people.
The gulf between employers and the em
ployd is constantly widening and classes
are rapidly forming, one comprising the
very rich and powerful, while in another
are found tl:o toiling poor.
As we view the- achievements of aggre
gatediptail, we discover the existence of
trusts, combinations, and mnonopolies,
while the citizen is struggling far In the
rear or is .trampled to death beneath an
Iron heeL .'Corporatins, which should be
the carefu1lly-restrained creatures of the
law and the servants of the people, are
fast becoming the people's mnasters.
Still congratulating ourselves upon the
wealth -and prosperity of our country,
and complacently contemplating every
incident of change inseperable
from these conditions, it Is our
du~y as patriotic citizens to inquire, at the
present stage of our progress, how the
bond of the Government made wvith the
people has been kept and performed.
Instead of limiting the tribute drawn
from oir citizens, to the necessities of an
economical administration, tho Govern
met persists in exacting, from the sub
stance of the people, millions which un
applied and useless ire aormant In its
Treasury. This flagrant injustice and this
broach of faith and obligation add to ex
tortion the danger attending the diversion
of the currency of the country from the
legitimate channels of business.
Undr the same laws by which these re
sults are produced, the Government per
mits many millions more to be added to
the cost of the living of our people and to
be taken froil our consumers, which un
reasonably swell the profits of a small but
Te people must still be taxed for the
support of the Government under the
operation of tariff laws. But to the ex
tent that the mass of our citizens are in
ordinately burdened beyond any useful
public purpose, and for the benefit of a
favored few, the Gjoverument, under pro.
text of an exercise of its taxing power, en
ters gratuitously In to a partnership with
these favorites, to their advantage and
to the injury of a'vast majority of our
This is not equality before the law.
Ihe existing situation is injurious to the
health of our entIre oodyV-politic. It sti fles,
in those for whose beinefit it is permii ted,
all patriotic love of country, and substi,
tte in its place selfish greed and grasp
ng avarice. Devotion to American citI
zenship for its own sake and for what it
should accomplish as a motive to our na
tion's ndvancemient and the liapplines of all
our people, is displaced by the assumption
that the Government. instead of being thbe
embodiment of equality, is but an iistru
mentality through which especial and indi
vidual advan:tagea are to be gained.
The grievances of those not included
within the circle of thiese bciienciaries,
when fully realized, will surely arouse ir
r4tmna nd disoontat. Our farmers.
long-suffering and patient, strugeuing in
the race of l fe with the nardest and most
unremitting toil, will not fail to see, in
spite of misrepresentations and misleading
fallacies, that they are obliged to accept
such prices f->r their products as aro lixed
in foreign markets where they compete
with the farmers of tho world; that their
lands are declining in value while their
debts increase; and that without compen
sating favor they are forced by the action
of the Government to pay, for the benefit
of others, such enhanced prices for the
things they need, that the scanty return
of their labor fail to furnish their support
or leave no margin for accumulation.
Our woraingmen, enfrrnchised from all
delusions and no longer frightened by the
cry that their wages are endangered by a
just revision cf our tariff laws, will reason
ably demand through such revision steadier
employment, cheaiier means of living in
honres, freedom for themselves and their
children from the doom of pepetual servi
tude, and an open door to their advance
ment beyond the limits of a laboring class.
Others of our citizens -whose comforts
and expenditures.are measured by maer
ate salaries and fixed incomes, will .asist
upon the fairness and justice of cheapen
ing the cost of necessaries for themselves
and their families.
When to the selfishness of the beneficia
ries of unjust discrimination under our
laws there shall be added the discontent cf 1
those who suffer from such discrimination,
we will realize the fact that the beneficent
purposes of our Government, dependent
upon the patriotism and contentment of
our people, are endangered.
A just and sensible revision of our tariff
laws should be made-for the 'relief of those
of our countrymen who suffer under pres
:ent conditions. Such a revision shoal re
sve the support of all who love that jus
ice sad equality due to American citizen
The necessity of the reduction of our
revenue is-so apparent- as tohe@ generally
conceded. But 'the mzaefgay which this
end sball no accomplisheddghd the sum of
direct benefit which sbh result to our cit
izens, present a controversy of the utmost
importan:e. There should be no scheme
accepted as satisfactory by which the bur
tiens of the people are only apparently re
moved. Extravagant apoprntions of
public money, with all then deneralizing
consequences, should not be tolerated,
either as a means of relieving the Treasury
of its present surplus, or - as furnishing
pretext for resisting a proper reduction it.
tariff rates.. Existing evils 4nd injustices
snould be honestly recognized, boldly met,
and effectively remedied. There should be
no cessation of the struggle until a plan Is
perfected, fair and conservative toward
existing industries, but which will reduce
the cost to consumers of the necessaries of
Wne, while it provides for our manufac
turers the advantage of freer raw mater
ials and permits no injury to the interests
of American labor.
the cause for which the battle Is waged
is comprised within lines clearly and dis
tinctly defined. It should never ne com
promised. It is the people's cause.
