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ACCOUNTS OF PRE-COLUMBIAN VOY
AGES AND SHORT STAYS.
leeland's Ancient Lore Records an Expe
dition Which Took Place in 986-Epe
riences Which Lead to the Belief That
America Was the Place Visited.
The ancient lore of the Icelandic sagas
furnishes proof of the early colonization
of the American continent in the Tenth
century by the Scandinavians. The sagas
and eongs upon which ancient Scandi
navian history is founded, and those con
taining the history of America by the
Northimen, were originally intrusted to
the memory, and these verbal traditions
formed historical narratives.
In the early part of the Twelfth cen
tury, when the Icelanders had become
familiar with the Latin chirography.
they were committed to writing. Manu
scripts found in Iceland during the year
1650 make record of an expedition to
Greenland led in 986 by Eric Red, of Ice
land. His son Lief, who accompanied
him, enlisted a crew of thirty-five men.
and set sail from Greenland on another
voyage of exploration. In due time they
came to a well wooded land to the south
west of Greenland, where day and night
seemed more equal than in Greeldand
GIVING THE LAND A NAME.
After a short sojourn in this newly
found country. Lief, in company with
his followers, returned to Greenland.
and the fame acquired by this expedition
enc ge his brother 'ihorwald to em
bark in the same vessel in 1002 for the
recently discovered territory, to which
was given the name of Wincland (Vine
land). Thorwald and his crew, having
safely reached their destination, spent
the winter in the booths which Lief had
erected. In the spring he explored the
western coast and found the land not
only attractive, but rich in vines and
No evidencesof human habitation were
visibl, nor did he find the lairs of ani
ma' Afterwards sailing eastward they
came to a-cape upon whose sandy beach
they landed. Having crossed this pro
jection. to their surprise they saw three
boats made of skins, partialiy buried in
the sand, beneath which nine men lay
hidden, eight of whom were caught and
killed, one managing to escape. Later
these Northenen were attacked by the
Equimau- whom the eight so re
en~tly killed 'probably belonged. Thor
eald, fatally wounded in the encounter,
was buried on the promontory where he
fell. His crew returned to Greenland
with a itch cargo of timber.
THE SECOND EXPEDITION.
The sagas make mention of another
expedition, undertaken by Thorfin Karls
fue, who enlisted as his associates sixty
men and five women. Sailing from Ice
land in a southerly direction, they ar
rived atthe place where Lief had built
his huts. After landing the cows and a
bull to graze, which they had brought
with them, Karlsfue ordered his men to
fell trees and prepare timber for the
ship's cargo; and while th'us engaged
they saw E erging from the woods many
Skraelings. Happening toappear where
the bull was feeding, and being rather
of a ferocious spirit, he bellowed loudly,
andmade an attack upon them, which
led them immediately to retreat.
After securing re-enforcements they
returned, and although they were not
able t' make themselves understood to
the Northmen, by means of signs, how
ever, they were enabled to barter furs
for such other commodities as the North
men. were willing to sell. When' the na
taes had withdrawn, Karisfue caused
atrngwooden feneetobe placed
around isbooths, which proved to be a
wise precaution, as a short time after
wards the Skraelings returned, when a
fierce fight ensued, in which many of the
Esenimanx fell. The Northmen soon be
coming weary of their abode in so strange
a country, and exposed to the frequent
attacks of the natives, in the spring re
turned to Greeand.n
TETHEORY OF IEISH COLONISTS.
The -hrI 'e~dtion was undertaken
-in'fO1ibyFreyw'' aadauzghter of Eric
Red, in company with 200 Icelandic
tradea, but as no further exploration of
this country was entered upon no new
ficts were obtained.
The theory of the population of Amer
ica by Irish COlonists has been founded
on the mention of a saga writer who
observes that Wineland miust have been
"Flvittramannaland," or the Great Ire
land. It is not improbable that asimilarity
in-the sound of the language of the people
caused the name of a smaller body of
land in the eastern hemisphere to be
given to a part of the country by its first
discoverers. Be this as it may it is cer
tain that the theory has never been au
Thus we became acquainted with the
Icelandic history of certain portions of
the western hemnisphere, as given by the
'8of the Icelanders.
e discovery by Christopher Colum
bus of W~est Indies in 1492 was perhaps
themesulkt a trip made by him tc Ice
land in 1477, atw whicoh time the discovery
of unknown lands' to the south west of
Greenland and Iceland was made known
to him by the sgsof the people of Ice
land.-Gen. C. V. Darling in Home
Our knowledge concerning. the condi
tionis under which the poison which
crei~ fiydrophobia acts has been some
what advanced by the recent experi
ments of Mt. Galtier. of Paris. According
-' to the experiments the dried virus has
its poisonous properties Csavyed in from
four to six days. On the other hand,
earlier experiments of the same savant
show that an animial which has died of
rabies mayv retainthe poison in that part
of the brain called the medulla obiongaa
for six or seven weeks. It is evident
that this fact may be of importance in
cases where persons have been bitten by
animals supposed tobe rabid. If the body
of the creature has been buried it may be
possible to exhume it after many days
and make expriments which will serve
to show whether danger from the wound
is to be apprehended. In this way un
founded anxieties may be allayed.-Fop
uliar Science News.
Electrio Fire Indicators.