It cannot be denied that the selfish and
private interests whicia are so persistently
heard, when efforts are made to deal in a
just and comprehensive manner with our
tariff laws, are related to, if they are not
respons:ble for, the sentiment largely pre
vailing among the people, that the General
Government is the fountain of individual
and private aid; that ;t may be expected
to relieve with paternal care the distress
of citizens and communities, and that from
the fullness of its Treasury it should, upon
the slightest possible pretext of promoting
the genevesegood, apply puolic funds-to the
beneit of localities aid individuals. Nor
can it be denied that there is a growing as
sumption that, as against the Government
and in favor of private claims and inter
ests, the usual rules and imitations of
busines* pripciples and just dealing should
These Ideas have been unhappily much
encouraged - "legislative acquaintauca.
Iteiief from ontracts with tie Govern
ment is too etsihy4 orded in favor of the
citizen; the falm to support claims
against the Government by proof, is often
supplied by no better consideration than
tne wealth of the Government and the pov- t
erty of tie claimant; gratuities in the
form of pensions are granted upon no other
.real ground than the needy condition of the
.applicant, or for reasons less valid: and
'large sums are expended for public build
ings and other improvements upon repre
sentations scarcely claimed to be related to
public needs and necessitits.
The extent to which the consideration,
of such matters subordinate and postpoue:
action upon subjects' of great public inm
portance, but imvolving no special, private:
or partsan interest, should arrest atten
tion and lead to reformation.
A few of the numerous illustrations or
tis condition may be stated.
The crowvded condition of .the calendar
of the Supreme Court, and the delay to
suitors and the denial of -justice resuit'ng
therefrom, bas been-strongly .urged upon
the notice o1 Congress, with a. plan for the
relief of sio.ituationr approved by those
well anle to ju ge of. its merits. IA bile this
subject rem-aurs without effect've consader
atin man:y laws have been passed provid
ing for thre hodiing of terms of inferior
courts at phmces to suit the coniveience of
locaties, or to lay the founaation of au ap
plieation for the erect oni of a new publice
Repeateid recoimmendatrins have been
sum:ttid for the amnendnit and chianigc
of laws relat rig to our' puiblic lanrds sO
thai their snoliationi and divers~on to other
uses iliim.' hromes for setti'rs might bo
prevented. W1hi.e a measure to meet tis
conceded niecessity of reform reimains
awating tie aictioni of C'ongr'ess, man y
claims to the pubrhi lanrds arid applircations
for thecr dioniauin, iin favor of Stat~es and
ndviduarls, hava L-eenr allowed.'
A rnan mi ard of Inidin mranement,
recoimnenided by thiose wvell informed, as
cnta r:nig valuable'i features in furtte r
aire of the sclnn icof thie Id ian piro
rm. tias thus far' lalied of iemsltive. sane
tiori, while gr'aints of doubtful expiedieucy
to railr'oa t'i tcoriorationrs, piermitting them
to pass i riugh Irrni 'u'e'i va trurn, have
greaUY iu t'lied.
Tihe p~'rriety~ anid necessity of the erec
tioni oi ore or morr pr'iso':s i or tire conineu-I
ment of Unrited States conric:s, and a post
ofire hull d~ n rute inauonai caital, are
not disLputed. lBut tlreso needs yet reman~ii
unaswer'd, w0:re scores ol pubne butid
rgs h.rve b.:eni erected where their nees
sity for pu1ulec orposes is riot aipparenti.
A revrsico 0! our penison laws could eras
fly be miade, whici would resi. upon JUt
prinlplCs rind p)rvide for ev woirh
appl:eanit. But whire our generrnl peasron
laws remnrain conifusedi and rrupericet, hunr
drds of privarrr pernsion laws ar., annui~ally'
passed, wich are the soui'ces of udjust
diar:i~ntorn and popular demiorai.za
Apprropriation bdis for thre suppor't of
the Gover'nmnirit are deface~d by items and
provisions to meet privat: ends, anid itis
freely asser'ted by responis blio arid epar'i
enced parties tiut a b.l1 aprpropiatr.g
money for publid internal unpr'ovemernt
woud fail tor meet w.tii favor, un~ess it
conta:nedJ items miore for local arid pr'ivate
advantage thrain for public bonell.
And yet the people wait aind expect frorr
their chosen r'epresenitat~vs such patriotic
action as will adynniee the welfare of the
ent:i'e country; aid this expectation carn
only ho anrswered by tire pierformance of
public duty with unseliih purpose. Our
mission among the nations of the earth, and
our success in the work God has given the
American peop'.e to do, require of those In
trusted with the making and execution of
our laws perfect devotion, above all other
thigs, to Mie public good.
In pursuance of a constitutional provis
ron requiring the President, from time to
time, to give to the Congress information
of the statt-of the Union, I have the satis
faction to announce that the close of the
year linds the United States in the enjoy
ment of domestic tranquility and at peace
with all nations.
Since my last annual message our for
egn relations have been strengthened and
improved by performance of international
good offices and by new and renewed
treaties of auutty, commerce, and recipro
cal extradit'on of criminals.
Those international questions which still
await settiamant aro all reasonably within
the don-in of amicable nogotiation, and
there is no existing subject of dispute be
tween the United States and any foreign
power that :s not susceptible of satisfac
tory adjustment by frank diplomatic treat
The questions between Great Brltain
and the United States relating to the rights
of American fisherme:, under treaty and
international coinity, in the Territorial
waters of Canada and Newfoundland, I re
gret to say, are not yet satisfactorily -d
These matters were fully treated in my
message of Febrnary 20, ISSS, together
with whicn a convention, concluded under
my authority with Her Majesty's Govern
ment on the 15th of February last, for the
removal of all causes of misunderstanding,
was submitted by me for the approval of
This treaty having been rejected by the
Senate, 1 transmitted a message to Con
gress, on the 23 of August last, reviewing
the transactions and submitting for con
sideration certain recommendations for
legislation concerning the important ques
Afterwards, on the 12th of September,
in response to a resolution of the Senate,
I again communicated fully all tue in
formation in my possession as to the ac
tion of the Government of Canada affecting
the commercial relations between the Do
minion and the United States including
the treatment of American fshing ves
sels in the ports and waters of British
These communications have all been
published. and therefore open to the
knowledge of both Houses of Congress, tI
though two were addressed to the Senate
Having essayed, in Ihe discharge of my
duty to procure by negotiation the settle
ment of a long-standing cause of dispute,
and to remove a cons'ant menace to the
good relations of the two conitries, and
continuing to be of the opinion that the
treaty of February last, which failed to
receive the approval of the Sena:e, did
supply "a satisfactory, practical, and final
adjustment upon a basis honorable and
just to both parties of the difficult and
vexed question to which it is related,"
and havig subsequently and unavailing'y
recommended other legislation to Congress
which I hoped would suffi-:e to meet the
exigency created by the rejection of the
treaty, I now again invoke the earnest and
immediate attention of Congress to the
condition of this important question as it
now stands before them and the country,
and for the settlement of which I am
Near the close of the month of October
last, occurrenchs of a deeply regrettable
nature were brought to my knowledge,
which made it my painful but imperative
duty to obtain, with as little delay as pos
sible. a new personal channel of diplomatic
interourse in this country with the Gov
ernment of Great Britain.
The correspondence in relation to this
incident will in due course be laid before
you, and will disclose the unpardonable
conduct of the official referred to in his in
terference by advice and counsel with the
suffrages of American citizens in the very
crisis of the Presidential election then near
at hand, and also in his subsequent publ:o
declarations to justify his action, superad
ding impugnent of the Executive and Sen
ate of the United States, in connection
with imporitant questions now pending in
controversy between two Governments.
The offense thus cummitted was most
grave, involving disastrous possibilities to
the good relations of the United States and
Great Britain, constituting a gross breach
of diplomatic privilege and an invasion of
the purely domestic affairs and essential
sovereignty of ;he Government towhich
the envoy was at-credited.
Having first fulfilled the just demands of
international comity, by' affording full op
portunity for Her Majesty's Government to
act in relief of the situation, I considered
prolongation of discursion to be unwar
ranted and thereupon declined to further
recognize the diploinatic character of ,he
person, whose continuance in such func
tion would destroy that mutual confidence
which is essential to the good understa'id
log of the two Governments, and was in
consistent with the welfare and self-re
spect of tye Government of the United
The usual interchange of communication
has since coutinued through Her Majesty's
legation in this city.
Mtiy endeavors to establish by interna
tional co-operation measures for the pre
vention of the exterin nation of fur-seals
in Behring Sea have not been relaxed, and
T have hopes of be:ng e'abled shortly to
sbmit an effective andt satu,fnictory coii
rentionalprojet with itse mar-atiime tiowers
or the approval of the Seinte.
It is much to be desiredl that some agree
nent should be reached w ith Her .\ijesty's
overnment by which the damiages t o 1:fe
nd property on the GJreat Lnk-ss may be
lleviated by removing or iiuiianeiy i-egu
ating the obstacles to r-ecpro-al assistance;
o wrecked or strande-d ressels.