Electric heat indicators, consisting of
-thermometers incased and protected by
iron tubes, provided with platinum wires,
and connected with a system of electric
bells and indicators on deck, are the
latest invention for preventing spon
ta~neous combustion among ship car-goes.
Should any undue heat anse in any part
of the cargo, the mercury in the ther
mometers will rise, make contact with
the platinum wire, and give an instan
taneous alarm on deck, indicating at
Sthe same time the exact spot where the
heat exists.-New York Telegram.
With a shortage in one of her tresas
ries, there is no longer any reason why
Dakota should not beoome a full-fiedged
The report that Lord Sackville would
suoneed Sir Win. White as British em
bauador at Constantinople is officially
THE LATEST AEo!TT THE CABnET is
Blainie for Secretary of State, Aliison for
Secretary of the Treasury, Alger for Secre
tary of War, and Wanamaker for Post
master General. There is not a single sur
prise in this "slate."
Most any man can set a clock, but it re
qyfres gnninuta net a har.
FACTS FOR THE FARMERS.
Meeting of the Board ofAgriculture-A Pre
mium Offered for the Largest Yield of
Corn Per Aere-The Monthly Report Die
(Columbia Record, January 31.)
The Board of Agriculture held a meeting
in this city yesterday afternoon and ad
journed too late for the proceedings to be
given in THE RECORD yesterday.
The following resolution was unani
"We, the board, would express our ap
preciation of the services of Governor Ba
good as our presiding officer for the last
year. His long experience in public office
joined to his ability, eminently fit-him for
the discharge of the duties of the position
which he has fillkd so acceptably to us and
the people of the State."
General Hago d was re-elected President
a-d Mr. L. A Ransom Secretary.
Dr. J. M. McBryde, Director of the Ex
periment stations reported that proper titles
,f the Spartanburg station have been exe
c:uted to the State. A committee was ap
pointed to consider the whole matter of the
non-payment of the cost of the land by the
people of Spartanburg and report at the
next quarterly meeting, at which time the
board will take action as to the contiuuance
of the experimce-tt sta i n in that county,
th'- promises made noti. aving been ful
It was decided to comtinue the Farmers'
[nstitutes during this year in each county
that desires it.
she Commissioner was authorized to
appoint patrois to auppres< illegal tising
n the E tisto River and the rivers in
Ge-rcetovn c' unty.
The "Amercat, Agricultur:iist " baving
ffert-d a premium i-f $50 for :e ounges
i-hl of coin per acre pro,.;ur--d anyw here
in the United St-tes, the board dIecided to
supp:eutent this by a like premium, shouhi
It be taken by a South Car.lia planter
in any case the board will give $100 t, the
farmer in this State who sec-urea the larg
The Commissioner was authorized to
have the partition wall, set;'ratiug the
grounu floor of Agricultural Hall into two
balls, removed so as to m'tke a large hall
for the permanent museum of the Depart
The Commissioner was also authorized
to sell the old carp breeding pond in this
city at the foot of Sumter street. Several
applications have been made for this prop
General rights phosphate licenses were
granted to E. C. Williams, Jr., and H. B.
It was ordered that the annual appropria
tion of $2,500 for the tate Agricultural
and Mechanical Society, out of the funds
of the Superintendent of Agriculture, be
The publication of the monthly reports
was ordered discontinued, and the Com
missioner was authorized to distribute spe
cial bulletins at various times.
The Commissioner was authorized to
establish river observation stations at what
ever places he thinks proper. They will
supplement the United Sta'es stations. A
daily record of the depth of the water, the
state of the weather, direction of the wind
and amount of rainlall since the last ob
servation, will be kept. During sudden
rises these reports will be transmitted by
WRAPPED IN FLAMES.
A Poor Little Negro Girl's Awful Fate-A
Horrifying Spectacle in Market Street.
There occurred in Market street yester
day afternoon one of the most horrible in
cidents that has ever been witnessed in this
city. The time was about half-past 4
o'cock; the. scene South Market street. a
few doors east of Meeting street. There
were comparatively few people in the
street, and these consisted principally of
the drivers of express wagons and porters
of the produce stores in the neighborhood.
Suddenly an awful shriek was heard, and
in another moment a little negro girl about
8 years of age dashed out of an alley open
ing in the street and made her way across
the street to the market. The child was
enveloped in flames from head to foot
Before she had reached the- middle of the
roadway she fell. Tnree colored men -
Joseph Jcnkins, James Wilkins and -
Johnson-rushed up to her, and in a few
moments had stripped the burning cloth
ing, and, horrib-e toxelate, a good deal of
the skin, from the child.
She was then taken up and the writhing,
tortured body was carried back to the
pae from whence the burning child had
It is the old, old story: a mother work
ing out, leaving her children at home, an
accident, and then what in this case wil:
prove ts tbe a terrible death.
The child was thme daughter of Charlott-~
Richards. a colored w oman, apparently not
over 30 years of age. The mother rented
the outhouse on the premises, No. 103
Market street. She had gone out, leavit'g
nr three children in the re:m, a fire on,
the hearth. The poor girl h .d fiidkn
asleep near the tireplace aod her clothingt
bad caught fire. When she awoke, her
scanty dress was in fl:tres, aud, frighteued
nearly to death, she h. t arted out of the
room, through the r >W alley and into
When the men who had picked her up
carried her back inio the. kitchen itn the
rear of the premises the child was burnt al
most t-) a crisp. A half dt-zen women,
white and colored, went promptly to her
and did what they could to relieve the ex
ereaing pasins of the wretched creat ure.