The act of Junie 1p, lab, which offers
anadian vessels free accesst iiuir iniland
aters in aid of wrecke~d ot4 disatbed ves
sels, has niot yet becotme effective through
oncurrent acion by Camna.
The due protection of our cit Zens or
French origin or descent, from claim of
ilitary service, ini the event of tiheir re
urnog to or visitm;ir France, hasr called
Forth correspoiecie which wats lutd be
foro you at the ia:,t sessioni.
I renewv my rccomnidat:on of two
yeai-s ago for time patt iLc of a b.1l for the
euuzdogn to certaini German steamshiip
~ine5 o0 itae interest uponi tonnia~ge dues ii
Oni the 1 iib of April last, I laid befor-e
he House of Replresenitat:ves fuli informa
:on re~pecimtg o.ir interests in Samon;
nd in tue subsi-equent cor-respoidence on
the s:unei stibject, wich wi-ll tie laid bc
fore you ini due course, the ihistory of
vnts i:: ti:ose Islantds w::i be found.
in a i es.s,:eiCi ac omiv~ng nas.y pyrovat,
em' the ia iiav .m ,jccooer- nst, a? a bim ior
the Cxseusio-i of Cinerise laborer's, I uidt
b fore Courress all iniform.i on nid till
or tho trealy witin Chiit, t-J:;cluded at
tiis Ca p:t al otl the 124i diay ofMarch, l.8S,
andl wihicu, hiavatzbeen confli.-med by the
-enate, wi ii certaiin iimeimiit ienit-, wais
rejected by th~e Chmttese Governimtent. '1 li:s
messtge containid a recoimmendaion that,
a suoi of money he alppr. rite~d as cOm
pnsation to Cii:::e'-e subjects who hand
s uffered :rjurcte :t uhe hand s of ia wie.ss
men within one jured;,-t:oni. Such appro
pr:at:on havinm. b~e:: duly imade, the fund
awats reception by the Cineisa Govern
It is sincerely hoped that by thn/cssation
o thme irAlux of tiii clais, of Chinese sub
jects, in atccordatnce ilth tue expressed
wish of both Governtnei.ts, a cause of un
kid feelinig has been permanently ro
A diplomatic imission front Coi-ea has
been received, and the formal inter-course
betweeni the two count~ies5 contteimlted
by the treaty of 16&Sl, is now established.
Persia has established diploinatic repre
sentation at tis capital and has evinced
very great intetrest in the enterprise and
acueemenits of ourr ctizens.
The wisdom or concludiuz a treaty of
commercial reciprocity wvitht Mexico. his
been heretofore stated in my itessatges to
Congress, and time lap)so of titmo and
growth of commner-ce wvih. that close
neighor and sistci- R~spublic con lirmu the
budgmenit so ex pressed
The precise re-locattin of our boundary
line is needful, and adequate appropriation
;a now recomimenided.
The lona-pten-n. omdn~ary dispute
between Custa ttca anid &caraguat was re
fred to my arbitration; and by an awvar-d
made on the :2ld of Marchm last, the ques
tion has ucen finally settled to tne ex
pressed sattis faction of both of* the parties
As authorizec by the Congress, prelimi..
nary steps have been tamien for the assem
blage at this Capttl, uring the coming
year, of the repr-esentattves of South and
Coitral Anmericni States, together with
tosu of MexicoHayti,anid San Domingo,to
discuss sutidry impilortantt monetary and
Exceititz in thii>se cases where, from
reasons of conttiity of territory and the
existence of a etnun border- line incapa
cial treaties may be found mypedi6-t- it is I
believed that commercial policies inducing
freer mutual exchange of products can be
most advantageously arrauged by indepen
dent but co-operative legislation.
In the mode last mentioned the control of
our taxation for revenue will be always
retained in our own hands unrestricted by
conventional agreements with other gov
With the rapid increase of immigration
to our shores and the facilities of modorr
travel, abises of the generous privileges
afforded by our naturalization laws call
for their careful revision.
The easy and unguarded manner in
which certificates of American citizenship
can now be obtained has induced a class,
unfortunately large, to avail themselves
of the opportunity to become absolved
from allegiance to their native land and
yet by a foreign residence to escape any
just duty and contribution of service to the
country of their proposed adoption. Thus
while evading the duties of citizenship to
the United States, they make prompt claim
for its national protection and demand its
intervention in their behalf. International
complications of a serious nature arise,
and the correspondence of the State
Department discloses the great number
and complexity of the questions which
have been raised.
Our laws regulating the issue of pass
ports should be carefully rev.sed, and the
institution of a central bureau of registra
tion at the Capital is again strongly reo
ommended. By this means full particulars
of each case of naturalization in the United
States would be properly Indexed and re
corded and thus many cases of spurious
c!tizmship v-ould be detected and unjust
responsibilitf es would be avoided.
The reorganization of the consularaser
vice is a matter of serious importance to
our national interests. The number of
existing principal consular offices Is
believed to be greater than is at all neces
sary for the conduct of the publiobusiness.
I repeat the recommendations heretofore
made by me, that the appropriations for
the maintenance of our diplomatic and
consular service should be recast; that the
so-called notarial or unofficial fees, which
our representatives abroad are now
permitted to treat as personal perquisites
should ba forbidden; that a system of
consular inspection should be instituted;
and that a limited number of secretaries
of legation at large should be authorised.
The report of the Secretary of the
Treasury exhibits in detail the condition
of our national finances and the opera
tions of the several branches of the Gov
ernment related to his Department.
The total ordinary revenues of the Gov
ernment for the fiscal year ended June 30,
amounted to $379,266,074.76, of which $219,
091,173.3 was received from customs du
ties and $124,296,871.98 from internal reve- I
The total receipt from all sources, ex
ceeded those-for the fiscal year ended June
3'. 1887, by $7,862,797 10.
The ordinary expenditures of the Gov
ernment for the fls(-al year ended June 30,
1888I, were $259,653 058 67, leaving a surplus I
The decrease in these expenditures, as
compared with the flcal year ended June
30, 1887, was $8,q78,2-21.30, notwithstanding
the payment of more than $5,000,00'. for
pensions in excess of what was paid for
chat purpose in the at.ter-mentioned year.
The revenues of t h . (tovernmet for the
year ehding June 8 l18S9,ascertained for the
quarter ended September :U., 1888, and es
timated for the r - mL:nder of the time,
amount to $37 7,it00,ll t0; and the actual and
estimated ordinary expenditures for the
same year are 8'273.00,iO., leaving an esti
mated surplus of ti 4,%:0 ),)00.
The estimated rec,:pts for the year end
ing June 30, 183, are i377,000,000, and
the estimated ordinary expenditures for
the same.time are $275,707,488.34, showing
a surplus of $101,232,511.66.
The foregoing statements of surplus do
not take into account the sum necessary
to be expended to meet the requirements
of the sinking fund act, ainouiting to
more than $47,000,030 annually.
The cost of collecting the customs reve
nues for the last fiscal year was 2 44 per
cent.; for the year 1885 it was 3.77 per
The excess of internal-revenue taxes col
lected during the last fiscal year over th ose
collected for the year ended June 30, 1887,
was 15,489,174.26, and the cost of collecting
this revenue decreases from 8.4 per cent.
n 1887 to less than 3.2 per cent. for the last
year. The tax collected on oleomargarine
as 4723,948 04 for the year ending June 30,
187, and $464,139.S8 for the following year.
The requiremeints of the sinking-fund act
ave bcen met for tbe year ended June 30;
I8i8; for the current year also, by the pur
hase of bonds. After complying with this
aw as positively required, and nonds suff
ent for that pui-pose had been bought at
premium, It was not deemed prudent to
further expend the surplus in such pur
hases until the authority to do so shor ld
e more explicit. A resolution, howevei-,
aving been passed by both Houses of Coii
rss removing all doubt as to Executive
authority, daily purchases of bonds t. -re
ommenced on the 23d day of April, 1888,
and have continued until the pi-esent time.
By this plan bondis of ttie Government not*
et due have been purchased up to and in
:ling the 33th da.5 or November, 1888,
,moutingio $94,700,400. t ne premium pa:d
:hereon amounting to $17,538.613.08.
The pi-emium added to thie pineiipal of
these beiids represents aii investmen t
ielding about 2 per cent. Interest for the
ime they still has to runi; and the savinig
o the Government represenrett -by the dii
erenc-e between the amount of iintorest at
per ceiit. up)on-the sum paid for pi-incipat
nd premil andi what it would have paid
for inter-est at the i-ate spictfied in the
bonds if they had ruii to their mnaturity, is
At first sight this would seem to be a
proitable and sensible ti-ansactionm on the
tat or the Govei-rment. Bui, as suggested
y Sie Secretai-y of the Tretsury, the sur
plus thus expenmded for the purchase of
oonds was money drawin finm the people
In excess of any actual need of the Govern
met. and was so cxperided ra;ther than al
low it to i-emain idle in tihe Trcasur-y. If
this surplus under the oper-ation of just
ani eqitable laws had been left In the
hands of the people, ir. would have been
worth in their busiiness at least 6I per cent.
per annnm. Deducting friout the amount
of iterest upon the pi-incipali and premium
f these bonds for the time they had to
run at the rate of 6 per cenit. the saving
of 2 per cent. made for the people by the
purchase of such bonds, tihe loss will ap
pear to he $55,76),0J0.