Of c(-arse a crowil speedily gathered.
.aog themi two or three poiicemen, but
obody seemed to be disp.,sed to go in
earch of a doctor, and n- one except the
wImen attemptedl to do anythiz. for the
relief of the sufferer- At keth Lieut
Mllenhuer, of the police force. co.m -u;.
ad ascertaining the state of affairs,mnuted
his horrse and rode (.ff to the Station to
summons an ambulance.
Finally the Hospital ambulance arrived
and the victim was conveyed to the City
Hospital, where, of course, she will re
ceive the best attention. It is hardly pro
bable, however, that inhe can survive the
burns. The child's skua was pealed from
almost every part of her body.-News and
Courier, Jan. 30.
Shot by Her Young Daughter.
News ceached here yesterday of the ac
cidental shooting of Mrs. Mills on a farm
in Trappe district, about six miles from
Salisbury. Mrs. Mills was sitting in her
library doing some fancy work when her
ten-year-old daughter entered the room,
and taking a stmall pistol from the cabinet
pointed it at her mother and said: "L 'ok
out mamma, I will shoot you." The mot h
er looked up just - as the child pulled the
trigger- The pistol, which was supposed
not to be loaded went off, and the ball en
tered the left breast of Mrs. Mills just
about the ntipple. The patient may re
cvr-Salisbury Special to the Baltimore
Senator Berry has been re-elected to
the Senate by the Arkansas Legislature.
The mail steamer Sam sank opposite
Appalachicola Monday. No lives were
l. Overloading and rough weather
caused the disaster.
Contracts have been signed in Pensa
cola lately, under which 5000 tons of
Alabama coal will leave that port
each ftuonth for the West India islands.
The contract for the granite wharf at
Charleston, S. C., awarded to D). A.
J. Sullivan, has been revoked and a new
contract made with the Southern Con
strution and Quarry company to perform
the wo.r at $107,800.
How the Crop Compares in Labor and
Profit with Cotton in Barnwe11.
(Bamberg Special to Charleston world.)
There is much preperation going on
in this neighborhood for the planting of
a large watermelon crop. There will be
a larger acreage planted here this year
than was planted last year. The induce
ments for planting are safer than hereto
fore. Buyers are offering $65 dollars
per carload for melons weighing from
eighteen pounds upward, payable with
an accepted draft now, so that, indeed,
all the risk to the planter now is the
season. Formerly he had to risk making
the melons, and if he should succeed in
making them, he ran a big risk of being
unable to sell them at fair prices. He
was completely at the mercy of the buyer,
but now he has his accepted draft, which,
by its terms, becomes convertible into
ca h upon th- delivery of his melons at
his nearest depot, regardless of the stock
en hand or the conditon of the market.
But even with these favorable induce
ments, the farmer prefers to take his own
risk and make no sale until his crops are
ready for market, when certain circum
stances might make a cir (.f melons which
now are worth sixty -i: dollars, worth
c'ouble the amount when matured and
ready for shipment
Melon growing is modent tely, profit
able in comparison with other crops of
It is estimated that it requires an
average of three acres of ordinary land
to orriduce rie c:rr of melous. It would
require about th.- sane aereage of the
q aantrty of land to produce one bale of
cttten. It requiree 400 pounds of solu
ble goano per acre on the melon crop,
and about 300 pounds on the cotton crop,
but :t does not requare more than half
the labor to cultivate an acre of melous
that au acre of cotton demands. It costs
about $10 'o gat"ier and load a car of
meio::s, ai it costs the sime to gather
tnd ,in ule of cotton. The car of
melons w:ien loaded is worth sixty-five
dollars cash in July and August. The
bale of cotton is worth forty or forty-five
dollars cash in September to Decemier.
By the above comparison it would
seem that melon planting now was slight
ly more profitable than cotton raising,
but it should be mentioned that the -ame
land will not produce marketable melons
oftener than every third or fourth year,
while cotton will succeed itself on the
same land with fair results for a number
of years, and, on the other hand, it
should be borne in mind that the farmer
has much time to devote to the prepara
tion and improvement of his lands, and
to other employments and to other
The greatest difficulty in the way of
melon farming is tne hauling, which
cannot be dove if the farm is situated at
any great distance from the depot. It
would seem more profitable than other
crops if the land be situated two miles
or Less from the depot; over that distance
the hauling is too expensive to make
melon growing at all profitable. D. F. H.
MISS FULLER'S STARTLING GOWNS.
They Astonish Washington Society, but
She Doesn't Mind It a Bit.
WAsHnoroN, January 30.-The "Ful
ler girls," as the Chief Justice's daugh
ters are termed, are in demand as assist
ants at receptions. Their originality has
taken hold of officialsociety, particularly
originality of toilet. Miss Mary Fuller,
who sails for Europe next week to con
tinue the study of music, is original to
the verge of eccenitrioity- Sbhei a v
ious brunette, and clever. Her gowns
are aslonishing creation, and are all of
the erreme Empire fashion. It is said
she will buy the materialin the morning,
make the gown in the afternoon, and
wear it in the evening. Whenever she
appears in evening or afternoon toilet
she presents the striking and, it be con
fessed, startting figure of woman out
growing her clothes. Her gown is very
rcant and clinging in the skirts, and the
waist is quite up utnder the arms. Above
the arms it is vi ry low necked, so there
is scarcely any waist av all.