This calculation would seem to demon
strate that if excessive and unnecessaiy
taxation is continued anud the Government
is forced to pursue this policy of purchas
ing its own bonds at the premniums which
t will be necessary to pay, the loss to the
people will be hundreds of millions of
Since the purchase of bonds was under
taken as imenitioned, nearly all that have
been offered were at last accepted. It has
been made quite appareit that the Govern
meit was ni. danger of being subjected to
ombinations- to i-a~se ther price, as ap
pears by thie instance cited by the Se.:re
tary of the offering of bonds of the par
value of only $326,000 so often that the
aggregate of tue snmup -emntided for their
purchase amounted to iiore than $19,-.
Ntithstatiding the large sums paid out
n the purctiase of bonds, the surplus In
i-easury on the 3Sith day of I~ovemnber,
883 wais $52,.i,611.01. aft?.r deducting
ab.t $20,0;O,.taj iat driawn out foi- the
pyent ul peus-uiis.
At the close of the fiscal year endled June
80, 1887, there had been coined under the
ompulsory silver coinage a d, (200t,988,'280
in silver dollars, $55,5)4,31) I T whi:ch were
in the hands of the people.
On the 8Jth dayv of June, loss, there had
been coined $299,708,790; aiid o f this $55,
829,33 was is circulation in coin, and
$200,87,376 in a lver cert-ticates, for the
redemption of which siir-er dollars to that
amount were held by the Gover-nment.
On the 30dth day of Novetnber, 1888,
13,570,990 had been coined. f63,970,193 of
the silver dollars were actually in circula
tna $237,418346 in certificates.
their Rescue from Death by Apparently
It is a clear, bright morning in the sum
mer of 1824, but the sun that shines so
brilliantly upon Rangoon looks down upon
a strange and startling spectacle, writes
David Ker in one of his New York Times
Burmah letters. The whole town seems to
be out of doors, and every street is a surg
ing sea of wild faces livid with fear or black
with rage. All along the rude defenses
which face toward the river a mob of
ragged Burmese soldiers are swarming like
ants over the crumbling earthworks and
half-effaced batteries, piling up rusty can
non balls and dragging honeycombed guns
to and fro as if preparing for the coming of
an enemy. Such is, indeed, the case, for if
you )k in the direction whither their
scowling eyes turn restlessly ever and anon
you will see far down the broad, winding
river, towering high above the dark mass
of jungle that clothes its banks, the white
sail- of several stately men-of war, with
the British flag waving above them. The
"white-faced beasts" whom the royal Tom
Thumb of Burmah has so long insulted and
defied have come at ist to demand satisfac
tion in earnest.
But the thickets throng and the loudest
uproar concentrate then.selves upon the
great market near the landing place, where
a roaring whirlpool of gnashing teeth and
glaring eyes and clenched hands and
brandished weapons and wollish yells boils
and eddies round two unarmed white men,
bound, helpless, splashed- with mud and
bleeding from many a bruise, but still wear
ing a look of quiet and fearless calmness
that contrasts very strikingly with the
howling fury of the human wolves around
them. Missionaries and men of peace
though they are, they have in their veins
the bold American blood of the warriors of
Bunker Hill and Valley Forge, and now,
saved from instat death at the hands of
the mob only to perish by the slower and
more deliberate'iurder of so-called "law,"
they stand amid this riot of demons as calm
and undaunted as ever.
When the doomed men are dragged be
fore the Raywoon (Governor) of the city that
worthy Nero is somewhat at a loss what to
do. To any consideration of mere humanity
he is as insensible as an English work-house
guardian; but, being a shade less ignorant
than the imbruted ruffians around him, he
knows that the white men can fight, and
that if they should take the town the mur
der of these two victims will be fearfully
avenged. But his feeble remonstrances are
drowned by the bloodthirsty yell of the rub
ble, and the Governor, like a second Pilot,
sacrifices his conscience-such as it is-to
the clamor of a ruffianly mob. The two
prisoners are sentenced to immediate
death and orders are given to carry them to
the place of execution and behead them
The words of doom are hailed with a roar
of savage joy, and the sea of fierce faces
and tossing arms poured out of the narrow
street in one great wave, sweeping along
with them their victims, behind whom
stalks the executioner himself, a gaunt,
scowling, frightful creature, with no cloth
ipg save a blood-stained cloth around his
loins, the hideous spots on whose woish
face mark him as one of those miserable
criminals who have redeemed their own
worthless lives from death by accepting
the degrading office of inflicting death upon
their fellow-men. As the ghastly proces
sion moves onward the wretch flourishes
his broad-bladed knife above the heads of
the doomed missionaries, and at every rep
etition of this grim pantomime a howl of
cruel triumph rises from the savage'throng
But even in this deadly peril with the
shadow of the grave deepening around
them, the two brave Americans never
flinch for a moment. AU the taunts and
curses of the murderous rabble move them
not a whit, and when they reach the place
of death their only words are: "Brother,
we shall meet again in Heaven." The Gov
ernor gives the fatal signal, the crowd falls
back to right and left, and the grim heads
man approaches his victims with brand
ished knife and forces them down upon
"Where is your God, now, Christian?"
cries the savage,with a jeering laugh. "You
say that He is all powerful-let Him save ,
you then if He can."