At Mrs. Carlisle's Wednesday after
noon reception she was one of several
assistant,. She weald have delighted an
artist who wished to paint-well, a beauty
of the Jor-epine period. Though not~
strictly beant:-ful. the effect was that of
a picture of the "First Empire" age.
The visitors were not artists, however,
and they simply gazed at the ecc-entric
aanghter of the CLief Justice as a cnri
osiy. Mis-s Fulter's seif-poscsion was
supreme. She sat under the full blaze
of gaslight with graceful unconsciousness
of being stared at. The really beautiful
dark eyes showed no annoyance, the
bright color in the chesas tid not change,
nd altogether the y-:ungi womaa was
apparently well satisfied to be the "star"
apon which all were gazing.
How Woun-d Men Behave.
In a la-te~r to the Chicago Leader
General Fianz Sigel writer: '"If a soldier
is wounded his behavior depends on the
man.r in which he is wounded and
whether he is o.f q giet or excitable
'-mper. Flesh wouin receved in as
tio are in nmany esses not feit at all,
until the blood comies and thie man g'
exausted. Wlien a bone is struck the
shok is great and accompanied by acute
pain. I have seeni poor feilows c-truck in
the brea-t by Minie balls remaining in
action for minutes, then sinking on their
knees or f:.:iiug on their faces. Not all
such sevi woundls are mortal. Bergt.
Tore, of the Twelfth Missouri, received
a bal which went right through both
temple, and he lived bor year< aiter
ward; a soldier who was shot through
his left lung lived for a whole year.
General Shields was shot through his
breastin Mexico and reached an advanced
age. The worst hits are of course those
by canister and round shot, and are
mostly moia They take off arms or
legs, or the head of a man, as was the
case with the captain of a 'Southern bat
tery in the battle of Pea Ridge. Splinters
of shells are less dangerous, but when
thrown into groups and columns may
disable many men. A single shell from
a Paixhan gun sent from Port Duncan,
Maryland Heights, in my presence, to
Bolivar againe a group of Southern
horsemen killed General Lewis and
wounded or killed 19 of his companions.
I have hura wounded soidiers groaning
under great pain, but I never heard
them crying out or using profane lan
guage. When halting on horse-boack on
the right of the Twenty-fourth Massa
ehusetts in the bittle of New Market, the
regiment was under fire at close range
for about 40 minutes, losing 200 men in
killed and wounded, but not a loud cry
was heard from those who were wound
Proceedings have been instituted
against the Berlin Kieuz Zaitung f or
high treason, for printing an article de
sribing as dangerous to the monarchial
feeling of old Prussian patriots, the pub
lication of the indictment against Prof.
Geffken, with the object of appealing
to public feeling. Parliamentary circles
are much excited over this action of the
OUT OF THE BEATEN TRACK.
Some Curious Facts, Unusual Happenings
and Queer Opinions.
Out of 198 members of the Illinois
Legislature 128 were born outside the
Near Eckert, Ind., Saturday, while
three boys were hunting, they dug into
an old log after a rabbit and discovered
a pot of gold coin. With the treasure
counted out, $4,000 was found.
A farmer of Mercer county, Mo., had
four daughters, two of whom eloped
with two brothers last week. The old
man pursued them with a shotgun,
killed both of the brothers and fatally
wounded one of his daughters. He was
Another victim of the March blizzard
of 1SSS is reported from Laconia, N. H.
Lewis E. Burrell, a farmer of that town,
froze his feet badly in the blizzard, and
and suflered so much that at ist his mind
unbalanced, and he committed suicide.
J. L. Babcock, of Ann Arbor, Mich.,
who is to-receive $500,000 from his
uncle's estate provided he marries in
five years after the latter's death, has re
ceived so many letters from lovelorn
maidens that he proposes to select his
wife by means of a competitive examina
tion held by a committee.
On Friday last the grand jury of
Petersburg, Va., returned an indictment
against S. J. Barham, of Southamnton
county. for felony in stealing a horse be
longing to his brother. The horse was
recovered in Petersburg after it had been
sold and the owner was not aware of the
name of the party who brought the horse
to Petersburg until he confronted him
in the police station.
A Mutton. ills., dispatch to the New
York bun says: This has been a great
winter for snakes in this latitude. The
largest haul so far reported was in Union
township, eight miles east of Mason,
where men dug out 123 rattlers, some of
them five feet in length, and about sixty
black snakes and other reptiles. Pansies
are yet blooming in the door yards.
There was a curious affair near Crad
dockville, Va., on Friday. A young man,
Andrew Ashmead, imagined that he was
a woman and made aesperatc love to
John Kellam, who humored the delusion
for his own amusement and engaged
himself to marry Ashmead. Friday
evening they quarrelled over the color
of the wedding dress to be worn and
Kellam undertook to frighten Ashmead
by flourishing a revolver. Thereupon
Ashmead drew a revolver too, and shoot
ing began in dead earnest. 1Both men
were badly wounded.
OUT IN THE COLD WORLD.
A Widow and Three Children Sleep Four
Nights in the Open Air.