" If it be His will," answers one of the
self-devoted heroes, " He can save us even
The dauntless words are scarcely uttered
when there comes a roar as if the earth were
rent in twain-a thick gust of hot, stifling
smoke makes all as dark as night-and in
the grim hush that followed is heard the
crash of falling roofs, mingled with shrieks
of agony and cries of terror. When the
smoke clears away the two Americans find -
themselves kneeling alone amid the vast
space which was lately so crowded. Far in
the distance their cruel enemies are fleeing
like . ated sheep, while a few paces off lies
the headless corpse of the savage execution
r, struck dead by an English cannon-ball,
but still clutching in his stiffeninghand the
hge knife which was to have drunk their
What follows is the mere mockery of a
battle. The valiant Governor and his officers
ave already taken to their heels and the
feeble and unslflful fire of the fewv who at
tempt resistance is :.peedily crushed by the
tremendous broadsides c. the English men
f-war. An hour later - he British blue
ackets pour into the town, only to find it
already deserted, and bear back with them
in triumph the two gallant missionaries
who lived for many y ears after to tell how
God had remembered his servants in their
Punning at Death's Door.
A story is told of a man who suffered
severely from ague, which neither medicine
nor charms could alleviate, but being ad-i
ised to devote himself to punning beeame'
so interested in the pursuit that he speedily
laughed himself into robust health. It e.an
not be denied that a hearty laugh, even at
the cost of a bad pun, is no mean thing in
itself, and has often been known to be of
Inestimable service at the crisis of a serious
malady. A physician visiting one of the
brotherhood, who was in extremis, apoio
gized for being late one day, but said he had
been to see a man who had fallen down a
well. "Did he kick the bucket, doctor?"
groaned the punster. Again, the story is
told, If we remember rightly, of Theodore
Hook, who, as he lay dying, encased in
mustard poultices, was visited by a friend,
~o whom he remarked: "Plenty of maustard,
my boy, but very little beef."
Telegraph for MarIiers.
A novel spectr-o-telegrap~hic apparatus
has been constructed by Dr. Paul la Cour,
a Danish physicist. It projects a steady
rertical spectrum, on which, with a special
elescope, red and blue dots and lines are
een to appear and disappear. These are
lorse signals, produced by the breaking of
he spectrum by the opening and shutting
f hittle slits, displaying the colored dots
md lines. This is effected by an electrisal;
arrangement having lettered and numbered
A Roundabout Boute.
"Didn'f I see you with your arm around
a girl's waist the other night?" "Yes, 1
=as making haste to rach her heart by the
How They Are Made In the Great Fan
tories of the Fruit Districts.
- How many of those who buy a box of ber
ries, cherries, plums or other small fruit, of
the grocer or vender at the door, know how
the little wooden boxes which hold the fruit
are made? asks the San Diego (Cal.) Union.
Light and fragile, thinner than pasteboard,
and apparently simple in construction, they
are by far the best thing yet devised for
the handling and marketing of small fruits.
They are made bf shavings. The thin
sheets of wood which form the sides and
bottom of a berry-box are nothing more not
less than small pieces cut from a great pine,
fir or whitewood shaving, and bent and fast.
ened together in tha shape of a box. These
shavings, of course, are not like those which
fall in graceful curves from the carpenter's
plane, but are great long sheets, in each of
which is almost the entire wood of a big
log, and from a single shaving is frequently
made from 2,000 to 5,000 berry-boxes.
To one who has never witnessed the man
ufacture of berry-boxes, every stage of the
process is extremely interesting. A re
porter recently visited the works of the
Colorado Fruit Packing Company, across
the bay. and there bad an opportunity to
witness the operation of the machinery and
see the boxes made.
The logs, which are brought down from
the Northern coast, are unloaded in the
waters of the bay and floated into the booid
close to the shore, where the factory is lo
cated. From there they are hauled up on a
tramway running down into the water, so
that the logs can be floated upon the car.
When brought up the logs are cut by a
drag-saw into uniform lengths as desired.
These sections of the log are then placed in
a large steam-box, of which there are sev
eral convenient to the machinery, and left
for twelve hours subject to the effects of
the exhaust steam from the engine. This
softens the wood so that it can be cut into
the thin sheets desired, without checking or
splitting into fragments.