S-. Louis, Jan 30.-Mrs. Anna Raas, a
widow with three small children, slept last
week for four nights on the ground in the
rear of a tumble down tenement which she
had formerly occupied. The rent was only
$r, and, failing to pay this, she was evict
ed last Tuesday. Her possessions consisted
of a stove. some bed clothing and kitchen
utensils. These were tossed out in the back
yard. She placed-her children under the
clothes and went about the streets applying
for work. Repeated refusals rendered her
almost insane, and all she could do was to
beg a morsel of food for the children.
They slept in the open air from Tuesday
until Saturday night. Saturday night the
temperature tell to ten above zero and at 3
o'clock in the morning a policeman tum
bicd on the family huddled up in the bed
clothes w'h tJoanow beatinir down upon
them. They were takexn me~r or 1y Lta
police and a fund is being raised for them.
The Scotch-lrish Race.
There will assemble at Columbia,
Tenn., on the 8th of May.sext, acongress
of the Scotch-Irish race. Every State in
the Union, Canada at d the Union King
dom will ;be represented by prominent
represenatives of this race, who will
participate in the exercises of the con
The object of the cong ress is to revive
the memories and compile the history of
the race, showing its impress upon
American civilization. It will be devoid
of religious or politicalsignificantce. Dis
tinguished speakers and orators will
read. historical papers and deliver orations
commemorating the deeds of the~cotch
Tlhe information thus gathered will be
complied into a history and perpetuated
to prosperity. Thp opening address wil
be delivered by Col Mc~iure, of Phila
dephia. D)r John Hall and other emi
net divines and scholars have accepted
invitations to speak. The feature of
especial interest in connection with the
congress will be the reunion of ex-Con
federate and Federal soldliers.
How Amerieans Rush Through Life.
One has only to~ contemplate the men
and their movements about one of the
lrer hotels to undersiaud just how fast
toe Ame ican people are really hying.
Te commercial men, especially, aite living
on the lightning plan, and the rest of us
are not very far behiud. The man who
travels extensively today rarely receives
any communication except by telegraph.
He figures his day's wo.rk by the minutei
and half intutes and estimates just what
every second is worth to him. Even the
hotel reaisters are illustrations of the eon
onv of rime. The man irom (Chicago,
wries ir "'Chi.," Phila- e:phia is "Pal.,"
lvelnd "Clev ," Harrisburg "H'burg,"
Cincinnati "Cin:," and so on through the
entire list of Ameiican cities with the ex
eption of the raan from Boston, and he
nvriabiy writes it "Bstn M-es." He
cant afford to sacrifice so great a distinc
Some Figures by a Reporter.
One of the problems with which a report
e- on at morning newspaper has to deal is
the prbability of finmig at home the men
whom he is ~assigned to interview after 8
o'clock in the evening. Long experience
teaches him that the vocation, age and so
cial position of the person sought will ena
ble him to estimate the chance very accu
rately. Assuming 100i to represent the
certainty of finding his man, the probabili
ties -ill run about as follows: Clergymen.
on Monday and Saturday nights; 86; other
nights. 40. Old lawyers, -75; young law
ers, unmarried, 25. Capitalists and ban
kers, 75. Politicians, between campaigns,
30; politicians, during csmpaigns, 5. Clerks
living at home, 20; clerks, boarding. 10.
Physicians, 50. Merchants, 60. Mechanics
70. Young women, unmarried, 50; mar
ried women in society, 60; married women
without special aspirations, S0. Old pen
p' past 70 years, 95 After 10 o'clock at
~ight the cbauces of finding mniddle-ag.-d
peipe at home are double the 8 o'clock
chances, while the younger ones on the
average usually come strolling in about 11
According to Henri Labouchere, there
are over a million girls in England, who
are not likely to get marriedc. In order to
remedy this state of things he suggests that
girls should be allowed to propose; in fact
riat courting and proposing shoulid hence
forth be a business appertaining to both
A facetious old lady, describing the ram
bling sermons of her minister, said, "If
the text had the smallpox his sermons
woul nee atch it."
GROWTH OF ALASKA.
Extracts from the Annual Report of
Governor A. P. Swineford.
The Governor of Alaska, A. P.
Swineford, in his annual report to the
Secretary of the Interior, states that
the white population has greatly in
creased and he estimates that there
are 35,000 natives. The total popula
tion is 49,850 and of this number there
are 6,500 whites, 1,900 Creoles and 2,
950 Aleuts. In regard to the settle
ment of the public lands the Govern
or states that all settlers in Alaska
upon public lands are more squatters
who are awaiting legislation from Con
gress which will enable them to secure
titles. All the salmon factories in the
Territory, seventeen in number, are
located on the public lands. He asks
favorable consideration by the depart
ment of the bill pending befere Con
gress providing for the organization
of the Territory. The Governor says
that as far as he knows there are no
practical farmers or gardeners in the
Territory. The only obstacle in the
way of agriculture. in the oninion of
the Governor, is that the lands are not
available for settlement. He says that
the climate is favorable and the soil
rich. He sees no reason why Alaska
may not ultimately rival Montana and
Wyoming as a cattle country. The
stamp mine on Douglass Island, which
the report states is tihe largest in the
world, has nu estiiated output of
$150,000 in gold per month. Other
gold mines are beinc developed in the
same, and the report notes the sale of
four claims for $1,500,000. Promising
silver discoveries have been made.
The Governor thinks that there is
enough coal in the Territory to supply
the whole of the United States for
centuries. There are fourteen pub
lic schools in Alaska, which last
year were placed- under the charge
of the Territorial board. The Govern
or recommends that the general agent
be made more amenable to the authori
ty of the board of which he is a mem
ber and secretary. Last year, the re
port states, the general agent was ab
sent for six months from the Territory
without leave. In addition to the
public schools, there are eight Protest
ant,two Catholic and seventeen Greco
Russian mission schools. The Govern
or reiterates the charges made in the
annual report relative to the violation
of law and the ill treatment of the na
tives by the agents of the Alaska Com
mercial Company. He credits the com
pany with adhering faithfully to its
contracts with the Government as to
the number of seals to be killed on the
seal islands and the treatment of the
natives, but elsewhere in the Territory,
he says, where the company rule is
supreme", "the people are little better
than serfs of that powerful company."
A Whole Mountain of the Queer Substance
in North Carolina.
(From the Washington sta-.)
There lay this morning on the desk of
Mr. Samual Hodgkins, acting chief clerk
of the War Department, astone wrapped
in brown paper. It weighs about a pound
and was perhaol.S-Rinhea in length, 2j in
width and onetird o1 an meni iaask.. 'ie
texture of the stone was fine and present
cd no evidence of stratincetion, and was
smooth ever the entire surface: A knife
blade made no impression on the partic
les. There was no doubt as to its being
a genuine stone, but it is nevertheless
possessed of the flrxibiity of apiece of
India rubber. When taken in the hand
and shaken in the direction of its flat
surface it would bend back and forth
with a dull, muffled sound. The move
ment was more of a laxity in the adhe
sion apparently than an elasticity. When
held horizontally by one end the other
would drop and remain in that position.
With the two ends supported on rests,
the free centre could be pressed half an
inch below the middle line. With one
end held firmly on the desk the other
end could be 'beuit over an inch. The
movement was not counned to the one
direction-in the plane of the flat stur
faes-but the entire stone seemed to be
contracted on the principle of a niver
sal joint, with a movement in all direc
tions under pressure..
It came from a m'ountain in North
Carolina, and bears the name of "flexible
sand stone." The entire mountain is
composed of this material, and pieces
cut at random exhibit the same flexible
Dismayed the Dra~mmer.
A Boston cigar drummer, whose resi
dence is in Taunton, tells a story on him
ef with great glee. He was in Hartford,
Conn, one evening, and after lounging
about the hotel in disconsolate lonehiness
for an hoar or two he asked the clerk if
there was anything going on in town
he clerk suggested taking in a masque
ade ball that was -.a progress. The
armmer thought the idea was a good
one. but he hadn't any cosiume. The
clerk suggested that he should borrow
the colored porter's overalls and jumper,
black his face and bands and go. 'The
suggestion was promptly aeted upon, and
for an hour the bogus elored man talked
Afrian-Enghsh and had a high old' time
among the masked belles. Finally the
signal to unmask was given, and when
the maske came off a great wave of dark
ness swept over the hail. Every blessed
man, woman and child in the place was
a full-blooded negro! The drnmmer cast
one panic-stricken look at the crowd,
and then made for the door. When he
reached the hotel he resumed his old
time personality and set up the wine.
Poetry and the Public.
In his recent lecture on the influence of
poetry Mr. Will Carleton intimated with
accuracy that most of the newspaper poems
so-called, were trash, but that a good deal
of real poetry was found in the prose of
he day and even in newspaper reports.
Tose who read the best of the latter care
fully and appreciatively must have ob
served that during the last few years there
has been a distinct gain in the style, grace
of expression and phrasing. A record oif
fact ruay frequently find favor in a reader's
eye because of the sparkle of the narration.
In these days of hard pbysical and mentil
toil very few people read anything which
boldly claims to be poetry. But they are
ever ready to appreciate the poetry of llfe
which hides behind the fact and which
proves that the "still sad music of humani
ty" is flowing on unbrokenly as ever.
At a recent session of the Parnell com
mission the reading of the
speeches produced in evidence was con
tinued. It is reported that witness
Thomas O'Conner, who charged Timothy
Harrington, M. P., with employing him
as a moonlighter, is on his death bed,
and has signed a confession in which he
withaws~r Mi asation
A HERMIT FISHERMAN.
He Lived on 6S a Year and Flas Accumu
lated a Goodly Fortune.
"Zeb, the hermit fisherman," lives in
a filthy hovel drvn near the ocean in the
town of Stonington. He wears the old
time fisherman costume of blue overalls,
jacket and skull cap to match. IIc, too,
was disappointed in love, and took to
fishing in solit-.ide for a livelihood. He
next courted the Bible, and can repeat
it from Genesis through to Revelations
by heart. With a capital of $0, which
he invested in a dory, he has amassed a
fortune estimated at $50,000. For five
years he' lived in a shanty, expending but
$8 a year for food. His clothes he wore
to shreds. and his fuci he picked up on
the bechi. During that time he saved
S423, with which he bought his present
hrme. here for thirty out of thirty-five
vcars it cost hi:a ht1 8 nnu:dly for the
necesiti,'s of life, while i:is earnings he
invested in real estate.
The pro'erty purcthased by him lies
logti.e .:ater tr":, and at that time
was at til rucrev of the sea, which cast
its huge waves far inshore during a gale.