A section of a great log, three feet in di
aneter, was rolled out from the steam-box
by two men, and, after the center had been
marked at both ends,was hoisted by a small
derrick and swung over a machine, the
principal feature of which was a long, bevel
edged knife, firmly set in a strong iron
frame, in very much the same manner as
the blade of a carpenter's plane is set. In
deed, the cutting portion of this machine is a
great monster shaving-plane, with the edge
of the blade fixed upward. The log was next
lowered by the derrick to its proper posi
tion, the operator of the machine pulled a
lever end two great clamps, with strong,
sharp-pointed jaws, two inches long, ad
vanced and pushed their iron teeth into the
marked centers at each end of the log. The
great wooden cylinder was now held firmly
in front of the blade of the immense shav
ing-plane, and when the operator pulled an
other lever, the log commenced to revolve
toward the cutting edge, exactly like the
strip of wood in a turner's lathe revolves
toward the chisel. Another pull by the op
erator, and the frame holding the great
blade began to move upto the revolving log.
W hen the knife came in contact with the
steaming wood the outer edges were peeled
off in thin strips without a sound of cutting,
and the broad sheets rolled out under the
blade as easily and noiselessly as would a
slice of cheese under a sharp knife.
After the water-soaked outer portion of
the log had been trimmed off in this man
ner, the operator adjusted, on the side df
the log opposite to the cutting-knife, a num
ber of small chisel-like instruments, at the
end of each of which was a small, sharp
cutting-edge pressing against the log.
These little cutters are placed at various
,distances, carefully measured by the opera
tor, and evidently formed an important
feature of the operation. When the log
again began its revolutions against the
blade of the great shaving-machine there
came out from under the knife a long,
wide, thin strip of wood, which the men
pulled out and rolled and folded up like
An examination of .ais great white steam
ing shaving showei thait its a-.tire length
was marked by parallel lines, cut partially
through the wood, made by the little cut
ters at the back of the log. The purpose of
these lines was a mystery until the operator a
carelessly broke off an end of the great
shaving, making a strip two or three inches
vide, and quickly bent it into the form of a
berry box complete, excepting the bottom.
The points of bending were the parallel
lines cut in the wood, which made the opera
tion of shaping the box nothing but a simple
The wood bent readily at the partial cuts
and formed the angles of the box. Making
the bottom, of course, consisted in exactly
the same operation, except that the strip
used for this portion was not so long, hav
ing only two cuts and three segments. The
middle segment formed, of course, the bot
tom of the'box, and the two at the end'ex
tended upward inside the frame for-med by
the longer strip.
All but the small core of the log is turned
ofr into this long shaving, one-twentieth of
an inch in thickness and nearly 1,000 feet
long, which is folded and broken into con
venient lengths for handllng as fast as it
comtes fronr the knife.
The machinery which thus in a few min
utes converts a rough log into a long paper
like sheet of wood, is called a rotary veneer
machine, and in the factory are several of
them of various sizes, the largest of them
being adapted to the shaving of logs ten
feet eight inches in length. The thin sheets
>f wood, as fast ais they are taken from the
machine, are' placed upon a long table near
at hand and punshed under a knife <perated
by steam-power, which cuts the wood into
arrow strips, lengthwise, and of the proper
~vidth for the sides and bottom of a bei-ry
box. The knife which cuts the long shav-*
ngs crosswise of cour-se cuts lengthwise of
he grain. The narrow strips, as fast as
hey are cut, are taken away by boys and
arried on an elevator to the second floor of
he building, where a number of boys and
irls irapidly hind them into box form. The
lst step in the mianufacture, which is done
y girls, is the fnstening of the bottom and
ide srtips together. This is done by a pecu
iar-looking machine called a stapler, but
which might very properly be called a wire
ewing-machine. The girl operator has sim
ly to turn the side of the box to be fast
ned over a little plate. press her foot upon
pedal and the small wire, which is fed
rom a cylinder. passes through the two
riips, and is clinv-hed on the other side.
'he work is done very rapidly, and an im
nne number of boxes can be turned out
u a day. __ ____
How to Eat Soft-Boiled Eggs.
The very nicest way of eating a soft
oiled egg is from the shell, says Table Talk,
f Philadelphia. Place the small end of the
gg into an egg cup, or you may- stand it in
small napkin rmng. Thc large or butt end
f the egg should have the shell removed
rom it; then if you take away a small
iece of the white you have ample roo for
talt, pepper andl a small piece of butter,
vhib may be mixed with the egg without
lifculty. Lang-handled porcelain tea
~poons are the nicest and only proper
hings to serve with boiled eggs. Soft
~oiled eggs may also be eaten from a heated
gg-glass; the egg being opened carefully
nd turned into the glass. Salt, black pep-~
m.r and buttarne the nrrna esennings.