Z, immedviiately began the laborious
work of building a breaketer. orrather
Tlii: he d.i.. ; e and t:...:
site1. It is of stone. .:ly 5"J feet in
!-":tl ;md five feet in hdit The work
: one l hand, the big stones
bein-; .ar'd in a hinaie made wieelbar
rowv and: consu::ning a y-r's time'.
Aiter thu, job haid been completed Zeb
began the "rection of his first tenement
house. With a pickax. a spade and a
wieelbarrnw he excavated for the cellar,
using the dirt to eill in the hole back of
the se awl. lie walled up the cellar
.i- ' tt".:wi i tein secured carpenters
to buih a hous:e. This cost him S O.
il e ip::. 'ing and papering 'hei .id limseif.
A m:;.1 :r this onie was cc:mpleted he
beg.an: wor;k upon a second. ie conltined
Ii:: labor, ant now has ten houses, :iide
tr; side, all built the same way. iach of
thcse house:: brings him a monthly rental
of $7, a:d they are all occupied.
But he has not neglected his fishing
during this time. lie has made from
;:u) to $IUJ, and sonetimes $500 a year.
This montev he turned into property or
iacel in the savings bank. It is sup
poee'd hr many townsfolk that he also
has considerabe hid in his sleeping room,
the armaments of which consist of a
three pronged pitchfork, a hatchet and
a stove poker. The past tire years have
been more expensive to him than any
previous ones. His fortune has accumu
lated to cuch an extent that his expendi
tures now average $125 a year, which
includes insurance, taxes, food and fuel.
-Norwieh (Conn.) Cor. Boston Globe.
A Palace of Salt.
The people of Salt Lake City are con
teupilating the erection of a great "Salt
Palace." it would be a structure that
would Inv in the shade all the ice and
torn pala1es ever constructed. The main
part of thestructurecould be of the finest
steci:uens of roc: salt to be found in the
quarries. hiseled. carved and artistically
arranged; while the interior fittings
should be of crystallized work from the
lake on a grand scale. Such a palace
should be nermanent if properly pro
tected from the winter rains: it could be
made of the most unique and striking
style of architecture; it could be made
ore of the wonders of the world. When
lighted by electricity the structure would
have all the sparkle and diamond glitter
of the great ice palaces, and with the
difference in the salt palace's favor, the
heat wouli not melt or dim its glories in
the least.-Virginia (Nev.) Enterprise.
A Girl Who Works.
A reporter has a window that com
mands a view of a sewing room over a
gentleman's furnishing store. Every
mornin;, when the rcporter gets up lie
sees a bhen r arirl sew' o-vah~e work
room wmi dow. vrten wv hen tne coa..i
home at night she is still there and still
sewing. Sh~e is making eyelets in shirt
fronts. It is nice an d delicate work,
though she does it with the persistency
of a machine. She takes thirty stitches
every minute. That is IS00 every hour,
or lt8,000 every day. In a week she
takes 108,00'0 stitches. Her hand moves
a yard for every stitch. In a week she
measures off precisely six miles and a
quarter of space with that band. The
pay for this prodigious amount of effec
tive labor is $1 a day, and she is con
sidered a high priced, skilled work
woman. -Philadelphia Press.
A New Danger.
The introduction of leprosy into the
United S~tates must be stopped and the
teriible dise'ase stamped out at once, or
it will be the most urmanageable of all
epidemics that ever visited our land.
There is no longer any question of its
iben't ertiuniuc-cable. The lepers have
invaded Br-itish Columbia. and had such
free access to thle indians that the whole
race of red men is infected. Thle antag
onismu to Chinese immigration wvill be
more widespread than ever, and will be
based on something besides race preju
dice. It would be far better to stop
qurantiniing against yellow fever an
smallpox, for wilek the Latter kill more
quickly, lemrosy devours its victims with
a living death. When will our authori
ties ge.t well ar-oused to appreciate the
dageur that is coming upon us?-St. Louis
Ternyson's L~ttle Joke.
On one occasion it came to Mr. Tenny
so's knowiledge that two men were hid
lneg behir2 trees on either side of the
dive, prs-ncably to have a leok at hir.
whe he wnt ouit for his us;ual walk.
Lor Ten.avson, at once seecing a rdance
of some fu'n, ceibd in his gardenuer, an
oldI man. He told him of the two men.
and mad hIim put en his velvet coat ae
wide awa k. hat. Then thec old mar
sled fort:h rnd made his wayn to the
dive, dow which lie walked as though
in dten meditation. L-e had not gone
veyv far- en hlle heard a muan's voice
conng fr-ou behind, with a strong
Yan e t wazn. nay: "Now I've seer.
Lord Te.n..,-cn; 1 guess I'll go h~ome to.
There was company at dinner and
Bobbey's mother was somewvhat surprised
when~ Bobby refused pie.
"Why, Bobby." remarked crne of the
guests, "aren't you fond of pie':"
"Yes, mearm. I'm as fon dof it as anyv
little boy, but my sister made that pie.5'
-New York Sun.
A Wise Father.
"Who is your family doctor, Bobby?"
"Why, I thought you had Dr. Broswn."
"So we did unitil Dr. Green began
courting sister Sally. Pop gets even with
Greenv for coal and gas by hav-in' him
keen the rest of us healthy for nuthin'."
The best way to avoid a will contest is
to give away all during one's lifetime.
It is a bad plan for men who owe money
.ver to make publhc exhibition of extrava
All things come around to him who
waits, including a bald head, false teeth
ear trumpets, and heaps of miscellaneous
The manufacturers of perforated chair
ests have combined. It need occasion no
surprise if the people sit down on this com
People confident of their own social po
sition never resort to rudeness, or adopt
the "cold haughty stare" to convey an idea
AN OLD ORGANIZATION.
Brief History of the Foundation of the
Socle.ty of the, Cincinnati.
A short time before the disbanding
of the Continental army, in 1783, an
association called the Society of the
Cincinnati was formed among the offi
cers of the troops stationed at New
burg, N. Y. General Knox was the
one who first suggested the society, the
object of which was to be the promo
tion of friendship among the officers of
the army and the assistance of such of
its members as might need help.
Washington was chosen the first presi
dent of the society, and remained pres
ident-general until hisideath. General
Knox was the first secretary-general.
Subsequently State societies were
formed, auxiliary to the general soci
ety. In order that the society should
not pass away with the generation
that formed it, its constitution pro
vided that the eldest masculine
descendant of an original mem
ber should be entitled to wear the
order and enjoy the privileges of the
society, if accounted worthy of these
by the other members. There was so
much popular prejudice excited by
what was considered to be " the germ
of an hereditary aristocracy," that the
right of succession was thus made sub
ject to the vote of the society on the
worthy character of the eldest male
descendant. A number of French of
ficers were made honorary life mem
bers of the society. Washington was
re-elected tri-ennially to the office of
president general as long as he lived.
He was succeeded by Hamilton and the
Pinckneys, and the society was in all
its vigor in 1824-5, when Lafayette,
then the only surviving Major-General
of the revolution, visited this country.
The Connecticut society was dissolved
in 1804. At near the same time the
societies of New Hampshire, Rhode
Island, Delaware and Georgia were
discontinued. Robert Burnet, of New
York, who died in 1854, was
the last survivor of the original
members of the association. The
general Society of the Cincinnati is still
in existence, and also State branches
in Massachusetts, Maryland, New York,
New Jersey, Pennsylvania and South
Carolina. The State societies have an
nual meetings; the general society
meets tri-ennially..The order, or badge.
worn by members, consists of a golden
eagle, suspended by a ribbon of blue
and white. On the breast of the eagle
is a medalion, on which is a repre
sentation of Cincinnatus at his plow,
receiving the Roman Senators, who
offer him the office of chief magistrate
of Rome. The order worn by the pres
ident general is adorned with jewels.
and was presented to General Wash
ington by the French officers. The
President General of the Society of the
Cincinnati in 1880 was Hamilton Fish,
then Secretary of State, son of Colonel
Nicholas Fish, one of the original
members, who still, we think, fills this
WITTY AND WISE.
Observations of a Woman Who Has Stud
Money will buy almost any thing.
from a postage-stamp to a peerage or
Why not reverse the ancient order
of things? Let trouble go to protest
and borrow happiness once in a way.
It is not always an easy matter to
succeed gracefully; but it requires a.
much finer equilibrium to fail success
Every thing becomes an old story.
It is doubtful whether five people on
earth would be happy in an unchange
It is easy to be noble among the no
ble. The difficult thing is to keep the
nobility of one's nature unperverted
among the petty and ignoble.
Personal dissatisfaction may be the
cause of our being so critical with
others, and- of our bitter disappoint
ment when we learn that none are ex
empt from defects.
It is a pusillanimous desire which
would prevent earth from returning to
earth. Nature lends us a cloak for the
convenience of a day's journey. When
it is done with, 1o you! we take the
cloak and seal it apart,.and lock it away
in lavender and musk. Then let her
get it how she can.
Children were formerly required to
honor their parents, and to support
them in old age; but we of the new
heraldry seem to expect that parents
will accumulate sufficient property
and reputation to last two or three
There is a sensation upon glancing
over one's first printed article which
is no more susceptible of reproduction
than are the summer days of childhood
or a mother's first joy. That which
approaches it most nearly is, perhaps,
the emotion felt when one for the first
time holds in his hand a twenty-dollar
check payable to himself. The whole
world is poor in comparison.-Kathi
tie Grosjcan, in Judge.
An Old-Fashioned Gun.
A curious Thibetan musket or match-I
lock has found its way from Sikkim,
where it was picked up after a battle,
to Calcutta. it is described in the In
dian papers as of primitive design, al
though comparatively new. It is a
smooth-bore muzzle-loader, mounted
on a long, narrow stock. The barrel
is fitted with a double-pronged rest,
the points of which are sharply shodr
so that the rest itself may either be
placed firmly in the ground or used, if
necessary. as a bayonet. The contriv
ance is ingenious, and the weapon is
not altogether to be despised. At
tached to it is a belt, on which are
strung .iix hollow wooden plugs for
powder charges and a small horn for
priming powder.-Phildepi Ledger.
The third game m the Tchigorin
Steinitz chess contest has been played.
It occupied nine hours and fifty minutes.
Tchigorin, the Russian champion, began
the game with the Runy Lopez gambit,
and after his eighty third move Steinitz,
who used the black, resigned.
Senator Allison has returned to Wash
ington from his visit to General Harrison
at Indianapolis. As to the result of his
onference with the President-elect the
senator decline to say anything for publi
It will be only a few years before all the
space for interment in England's most
istorical abbey, Westminster, will be